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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169227/korean-red-ginseng-excitation-of-paraventricular-nucleus-neurons-via-non-nmda-glutamate-receptor-activation-in-mice
#1
Yiming Shen, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Soo Joung Park, Gyu Seung Lee, Pan Dong Ryu, Seong Kyu Han
It has been reported that Korean red ginseng (KRG) as a valuable and important traditional medicine has various effects on central nervous system suggesting its complicated actions. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons of hypothalamus play a critical role for stress responses and hormone secretions. Although many studies have reported the action mechanisms of KRG on various cell and systems, the direct membrane effects of KRG on the PVN neurons which are involved in stress response are still poorly understood...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168010/modulation-of-thalamocortical-oscillations-by-trip8b-an-auxiliary-subunit-for-hcn-channels
#2
Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Rahul Chaudhary, Maia Datunashvili, Robert J Heuermann, Annika Lüttjohann, Venu Narayanan, Sabine Balfanz, Patrick Meuth, Dane M Chetkovich, Hans-Christian Pape, Arnd Baumann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Thomas Budde
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels have important functions in controlling neuronal excitability and generating rhythmic oscillatory activity. The role of tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) in regulation of hyperpolarization-activated inward current, I h, in the thalamocortical system and its functional relevance for the physiological thalamocortical oscillations were investigated. A significant decrease in I h current density, in both thalamocortical relay (TC) and cortical pyramidal neurons was found in TRIP8b-deficient mice (TRIP8b(-/-))...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167446/hyperpolarized-1-13-c-acetate-renal-metabolic-clearance-rate-mapping
#3
Emmeli F R Mikkelsen, Christian Østergaard Mariager, Thomas Nørlinger, Haiyun Qi, Rolf F Schulte, Steen Jakobsen, Jørgen Frøkiær, Michael Pedersen, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Christoffer Laustsen
(11)C-acetate is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer of oxidative metabolism, whereas hyperpolarized (13)C-acetate can be used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for investigating specific metabolic processes. The aims of this study were to examine if the kinetic formalism of (11)C-acetate PET in the kidneys is comparable to that of (13)C-acetate MRI, and to compare the dynamic metabolic information of hyperpolarized (13)C-acetate MRI with that obtained with (11)C-acetate PET. Rats were examined with dynamic hyperpolarized (13)C-acetate MRI or (11)C-acetate PET before and after intravenous injection of furosemide, a loop diuretic known to alter both the hemodynamics and oxygen consumption in the kidney...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163063/acetylcholine-neuromodulation-in-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-vigilance-control-in-waking-sleep-autism-amnesia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Stephen Grossberg
Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, is a neural model that explains how normal and abnormal brains may learn to categorize and recognize objects and events in a changing world, and how these learned categories may be remembered for a long time. This article uses ART to propose and unify the explanation of diverse data about normal and abnormal modulation of learning and memory by acetylcholine (ACh). In ART, vigilance control determines whether learned categories will be general and abstract, or specific and concrete...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163060/nmda-receptors-regulate-the-development-of-neuronal-intrinsic-excitability-through-cell-autonomous-mechanisms
#5
Guoqiang Hou, Zhong-Wei Zhang
Maturation of neuronal and synaptic functions during early life is essential for the development of neuronal circuits and behaviors. In newborns synaptic transmission at excitatory synapses is primarily mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), and NMDAR-mediated signaling plays an important role in synaptic maturation. Concomitant with synapse development, the intrinsic properties of neurons undergo dramatic changes during early life. However, little is known about the role of NMDARs in the development of intrinsic excitability...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157492/biomolecular-mri-reporters-evolution-of-new-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Arnab Mukherjee, Hunter C Davis, Pradeep Ramesh, George J Lu, Mikhail G Shapiro
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for observing the function of specific cells and molecules inside living organisms. However, compared to optical microscopy, in which fluorescent protein reporters are available to visualize hundreds of cellular functions ranging from gene expression and chemical signaling to biomechanics, to date relatively few such reporters are available for MRI. Efforts to develop MRI-detectable biomolecules have mainly focused on proteins transporting paramagnetic metals for T1 and T2 relaxation enhancement or containing large numbers of exchangeable protons for chemical exchange saturation transfer...
