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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731401/intraoperative-perception-and-estimates-on-extent-of-resection-during-awake-glioma-surgery-overcoming-the-learning-curve
#1
Darryl Lau, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Seunggu J Han, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE There is ample evidence that extent of resection (EOR) is associated with improved outcomes for glioma surgery. However, it is often difficult to accurately estimate EOR intraoperatively, and surgeon accuracy has yet to be reviewed. In this study, the authors quantitatively assessed the accuracy of intraoperative perception of EOR during awake craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS A single-surgeon experience of performing awake craniotomies for tumor resection over a 17-year period was examined...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730141/extracellular-vesicles-as-modulators-of-tumor-microenvironment-and-disease-progression-in-glioma
#2
REVIEW
Abir Mondal, Divya Kumari Singh, Suchismita Panda, Anjali Shiras
Diffuse gliomas are lethal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by infiltrative growth, aggressive nature, and therapeutic resistance. The recent 2016 WHO classification for CNS tumors categorizes diffuse glioma into two major types that include IDH wild-type glioblastoma, which is the predominant type and IDH-mutant glioblastoma, which is less common and displays better prognosis. Recent studies suggest presence of a distinct cell population with stem cell features termed as glioma stem cells (GSCs) to be causal in driving tumor growth in glioblastoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729418/myc-regulated-mevalonate-metabolism-maintains-brain-tumor-initiating-cells
#3
Xiuxing Wang, Zhi Huang, Qiulian Wu, Briana C Prager, Stephen C Mack, Kailin Yang, Leo J Y Kim, Ryan C Gimple, Yu Shi, Sisi Lai, Qi Xie, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Anne Song, Zhen Dong, Wenchao Zhou, Xiaoguang Fang, Zhe Zhu, Vaidehi Mahadev, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Metabolic dysregulation drives tumor initiation in a subset of glioblastomas harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, but metabolic alterations in glioblastomas with wildtype IDH are poorly understood. MYC promotes metabolic reprogramming in cancer, but targeting MYC has proven notoriously challenging. Here, we link metabolic dysregulation in patient-derived brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) to a nexus between MYC and mevalonate signaling, which can be inhibited by statin or 6-fluoromevalonate treatment...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728576/beneficial-effect-of-kidney-transplantation-from-a-deceased-donor-on-severe-chronic-refractory-intradialytic-hypotension-a-case-report
#4
Ewa Ignacak, Dominik Cieniawski, Alina Bętkowska-Prokop, Czesław Osuch, Marek Kuźniewski, Władysław Sułowicz
BACKGROUND: Chronic refractory hypotension (IDH, intradialytic hypotension) is a rare but serious problem encountered in patients on hemodialysis. Patients with chronic hypotension are often disqualified by transplant teams from renal transplantation. This is due to the possibility of an enormous risk of ischemic complications. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 44-year old female patient with severe refractory hypotension (mean BP 60/30 mmHg, the lowest 48/28 mmHg), which appeared after bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy of the infected kidneys...
July 20, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725033/interferometric-rotating-point-spread-function
#5
Wei Wang, Guohai Situ
Rotating point spread functions (PSF), such as the double helix (DH) PSF, are widely used in localization-based super-resolution imaging because of their large working depth range. In this article, we propose an interferometric DH PSF (iDH PSF) using two opposed objective lenses as in the 4Pi microscope. In the proposed iDH PSF, the super-resolution in the axial PSF is transferred to the azimuthal rotation. Moreover, we design an iDH PSF whose imaging range reaches 3 μm, which is roughly 3 times as much as that which can be obtained by using other interferometric localization-based super-resolution imaging methods...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714279/predicting-idh-mutation-status-in-grade-ii-gliomas-using-amide-proton-transfer-weighted-aptw-mri
#6
Shanshan Jiang, Tianyu Zou, Charles G Eberhart, Maria A V Villalobos, Hye-Young Heo, Yi Zhang, Yu Wang, Xianlong Wang, Hao Yu, Yongxing Du, Peter C M van Zijl, Zhibo Wen, Jinyuan Zhou
PURPOSE: To assess the amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MRI features of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype and IDH-mutant grade II gliomas and to test the hypothesis that the APTw signal is a surrogate imaging marker for identifying IDH mutation status preoperatively. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, who were previously scanned at 3T, were retrospectively analyzed. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate relationships between APTw intensities for IDH-mutant and IDH-wildtype groups, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of APTw...
