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conductive material

Paulo A Raymundo-Pereira, Anderson M Campos, Fernando C Vicentini, Bruno C Janegitz, Camila D Mendonça, Leonardo N Furini, Naiza V Boas, Marcelo L Calegaro, Carlos J L Constantino, Sergio A S Machado, Osvaldo N Oliveira
We report the electrochemical detection of estriol using carbon black nanoballs (CNB) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as electrode material. Homogeneous, porous films on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were obtained, with diameters of 20 - 25nm for CNB and 5 - 6nm for AgNP. CNB/AgNP electrodes had increased conductivity and electroactive area in comparison with bare GCE and GCE/CNB, according to cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The oxidation potential peak was also down shifted by 93mV, compared to the bare GC electrode...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
Wanchun Jiang, Fan Wu, Yijun Jiang, Mengxiao Sun, Kun Zhang, Yilu Xia, Derong Wang, Aming Xie
The applications of inorganic semiconductor nano-structures as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials have been scarcely researched. Herein, we have designed hollow Cu1.8S nano-cubes via a mild anion exchange and etching process. These 30 wt% hollow Cu1.8S nano-cubes loaded in wax can display 30 dB of EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) in the whole tested frequency range of 2-18 GHz with a sample thickness of only 1 mm. This good EMI shielding performance can be attributed to the high electric conductivity, which leads to a high dielectric constant...
July 24, 2017: Nanoscale
Aamir Shafique, Abdus Samad, Young-Han Shin
Using density functional theory, we systematically investigate the lattice thermal conductivity and carrier mobility of monolayer SnX2 (X = S, Se). The room-temperature ultra low lattice thermal conductivities found in monolayer SnS2 (6.41 W m(-1) K(-1)) and SnSe2 (3.82 W m(-1) K(-1)) are attributed to the low phonon velocity, low Debye temperature, weak bonding interactions, and strong anharmonicity in monolayer SnX2. The predicted values of lattice thermal conductivity are lower than those of other two-dimensional materials such as stanene, phosphorene, monolayer MoS2, and bulk SnX2...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tolesa Fita Chala, Chang-Mou Wu, Min-Hui Chou, Molla Bahiru Gebeyehu, Kuo-Bing Cheng
In this work, novel WO3-x/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared by ball milling followed by stirring using a planetary mixer/de-aerator. The effects of phase transformation (WO₃ → WO2.8 → WO2.72) and different weight fractions of tungsten oxide on the optical performance, photothermal conversion, and thermal properties of the prepared nanocomposites were examined. It was found that the nanocomposites exhibited strong photoabsorption in the entire near-infrared (NIR) region of 780-2500 nm and excellent photothermal conversion properties...
July 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
Vatsal Jhalani, Jin-Jian Zhou, Marco Bernardi
GaN is a key material for lighting technology. Yet, the carrier transport and ultrafast dynamics that are central in GaN light emitting devices are not completely understood. We present first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics in GaN, focusing on electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering and the cooling and nanoscale dynamics of hot carriers. We find that e-ph scattering is significantly faster for holes compared to electrons, and that for hot carriers with an initial 0.5 - 1 eV excess energy, holes take a significantly shorter time (~0...