November 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156097/4-aminopyridine-a-pan-kv-channel-inhibitor-that-enhances-kv7-4-currents-and-inhibits-noradrenaline-mediated-contraction-of-rat-mesenteric-small-arteries
#7
Makhala M Khammy, Sukhan Kim, Bo H Bentzen, Soojung Lee, Inyeoung Choi, Christian Aalkjaer, Thomas A Jepps
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels are regulators of vascular tone. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is considered a broad inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium (KV ) channels, with little inhibitory effect on Kv7 family members at millimolar concentrations. However, the effect of 4-AP on Kv7 channels has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of 4-AP on Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels and characterise the effect of 4-AP on rat resistance arteries...
November 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151209/in-vitro-dissolution-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-for-sensitivity-enhancement-of-nmr-with-biological-molecules
#8
Yaewon Kim, Yunyi Wang, Hsueh-Ying Chen, Christian Hilty
Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) is a technique to prepare hyperpolarized nuclear spin states, yielding a signal enhancement of several orders of magnitude for liquid-state NMR. Here, we describe experimental procedures for the application of D-DNP in high-resolution NMR of biochemical compounds, to determine the time evolution of biochemical processes and intermolecular interactions.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150078/bimodal-fluorescence-129-xe-nmr-probe-for-molecular-imaging-and-biological-inhibition-of-egfr-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Gaëlle Milanole, Bo Gao, Audrey Paoletti, Grégory Pieters, Christophe Dugave, Eric Deutsch, Sofia Rivera, Frédéric Law, Jean-Luc Perfettini, Emilie Mari, Estelle Léonce, Céline Boutin, Patrick Berthault, Hervé Volland, François Fenaille, Thierry Brotin, Bernard Rousseau
Although Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is one of the main causes of cancer death, very little improvement has been made in the last decades regarding diagnosis and outcomes. In this study, a bimodal fluorescence/(129)Xe NMR probe containing a xenon host, a fluorescent moiety and a therapeutic antibody has been designed to target the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) overexpressed in cancer cells. This biosensor shows high selectivity for the EGFR, and a biological activity similar to that of the antibody...
November 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140431/microvascular-adaptations-to-exercise-protective-effect-of-pgc-1-alpha
#10
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#11
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir4...
November 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133173/effects-of-norquetiapine-the-active-metabolite-of-quetiapine-on-cloned-herg-potassium-channels
#12
Hong Joon Lee, Jin-Sung Choi, Bok Hee Choi, Sang June Hahn
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is mainly metabolized by a cytochrome P450 system in the liver. Norquetiapine is a major active metabolite in humans with a pharmacological profile that differs distinctly from that of quetiapine. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to investigate the effects of norquetiapine on hERG channels that are stably expressed in HEK cells. Quetiapine and norquetiapine inhibited the hERG tail currents at -50mV in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 8...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131433/suppressive-effects-of-morphine-injected-into-the-ventral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-on-the-affective-but-not-sensory-component-of-pain-in-rats
#13
Chikashi Maruyama, Satoshi Deyama, Yusuke Nagano, Soichiro Ide, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Pain is a complex experience with both sensory and affective components. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that the affective component of pain can be reduced by doses of morphine lower than those necessary to reduce the sensory component. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of morphine on the sensory component of pain have been investigated extensively, those influencing the affective component remain to be elucidated. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in the regulation of various negative emotional states, including aversion, anxiety, and fear...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130537/evaluation-of-renal-metabolic-response-to-partial-ureteral-obstruction-with-hyperpolarized-13-c-mri
#14
David J Niles, Jeremy W Gordon, Gengwen Huang, Shannon Reese, Erin B Adamson, Arjang Djamali, Sean B Fain
Hyperpolarized (13) C magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to non-invasively image the transport and chemical conversion of (13) C-labeled compounds in vivo. In this study, we utilize hyperpolarized (13) C MRI to evaluate metabolic markers in the kidneys longitudinally in a mouse model of partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (pUUO). Partial obstruction was surgically induced in the left ureter of nine adult mice, leaving the right ureter as a control. (1) H and hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate MRI of the kidneys was performed 2 days prior to surgery (baseline) and at 3, 7 and 14 days post-surgery...
