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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815663/who-2016-classification-of-gliomas
#1
Pieter Wesseling, David Capper
Gliomas are the most frequent intrinsic tumours of the central nervous system and encompass two principle subgroups: diffuse gliomas and gliomas showing a more circumscribed growth pattern ('non-diffuse gliomas'). In the revised 4th edition of the WHO Classification of CNS tumors published in 2016, classification of especially diffuse gliomas has fundamentally changed: for the first time a large subset of these tumours is now defined based on presence/absence of IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Following this approach, the diagnosis of (anaplastic) oligoastrocytoma can be expected to largely disappear...
August 16, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812310/gliosarcoma-arising-from-oligodendroglioma-idh-mutant-and-1p-19q-codeleted
#2
Takayuki Yasuda, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Kenta Masui, Takashi Maruyama, Tatsuo Sawada, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takakazu Kawamata
Herein, we present a rare case of gliosarcoma arising from oligodendroglioma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant and 1p/19q codeleted. A 36-year-old man presented with a non-enhanced calcified abnormal lesion on the right frontal lobe. The patient underwent subtotal surgical resection, PAV chemotherapy (procarbazine, nimustine (ACNU) and vincristine), and fractionated radiotherapy with 50 Gy. The pathological diagnosis was oligodendroglioma, IDH mutant and 1p/19q codeleted, World Health Organization 2016 grade II...
August 15, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801347/a-simple-algorithmic-approach-using-histology-and-immunohistochemistry-for-the-current-classification-of-adult-diffuse-glioma-in-a-resource-limited-set-up
#3
R T Rajeswarie, Shilpa Rao, Bevinahalli N Nandeesh, T Chickabasaviah Yasha, Vani Santosh
AIMS: The WHO 2016 classification of diffuse gliomas combines histological and molecular parameters for diagnosis. However, in view of cost constraints for molecular testing, an economical working formula is essential to reach a meaningful diagnosis in a resource-limited setting. The aim of this study was to establish a practical algorithmic approach using histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the classification of diffuse gliomas in such a set-up. METHODS: Diffuse gliomas of WHO grade II and III diagnosed in our institute in the year 2016 were analysed for histological and IHC features, using the markers isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1R132H) and α thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene (ATRX)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797501/integrating-morphology-and-genetics-in-the-diagnosis-of-cartilage-tumors
#4
REVIEW
Carlos E de Andrea, Mikel San-Julian, Judith V M G Bovée
Cartilage-forming tumors of bone are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different molecular mechanisms involved. Enchondromas are benign hyaline cartilage-forming tumors of medullary bone caused by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2. Osteochondromas are benign cartilage-capped bony projections at the surface of bone. IDH mutations are also found in dedifferentiated and periosteal chondrosarcoma. A recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion characterizes mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Molecular changes are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy in chondrosarcomas...
September 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797029/successful-use-of-equine-anti-thymocyte-globulin-atgam-for-fulminant-myocarditis-secondary-to-nivolumab-therapy
#5
Rebecca Y Tay, Elizabeth Blackley, Catriona McLean, Maggie Moore, Peter Bergin, Sanjeev Gill, Andrew Haydon
BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated myocarditis is an uncommon adverse effect of immune checkpoint inhibition and is associated with a high rate of mortality. METHODS: In this reported case, a 64-year-old woman with right temporo-parietal glioblastoma IDH-WT was treated with nivolumab, temozolomide and radiation therapy on a clinical trial. She developed malignant arrhythmias secondary to histologically confirmed severe immune-mediated myocarditis. She was treated with equine anti-thymocyte globulin (ATGAM) due to development of malignant arrhythmias refractory to high-dose corticosteroids...
August 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791452/long-term-daily-temozolomide-with-dose-dependent-efficacy-in-mgmt-promotor-methylation-negative-recurrent-high-grade-astrocytoma
#6
Zhengqiu Zhou, Tracy A Howard, John L Villano
Temozolomide (TMZ) for malignant gliomas is traditionally dosed in 5 out of a 28-day cycle, however alternative regimens exist, including dose-dense. Continuous daily dosing is available, but the acceptable dose and duration of therapy is unknown. We document a 40-year-old male with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH mutant and MGMT promotor methylation negative, who has well-tolerated continuous daily TMZ for 20 months at 100 mg per day for nearly the length of this period. A trial at 80 mg per day demonstrated disease progression with response upon return to 100 mg per day...
August 8, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782849/diffuse-glioma-rare-homozygous-idh-point-mutation-is-it-an-oncogenetic-mechanism
#7
Angad Singh, Mamta Gurav, Sandeep Dhanavade, Omshree Shetty, Sridhar Epari
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/IDH2) mutations in gliomas of WHO grade II/III and secondary glioblastoma are almost always heterozygous missense mutations. Here, we report an extremely rare case of homozygous IDH1R132H mutation in a recurrent WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma. The authors here also review the relevant literature for the possible metabolic impact of homozygous IDH1/2 mutations in the gliomagenesis.
