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Hyperpolarization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901476/the-change-of-hcn1-hcn2-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-nerve-after-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathy-followed-by-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-therapy
#1
Hui Liu, Jun Zhou, Lianbing Gu, Yunxia Zuo
Neuropathic pain is usually defined as a chronic pain state caused by peripheral or central nerve injury as a result of acute damage or systemic diseases. It remains a difficult disease to treat. Recent studies showed that the frequency of action potentials in nociceptive afferents is affected by the activity of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCN) family. In the current study, we used a neuropathy rat model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve to evaluate the change of expression of HCN1/HCN2 mRNA in peripheral nerve and spinal cord...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901358/mdck-cells-are-capable-of-water-secretion-and-reabsorption-in-response-to-changes-in-the-ionic-environment
#2
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901161/optical-control-of-girk-channels-using-visible-light
#3
Julie B Trads, Jessica Burgstaller, Laura Laprell, David B Konrad, Luis de la Osa de la Rosa, C David Weaver, Herwig Baier, Dirk Trauner, David M Barber
G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are an integral part of inhibitory signal transduction pathways, reducing the activity of excitable cells via hyperpolarization. They play crucial roles in processes such as cardiac output, cognition and the coordination of movement. Therefore, the precision control of GIRK channels is of critical importance. Here, we describe the development of the azobenzene containing molecule VLOGO (Visible Light Operated GIRK channel Opener), which activates GIRK channels in the dark and is promptly deactivated when illuminated with green light...
November 30, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899525/reactive-oxygen-species-induce-virus-independent-mavs-oligomerization-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Iwona A Buskiewicz, Theresa Montgomery, Elizabeth C Yasewicz, Sally A Huber, Michael P Murphy, Richard C Hartley, Ryan Kelly, Mary K Crow, Andras Perl, Ralph C Budd, Andreas Koenig
The increased expression of genes induced by type I interferon (IFN) is characteristic of viral infections and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We showed that mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, which normally forms a complex with retinoic acid gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases during viral infection, was activated by oxidative stress independently of RIG-I helicases. We found that chemically generated oxidative stress stimulated the formation of MAVS oligomers, which led to mitochondrial hyperpolarization and decreased adenosine triphosphate production and spare respiratory capacity, responses that were not observed in similarly treated cells lacking MAVS...
November 29, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899435/imaging-oxygen-metabolism-with-hyperpolarized-magnetic-resonance-a-novel-approach-for-cardiac-and-renal-function%C3%A2-assessement
#5
Marie Schroeder, Christoffer Lausten
Every tissue in the body critically depends on meeting its energetic demands with sufficient oxygen supply. Oxygen supply/demand imbalances underlie the diseases that inflict the greatest socioeconomic burden globally. The purpose of this review is to examine how hyperpolarized contrast media, used in combination with MR data acquisition methods, may advance our ability to assess oxygen metabolism non-invasively and thus improve management of clinical disease. We first introduce the concept of hyperpolarization and how hyperpolarized contrast media have been practically implemented to achieve translational and clinical research...
November 29, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899298/mechanisms-and-time-course-of-menthol-induced-cutaneous-vasodilation
#6
Daniel H Craighead, Nathaniel B McCartney, James H Tumlinson, Lacy M Alexander
Menthol is a vasoactive compound that is widely used in topical analgesic agents. Menthol induces cutaneous vasodilation, however the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Determining the rates of appearance and clearance of menthol in the skin is important for optimizing topical treatment formulation and dosing. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms contributing to menthol-mediated cutaneous vasodilation and to establish a time course for menthol appearance/clearance in the skin. Ten young (23±1years, 5 males 5 females) subjects participated in two protocols...