July 24, 2017: Nano Letters
Chao Wang, Hanqing Tian, Jing Jiang, Ting Zhou, Qing Zeng, XinRui He, Pei Huang, Yan Yao
Cu2SnS3 is considered as an emerging potential candidate for electrode materials due to considerable interlayer spaces and tunnels in its crystal structures and excellent conducting ability. Ternary Cu2SnS3 as anode in lithium ion batteries has already been reported, but it is rarely mentioned to be applied in supercapacitors which is considered to be a complementary energy storage device for lithium ion batteries. It is an effective method to improve the electrochemical performance of materials by adjusting the morphology and microstructure of materials...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ki Sung Kim, Young-Min Kim, Hyeona Mun, Jisoo Kim, Jucheol Park, Albina Y Borisevich, Kyu Hyoung Lee, Sung Wng Kim
Structural defects often dominate the electronic- and thermal-transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials and are thus a central ingredient for improving their performance. However, understanding the relationship between TE performance and the disordered atomic defects that are generally inherent in nanostructured alloys remains a challenge. Herein, the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy to visualize atomic defects directly is described and disordered atomic-scale defects are demonstrated to be responsible for the enhancement of TE performance in nanostructured Ti1-x Hfx NiSn1-y Sby half-Heusler alloys...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yiming Zhou, Li-Dong Zhao
Given that more than two thirds of all energy is lost, mostly as waste heat, in utilization processes worldwide, thermoelectric materials, which can directly convert waste heat to electricity, provide an alternative option for optimizing energy utilization processes. After the prediction that superlattices may show high thermoelectric performance, various methods based on quantum effects and superlattice theory have been adopted to analyze bulk materials, leading to the rapid development of thermoelectric materials...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ruquan Ye, Yieu Chyan, Jibo Zhang, Yilun Li, Xiao Han, Carter Kittrell, James M Tour
Wood as a renewable naturally occurring resource has been the focus of much research and commercial interests in applications ranging from building construction to chemicals production. Here, a facile approach is reported to transform wood into hierarchical porous graphene using CO2 laser scribing. Studies reveal that the crosslinked lignocellulose structure inherent in wood with higher lignin content is more favorable for the generation of high-quality graphene than wood with lower lignin content. Because of its high electrical conductivity (≈10 Ω per square), graphene patterned on wood surfaces can be readily fabricated into various high-performance devices, such as hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution electrodes for overall water splitting with high reaction rates at low overpotentials, and supercapacitors for energy storage with high capacitance...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
Baochau N Nguyen, Mary Ann Babin Meador, Daniel A Scheiman, Linda S McCorkle
Cross-linked polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous, lightweight materials with low thermal conductivity and low dielectric constant. Depending on the backbone chemistry, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels can be molded into various size and shape or cast into flexible, thin film. They are excellent candidates for many applications including antenna-based substrate, thermal insulation for space suits or inflatable structures for entry, descent and landing, or industrial pipelines, protective clothing or building and construction...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hui Li, Mallory E DeCoster, Robert M Ireland, Jian Song, Patrick E Hopkins, Howard E Katz
A series of p-type polymers was synthesized by modifying the structure of poly(bisdodecylquaterthiophene) (PQT12) to increase their oxidizability by p-dopants. A sulfur atom is inserted between the thiophene rings and dodecyl chains, and/or 3,4-ethylenedioxy groups are appended to thiophene rings of PQT12. All the polymers have good solubility in organic solvents and can be formed as active layers in conductive and thermoelectric devices by simply drop casting. Doped with the strong oxidant nitrosonium tetrafluroborate (NOBF4), PQTS12 (with sulfur in side chains) shows a very high conductivity up to 350 S cm-1, the highest reported nonionic conductivity among films made from dopant-polymer solutions...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ligui Li, Shuaibo Zeng, Lihong Xie, Dengke Zhao, Nan Wang, Shaowei Chen
Low electrical conductivity and lack of chemical confinement are two major factors that limit the rate performance and cycling stability of cathode materials in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Herein, sulfur is copolymerized with poly(m-aminothiophenol) (PMAT) nanoplates via inverse vulcanization, leading to a highly crosslinked copolymer cp(S-PMAT) in which about 80 wt% of the feeding sulfur is chemically bonded with the thiol groups of PMAT. The cp(S-PMAT)/C based cathode exhibits a high discharge capacity of 1240 mAh g-1 at 0...
July 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
Weili Zhang, Chuan Xu, Chaoqun Ma, Guoxian Li, Yuzuo Wang, Kaiyu Zhang, Feng Li, Chang Liu, Hui-Ming Cheng, Youwei Du, Nujiang Tang, Wencai Ren
An N-superdoped 3D graphene network structure with an N-doping level up to 15.8 at% for high-performance supercapacitor is designed and synthesized, in which the graphene foam with high conductivity acts as skeleton and nested with N-superdoped reduced graphene oxide arogels. This material shows a highly conductive interconnected 3D porous structure (3.33 S cm(-1) ), large surface area (583 m(2) g(-1) ), low internal resistance (0.4 Ω), good wettability, and a great number of active sites. Because of the multiple synergistic effects of these features, the supercapacitors based on this material show a remarkably excellent electrochemical behavior with a high specific capacitance (of up to 380, 332, and 245 F g(-1) in alkaline, acidic, and neutral electrolytes measured in three-electrode configuration, respectively, 297 F g(-1) in alkaline electrolytes measured in two-electrode configuration), good rate capability, excellent cycling stability (93...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
Nobutatsu Furuse, Hisashi Shinbara, Akihito Uehara, Masaaki Sugawara, Toshiya Yamazaki, Masayoshi Hosaka, Hitoshi Yamashita
Background: There have been only a few prospective surveys on adverse events (AEs) in Japanese-style acupuncture practice, and these surveys were conducted only in a single college acupuncture clinic. Objective: The goal of this research was to assess the safety of acupuncture and moxibustion performed in educational facilities in Japan. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter prospective survey, using paper reporting forms. It was conducted in eight acupuncture clinics affiliated with educational institutions...