November 12, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129582/ventilation-defect-percent-in-helium-3-mri-as-a-biomarker-of-severe-outcomes-in-asthma
#15
David G Mummy, Stanley J Kruger, Wei Zha, Ronald L Sorkness, Nizar N Jarjour, Mark L Schiebler, Loren C Denlinger, Michael D Evans, Sean B Fain
Ventilation defect percent (VDP) measured in asthmatics with hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI was more strongly associated with ED visits and hospitalizations due to asthma exacerbation than were conventional biomarkers of lung function and inflammation.
November 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128793/phytochemicals-genistein-and-capsaicin-modulate-kv2-1-channel-gating
#16
Iván A Aréchiga-Figueroa, Rita Morán-Zendejas, Mayra Delgado-Ramírez, Aldo A Rodríguez-Menchaca
BACKGROUND: Phytochemicals are a large group of plant-derived compounds that have a broad range of pharmacological effects. Some of these effects are derived from their action on transport proteins, including ion channels. The present study investigates the effects of the phytochemicals genistein and capsaicin on voltage-gated potassium Kv2.1 channels. METHODS: The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to explore the regulation of Kv2.1 channels expressed in HEK293 cells by genistein and capsaicin...
June 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125294/transition-metal-doping-reveals-link-between-electron-t1-reduction-and-13-c-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-efficiency
#17
Peter Niedbalski, Christopher R Parish, Qing Wang, Zahra Hayati, Likai Song, Andre F Martins, A Dean Sherry, Lloyd Laporca Lumata
Optimal efficiency of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is essential to provide the required high sensitivity enhancements for in vitro and in vivo hyperpolarized 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI). At the nexus of the DNP process are the free electrons which provide the high spin alignment that is transferred to the nuclear spins. Without changing DNP instrumental conditions, one way to improve 13C DNP efficiency is by adding trace amounts of paramagnetic additives such as lanthanide (e...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117630/biophysical-properties-of-microvascular-endothelium-requirements-for-initiating-and-conducting-electrical-signals
#18
Adam Kapela, Erik J Behringer, Steven S Segal, Nikolaos M Tsoukias
OBJECTIVE: Electrical signaling along the endothelium underlies spreading vasodilation and blood flow control. We use mathematical modeling to determine the electrical properties of the endothelium and gain insight into the biophysical determinants of electrical conduction. METHODS: Electrical conduction data along endothelial cell (EC) tubes (40 μm wide, 2.5 mm long) isolated from mouse skeletal muscle resistance arteries were analyzed using cable equations and a multicellular computational model...
November 8, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116174/activation-of-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-kir3-girk-channels-rescues-hippocampal-functions-in-a-mouse-model-of-early-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology
#19
Irene Sánchez-Rodríguez, Sara Temprano-Carazo, Alberto Nájera, Souhail Djebari, Javier Yajeya, Agnès Gruart, José M Delgado-García, Lydia Jiménez-Díaz, Juan D Navarro-López
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory. Its correct performance relies on excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission balance. In early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuronal hyperexcitability leads to network dysfunction observed in cortical regions such as the hippocampus. G-protein-gated potassium (GirK) channels induce neurons to hyperpolarize, contribute to the resting membrane potential and could compensate any excesses of excitation. Here, we have studied the relationship between GirK channels and hippocampal function in a mouse model of early AD pathology...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114616/detection-of-regional-radiation-induced-lung-injury-using-hyperpolarized-129-xe-chemical-shift-imaging-in-a-rat-model-involving-partial-lung-irradiation-proof-of-concept-demonstration
#20
Brandon Zanette, Elaine Stirrat, Salomeh Jelveh, Andrew Hope, Giles Santyr
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe dissolved in pulmonary tissue (PT) and red blood cells (RBCs) to detect regional changes to PT structure and perfusion in a partial-lung rat model of radiation-induced lung injury and compare with histology. Methods and materials: The right medial region of the lungs of 6 Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated (20 Gy, single-fraction). A second nonirradiated cohort served as the control group...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
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