August 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775261/disturbance-and-mosquito-diversity-in-the-lowland-tropical-rainforest-of-central-panama
#8
Jose R Loaiza, Larissa C Dutari, Jose R Rovira, Oris I Sanjur, Gabriel Z Laporta, James Pecor, Desmond H Foley, Gillian Eastwood, Laura D Kramer, Meghan Radtke, Montira Pongsiri
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) is well-known in ecology providing an explanation for the role of disturbance in the coexistence of climax and colonist species. Here, we used the IDH as a framework to describe the role of forest disturbance in shaping the mosquito community structure, and to identify the ecological processes that increase the emergence of vector-borne disease. Mosquitoes were collected in central Panama at immature stages along linear transects in colonising, mixed and climax forest habitats, representing different levels of disturbance...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768910/sexual-dimorphism-in-glioma-glycolysis-underlies-sex-differences-in-survival
#9
Joseph E Ippolito, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Jingqin Luo, Prakash Chinnaiyan, Joshua B Rubin
The molecular bases for sex differences in cancer remain undefined and how to incorporate them into risk stratification remains undetermined. Given sex differences in metabolism and the inverse correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and survival, we hypothesized that glycolytic phenotyping would improve glioma subtyping. Using retrospectively acquired lower-grade glioma (LGG) transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we discovered male-specific decreased survival resulting from glycolytic gene overexpression...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768481/piil-visualization-of-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-data-in-gene-pathways
#10
Behrooz Torabi Moghadam, Neda Zamani, Jan Komorowski, Manfred Grabherr
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a major mechanism involved in the epigenetic state of a cell. It has been observed that the methylation status of certain CpG sites close to or within a gene can directly affect its expression, either by silencing or, in some cases, up-regulating transcription. However, a vertebrate genome contains millions of CpG sites, all of which are potential targets for methylation, and the specific effects of most sites have not been characterized to date. To study the complex interplay between methylation status, cellular programs, and the resulting phenotypes, we present PiiL, an interactive gene expression pathway browser, facilitating analyses through an integrated view of methylation and expression on multiple levels...
August 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765916/low-co-expression-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-and-its-chaperone-heat-shock-protein-90-is-associated-with-worse-prognosis-in-primary-glioblastoma-idh-wild-type
#11
Elsa Sartori, Rupert Langer, Erik Vassella, Ekkehard Hewer, Philippe Schucht, Inti Zlobec, Sabina Berezowska
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a major oncogenic driver in glioblastoma (GBM) without mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH-wildtype). Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a regulator of the stability of oncogenic proteins including EGFR, thereby acting as a molecular chaperone. We investigated the expression of EGFR and its chaperone HSP90 in GBM, IDH-wildtype. Tissue availability permitted analysis of 237/449 consecutive GBM cases, among them 214 IDH-wildtype (90.3%). The expression of EGFR and HSP90 was analysed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing various tumour regions...
August 1, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765641/hypomethylation-of-cntfr%C3%AE-is-associated-with-proliferation-and-poor-prognosis-in-lower-grade-gliomas
#12
Kun Fan, Xiaowen Wang, Jingwen Zhang, Romela Irene Ramos, Haibo Zhang, Chunjie Li, Dan Ye, Jiansheng Kang, Diego M Marzese, Dave S B Hoon, Wei Hua
Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α subunit (CNTFRα) and CNTF play important roles in neuron survival, glial differentiation and brain tumor growth. However, the molecular mechanisms of CNTFRα regulation and its clinical significance in glioma remain largely unknown. Here, we found CNTFRα was overexpressed in lower grade gliomas (LGG) compared with glioblastoma (GBM) and normal brain specimens in TCGA datasets and in an independent cohort. Bioinformatics analysis revealed a CpG shore of the CNTFRα gene regulated its mRNA expression in TCGA datasets...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752218/predicting-idh-mutation-status-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinomas-based-on-contrast-enhanced-ct-features
#13
Yong Zhu, Jun Chen, Weiwei Kong, Liang Mao, Wentao Kong, Qun Zhou, Zhengyang Zhou, Bin Zhu, Zhongqiu Wang, Jian He, Yudong Qiu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the difference in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) with different isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. METHODS: Clinicopathological and contrast-enhanced CT features of 78 patients with 78 ICCs were retrospectively analysed and compared based on IDH mutation status. RESULTS: There were 11 ICCs with IDH mutation (11/78, 14.1%) and 67 ICCs without IDH mutation (67/78, 85...