July 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707330/the-impact-of-dialysis-modality-and-membrane-characteristics-on-intradialytic-hypotension
#7
Samir Patel, Jochen G Raimann, Peter Kotanko
The risk of intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is determined by various factors, among them dialysis modality and dialyzer membrane. We conducted a literature search in PubMed on November 1, 2016 and selected relevant randomized controlled and cross-over trials, and prospective and retrospective cohort studies published in English that investigated the association between IDH and dialysis modality and membrane, respectively. This literature search revealed 669 publications on dialysis modality, 64 on dialysis membrane, and 24 on acetate/bicarbonate dialysate...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707302/dialysate-sodium-and-intradialytic-hypotension
#8
Wael F Hussein, Brigitte Schiller
Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication in hemodialysis, particularly with the time and frequency constraints of standard session delivery in contemporary practice. High intradialytic weight gain (IDWG), high ultrafiltration rates (UFR), and frequent IDH are highly interlinked, and separately or together contribute to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in the hemodialysis population. Using a lower concentration of sodium in the dialysate (D-Na) reduces sodium delivery to the patient during dialysis, and several studies reported the beneficial effect in controlling IDWG, UFR, and hypertension...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705010/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-gliomas
#9
Catherine H Han, Tracy T Batchelor
Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) are important enzymes that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), producing NADPH in the process. More than 80% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma (GBM) harbor an IDH mutation. IDH mutations involve the catalytic pocket of the enzyme and lead to a neomorphic ability to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) while oxidizing NADPH to NADP+. 2HG is considered as an 'oncometabolite' which is thought to be responsible for many, if not all, biologic effects of IDH mutations...
June 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704501/reduced-susceptibility-of-clinical-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-to-reactive-nitrogen-species-promotes-survival-in-activated-macrophages
#10
Jonna Idh, Blanka Andersson, Maria Lerm, Johanna Raffetseder, Daniel Eklund, Hanna Woksepp, Jim Werngren, Mikael Mansjö, Tommy Sundqvist, Olle Stendahl, Thomas Schön
BACKGROUND: Drugs such as isoniazid (INH) and pretomanid (PRT), used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are active partly through generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The aim of this study was to explore variability in intracellular susceptibility to nitric oxide (NO) in clinical strains of M. tuberculosis. METHOD: Luciferase-expressing clinical M. tuberculosis strains with or without INH resistance were exposed to RNS donors (DETA/NO and SIN-1) in broth cultures and bacterial survival was analysed by luminometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697342/tumor-evolution-of-glioma-intrinsic-gene-expression-subtypes-associates-with-immunological-changes-in-the-microenvironment
#11
Qianghu Wang, Baoli Hu, Xin Hu, Hoon Kim, Massimo Squatrito, Lisa Scarpace, Ana C deCarvalho, Sali Lyu, Pengping Li, Yan Li, Floris Barthel, Hee Jin Cho, Yu-Hsi Lin, Nikunj Satani, Emmanuel Martinez-Ledesma, Siyuan Zheng, Edward Chang, Charles-Etienne Gabriel Sauvé, Adriana Olar, Zheng D Lan, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Joanna J Phillips, Mitchel S Berger, Konrad R Gabrusiewicz, Guocan Wang, Eskil Eskilsson, Jian Hu, Tom Mikkelsen, Ronald A DePinho, Florian Muller, Amy B Heimberger, Erik P Sulman, Do-Hyun Nam, Roel G W Verhaak
We leveraged IDH wild-type glioblastomas, derivative neurospheres, and single-cell gene expression profiles to define three tumor-intrinsic transcriptional subtypes designated as proneural, mesenchymal, and classical. Transcriptomic subtype multiplicity correlated with increased intratumoral heterogeneity and presence of tumor microenvironment. In silico cell sorting identified macrophages/microglia, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the glioma microenvironment. NF1 deficiency resulted in increased tumor-associated macrophages/microglia infiltration...
July 10, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696020/complete-durable-response-of-a-pediatric-anaplastic-oligodendroglioma-to-temozolomide-alone-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
Caryn Sorge, Rong Li, Sumit Singh, Alyssa T Reddy, David A Solomon, Arie Perry, Gregory K Friedman
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) is rare in children. Treatment typically consists of varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. We present a pediatric case of frontal lobe AO with periventricular subcallosal extension and local leptomeningeal involvement. The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type tumor was MGMT methylated and contained an ATRX mutation, BRAF alteration, and 1p/19q co-deletion; a combination of alterations mostly encountered in pediatric oligodendrogliomas. The patient underwent a near total resection and had a complete, durable response to temozolomide alone, suggesting that conservative management without radiation may be appropriate in some cases...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691195/definitions-of-intradialytic-hypotension
#13
Magdalene M Assimon, Jennifer E Flythe
Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common and often distressful complication of hemodialysis. However, despite its clinical significance, there is no consensus, evidence-based medical definition for the condition. Over the years, numerous definitions have been implemented in both the clinical and research settings. Definition inconsistencies have hindered data synthesis and the development of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of IDH, as well as prevented accurate estimation of the population burden of IDH and patient risk assessment...