June 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
Gary D Novack, Penny Asbell, Stefano Barabino, Michael V W Bergamini, Joseph B Ciolino, Gary N Foulks, Michael Goldstein, Michael A Lemp, Stefan Schrader, Craig Woods, Fiona Stapleton
The development of novel therapies for Dry Eye Disease (DED) is formidable, and relatively few treatments evaluated have been approved for marketing. In this report, the Subcommittee reviewed challenges in designing and conducting quality trials, with special reference to issues in trials in patients with DED and present the regulatory perspective on DED therapies. The Subcommittee reviewed the literature and while there are some observations about the possible reasons why so many trials failed, there is no obvious single reason other than the lack of correlation between signs and symptoms in DED...
May 20, 2017: Ocular Surface
Christina Ern, Tamara Berger, Iris Frasheri, Richard Heym, Reinhard Hickel, Matthias Folwaczny
Regenerative therapies of pathogenic tissue defects are gaining increasing importance in periodontology. Among others, the osteogenic effect of BMP-7 seems to play a major role in the development of teeth and alveolar bone. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSC), as well as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), show the ability to differentiate into various types of tissues. Regarding prostaglandin E2, many studies have confirmed that it is involved in the inflammation associated to periodontitis stimulating osteoclasts, which ultimately leads to resorption of tooth supporting bone...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Masiar Sistani, Philipp Staudinger, Johannes Greil, Martin Holzbauer, Hermann Detz, Emmerich Bertagnolli, Alois Lugstein
Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement to utilize ballistic transport for e.g. high performance, low power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of ON-state conductance or multi-valued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires (NWs) and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al (c-Al) leads...
July 22, 2017: Nano Letters
Lizhi Xu, Terry C Shyu, Nicholas A Kotov
The arts of origami and kirigami inspired numerous examples of macroscale hierarchical structures with high degree of reconfigurability and multiple functionalities. Extension of kirigami and origami patterning to micro-, meso-, and nano-scales enabled production of nanocomposites with unusual combination of properties, transitioning these techniques to the toolbox of materials design. Various subtractive and additive fabrication techniques applicable to nanocomposites and out-of-plane deformation of patterns enable a technological framework to negotiate often contradictory structural requirements for materials properties...
July 23, 2017: ACS Nano
Beatriz Cámara, Mónica Álvarez de Buergo, Manuel Bethencourt, Tomás Fernández-Montblanc, Mauro F La Russa, Michela Ricca, Rafael Fort
This study examines the deterioration of geomaterials used throughout history that today may be found lying on the ocean floor. Submerged archaeological sites including cargoes from shipwrecks or ancient city ruins have been a topic of interest from a perspective of in situ musealization, as a way of making underwater cultural heritage accessible to the public. In an experimental study conducted at an underwater archaeological site in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain), we subjected two types of marble (Carrara and Macael) to three conditions to which submerged archaeological objects are often exposed: full exposure to the water column, natural processes of burial and unearthing, or permanent burial...
July 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lizhen Qiao, Wangjie Lv, Mengmeng Chang, Xianzhe Shi, Guowang Xu
The amide group modified silica materials are popular stationary phases for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Meanwhile, surface-confined imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) have been proved to be useful HILIC stationary phases and possess many unique properties. In this study, the synthesis of an amide-functionalized imidazolium IL was conducted which was then bonded onto silica surface to obtain a novel imidazolium-embedded amide stationary phase for HILIC. The combination of the amide group and imidazolium IL moiety might bring some advantages in selectivity or retention and therefore extended its applications...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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