July 27, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751773/influence-of-idh-on-flt3itd-status-in-newly-diagnosed-aml
#14
P Boddu, K Takahashi, N Pemmaraju, N Daver, C B Benton, S Pierce, M Konopleva, F Ravandi, J Cortes, H Kantarjian, C D DiNardo
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 28 July 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.244.
July 28, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751449/t2-flair-mismatch-an-imaging-biomarker-for-idh-and-1p-19q-status-in-lower-grade-gliomas-a-tcga-tcia-project
#15
Sohil H Patel, Laila M Poisson, Daniel J Brat, Yueren Zhou, Lee Cooper, Matija Snuderl, Cheddhi Thomas, Ana M Franceschi, Brent Griffith, Adam Flanders, John G Golfinos, Andrew S Chi, Rajan Jain
Lower grade gliomas (WHO grade II/III) have been classified into clinically-relevant molecular subtypes based on IDH and 1p/19q mutation status. The purpose was to investigate whether T2/FLAIR MRI features could distinguish between lower grade glioma molecular subtypes.<br /><br />Experimental Design: MRI scans from the TCGA/TCIA lower grade glioma database (n=125) were evaluated by 2 independent neuroradiologists to assess: 1) presence/absence of homogenous signal on T2WI; 2) presence/absence of "T2-FLAIR mismatch" sign; 3) sharp or indistinct lesion margins; 4) presence/absence of peritumoral edema...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748342/non-canonical-idh1-and-idh2-mutations-a-clonal-and-relevant-event-in-an-italian-cohort-of-gliomas-classified-according-to-the-2016-world-health-organization-who-criteria
#16
Michela Visani, Giorgia Acquaviva, Gianluca Marucci, Alexandro Paccapelo, Antonella Mura, Enrico Franceschi, Daniela Grifoni, Annalisa Pession, Giovanni Tallini, Alba A Brandes, Dario de Biase
According to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system, assessment of exon 4 mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 genes (IDH1 or IDH2) is an essential step in the characterization of gliomas. The p.R132H mutation is the most frequent alteration in IDH genes, however other non-canonical IDH mutations can be identified. The aim of this study is to investigate in depth the prevalence of non-R132H IDH ("non-canonical") mutations in brain tumors classified according to the 2016 WHO scheme and their clonal distribution in neoplastic cells...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742805/intra-dialytic-hypertension-is-associated-with-high-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients
#17
Chi-Young Choi, Jae Seok Park, Kyu Tae Yoon, Hyo Wook Gil, Eun Young Lee, Sae Yong Hong
BACKGROUND: Intra-dialytic hypertension (IDH) is emerging as an important issue in hemodialysis patients. Its risk factors and clinical outcomes are unclear. METHODS: A total of 73 prevalent hemodialysis patients were enrolled. They included 14 (19.2%) patients with baseline IDH and 59 patients without IDH. Their clinical parameters, laboratory parameters, and mortality were investigated over 78 months. RESULTS: The risks factor of IDH included low serum potassium levels, low ultrafiltration, and low arm muscle area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739529/control-of-the-nadph-supply-for-oxidative-stress-handling-in-cancer-cells
#18
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Emma Saavedra, Álvaro Marín-Hernández
It has not been systematically analyzed whether the NADPH supply is a limiting factor for oxidative stress management in cancer cells. In the present work, it was determined in non-cancer and cancer cells the protein contents and kinetomics of (i) the cytosolic enzymes responsible for the NADPH production (i.e., Glc6PDH, 6PGDH, ME, IDH-1); and (ii) the two main enzymes responsible for NADPH/NADP(+) and GSH/GSSG recycling (GR, GPx-1) associated to oxidative stress management. With these data, kinetic models were built and further validated...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737433/association-and-interaction-between-triglyceride-glucose-index-and-obesity-on-risk-of-hypertension-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-adults
#19
Song Jian, Nie Su-Mei, Chen Xue, Zhang Jie, Wu Xue-Sen
AIMS: To investigate the association between triglyceride-glucose(TyG) index and the risk of hypertension. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bengbu, China. The participants received relevant questionnaire survey, anthropometric tests, and laboratory examination. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the possible association between TyG index and hypertension risk. The additive interaction evaluated by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index(SI) was calculated...
July 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736630/current-biologics-for-treatment-of-biliary-tract-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Diana Y Zhao, Kian-Huat Lim
Biliary tract cancers (BTC) is a group of malignancies that arise from the epithelial cells of the biliary tree. These cancers are typically classified by anatomic site of origin: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC), and gallbladder cancer (GBC). To date, complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment especially for earlier stage disease. Unfortunately, most patients present with advanced or metastatic disease, when systemic chemotherapy is the only treatment option...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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