July 9, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682030/-hemodialysis-and-cardiovascular-outcome
#14
Laura Panicali, Fabiana Brigante, Elena Mancini
Hemodialysis patients often present multiple comorbidities and have a high mortality rate (15-20% per year), mostly due to cardiovascular events. Besides predisposing pathological conditions related to uremia (heart failure, coronary heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias), they also have specific risk factors linked to the hemodialysis (HD) treatment in itself: chronic inflammation, fluid overload, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, arterovenous fistula. These factors may affect the hemodynamic compensatory systems (vascular refilling, arteriolar and venous tone, autonomic nervous system response) to fluid removal, with high risk of intra-dialysis hypotension (IDH) episodes or arrhythmic events...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681510/impact-of-drugs-on-intradialytic-hypotension-antihypertensives-and-vasoconstrictors
#15
Tara I Chang
Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication of hemodialysis and is associated with numerous adverse outcomes including cardiovascular events, inadequate dialysis, loss of vascular access, and death. It is estimated that approximately 20%-30% of all dialysis sessions are affected by IDH. In seeking ways to reduce the occurrence of IDH, dialysis providers often turn to pharmacological approaches: withholding antihypertensive medications prior to hemodialysis or administering vasoconstrictor medications...
July 5, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679024/multi-pronged-proteomic-analysis-to-study-the-glioma-pathobiology-using-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples
#16
Nikita Gahoi, Darpan Malhotra, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Santosh G Varma, Mayuri N Gandhi, Sanjeeva Srivastava
PURPOSE: Gliomas are one of the most aggressive and lethal brain tumors arising from neoplastic transformation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive quantitative analysis of proteome level differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) across different grades of gliomas for a better understanding of glioma pathobiology. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Glioma patients were diagnosed by radiology and histochemistry- based analyses. Differential proteomic analysis of high (n = 12) and low (n = 8) grade gliomas, and control (n = 3) samples was performed by using two complementary quantitative proteomic approaches; 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ...
July 5, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675067/postoperative-neoadjuvant-temozolomide-before-radiotherapy-versus-standard-radiotherapy-in-patients-60-years-or-younger-with-anaplastic-astrocytoma-or-glioblastoma-a-randomized-trial
#17
Annika Malmström, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Bjørn Henning Grønberg, Giuseppe Stragliotto, Steinbjørn Hansen, Thomas Asklund, Birgitta Holmlund, Małgorzata Łysiak, Joseph Dowsett, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Peter Söderkvist, Johan Rosell, Roger Henriksson
INTRODUCTION: A pilot study of temozolomide (TMZ) given before radiotherapy (RT) for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GBM) resulted in prolonged survival compared to historical controls receiving RT alone. We therefore investigated neoadjuvant TMZ (NeoTMZ) in a randomized trial. During enrollment, concomitant and adjuvant radio-chemotherapy with TMZ became standard treatment. The trial was amended to include concurrent TMZ. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients, after surgery for GBM or AA, age ≤60 years and performance status (PS) 0-2, were randomized to either 2-3 cycles of TMZ, 200 mg/m(2) days 1-5 every 28 days, followed by RT 60 Gy in 30 fractions or RT only...
July 4, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674742/characterization-of-gliomas-from-morphology-to-molecules
#18
Sean P Ferris, Jeffrey W Hofmann, David A Solomon, Arie Perry
This article reviews the histologic and molecular characterization of gliomas, including the new "integrated diagnoses" of the World Health Organization Classification, 2016 edition. The entities reviewed within include diffuse gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, glioblastoma), as well as circumscribed and low-grade gliomas (angiocentric glioma, pilocytic astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, pilomyxoid astrocytoma, ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma, and subependymoma)...
July 4, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673962/potential-mechanisms-linking-sirt-activity-and-hypoxic-2-hydroxyglutarate-generation-no-role-for-direct-enzyme-de-acetylation
#19
Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Yves T Wang, Jimmy Zhang, Keith Nehrke, Xenia Schafer, Kevin Welle, Sina Ghaemmaghami, Joshua Munger, Paul S Brookes
2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is a hypoxic metabolite with potentially important epigenetic signaling roles. The mechanisms underlying 2-HG generation are poorly understood, but evidence suggests a potential regulatory role for the sirtuin family of lysine deacetylases. Thus, we hypothesized that the acetylation status of the major 2-HG-generating enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH)) may govern their 2-HG generating activity. In-vitro acetylation of these enzymes, with confirmation by western blotting, mass spectrometry, reversibility by recombinant sirtuins, and an assay for global lysine occupancy, yielded no effect on 2-HG generating activity...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673671/relationship-among-clinical-pathological-and-bio-molecular-features-in-low-grade-epilepsy-associated-neuroepithelial-tumors
#20
Gianfranco Vornetti, Gianluca Marucci, Corrado Zenesini, Dario de Biase, Roberto Michelucci, Paolo Tinuper, Giovanni Tallini, Marco Giulioni
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between molecular markers and clinicopathological features in patients operated on for low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors. Molecular-genetic signatures are becoming increasingly important in characterizing these lesions, which represent the second most common cause of focal epilepsy in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. Data from 22 patients operated on for histopathologically confirmed low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors were retrospectively collected...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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