November 26, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896951/hydrogen-peroxide-modulates-energy-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress-in-cultures-of-permanent-human-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-mio-m1
#7
Sven Peters, Max Griebsch, Matthias Klemm, Jens Haueisen, Martin Hammer
In this study the influence of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) on the redox state, NADH protein binding, and mitochondrial membrane potential in Müller cells is investigated. Cultures of permanent human Müller cells MIO-M1 were exposed to H2 O2 in 75 µM and 150 µM concentration for two hours. Fluorescence emission spectra and lifetimes were measured by two-photon microscopy (excitation wavelength: 740 nm) at the mitochondria which were identified in the microscopic images by their fluorescence properties (spectra and intensity)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894879/alternating-delays-achieve-polarization-transfer-adapt-to-heteronuclei-in-phip-experiments
#8
Gabriele Stevanato
A new methodology for producing hyperpolarized (13)C nuclei in small organic systems via parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is proposed: ADAPT (Alternating Delays Achieve Polarization Transfer). The theoretical foundation of the process is investigated in some detail and experimental examples demonstrating the viability of the approach are provided as well. The number of adjustable parameters is fewer than most of other conversion schemes. The achieved theoretical heteronuclear polarization is close to unity for any examined magnetic equivalence regime...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889650/large-dose-hyperpolarized-water-with-dissolution-dnp-at-high-magnetic-field
#9
Kasper Wigh Lipsø, Sean Bowen, Oleksandr Rybalko, Jan Henrik Ardenkjær-Larsen
We demonstrate a method for the preparation of hyperpolarized water by dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at high magnetic field. Protons were polarized at 6.7T and 1.1K to >70% with frequency modulated microwave irradiation at 188GHz. 97.2±0.7% of the radical was extracted from the sample in the dissolution in a two-phase system. 16±1mL of 5.0M (1)H in D2O with a polarization of 13.0±0.9% in the liquid state was obtained, corresponding to an enhancement factor of 4000±300 compared to the thermal equilibrium at 9...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888546/sex-differences-in-depolarizing-actions-of-gabaa-receptor-activation-in-rat-embryonic-hypothalamic-neurons
#10
Franco R Mir, Hugo F Carrer, María J Cambiasso
GABAA receptor activation exerts trophic actions in immature neurons through depolarization of resting membrane potential. The switch to its classical hyperpolarizing role is developmentally regulated. Previous results suggest that a hormonally biased sex difference exists at the onset of the switch in hypothalamic neurons. The aim of this work was to evaluate sex differences in GABAA receptor function of hypothalamic neurons before brain masculinization by gonadal hormones. Hypothalamic cells were obtained from embryonic day 16 male and female rat foetuses, 2 days before the peak of testosterone production by the foetal testis, and grown in vitro for 9 days...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884465/crossing-the-chasm-s-demonstrating-the-clinical-value-of-hyperpolarized-gas-mri
#11
EDITORIAL
Bastiaan Driehuys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882307/metabolic-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-where-we-are
#12
REVIEW
Claudia Testa, Cristian Pultrone, David Neil Manners, Riccardo Schiavina, Raffaele Lodi
In recent years, the development of diagnostic methods based on metabolic imaging has been aimed at improving diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and perhaps at improving therapy. Molecular imaging methods can detect specific biological processes that are different when detected within cancer cells relative to those taking place in surrounding normal tissues. Many methods are sensitive to tissue metabolism; among them, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) are widely used in clinical practice and clinical research...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882143/expression-of-connexin-43-ion-channels-and-ca-2-handling-proteins-in-rat-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes
#13
Yaqiong Xiao, Xue Cai, Andrew Atkinson, Sunil Jit Logantha, Mark Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is thought to be triggered by ectopic beats, originating primarily in the myocardial sleeves surrounding the pulmonary veins (PVs). The mechanisms underlying these cardiac arrhythmias remain unclear. To investigate this, frozen sections of heart and lung tissue from adult rats without arrhythmia were obtained in different planes, stained with Masson's trichrome, and immunolabeled for connexin 43 (Cx43), caveolin-3 (Cav3), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4), Nav1...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881784/low-somatic-sodium-conductance-enhances-action-potential-precision-in-time-coding-auditory-neurons
#14
Yang Yang, Bina Ramamurthy, Andreas Neef, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory nerve fibers encode sounds in the precise timing of action potentials (APs), which is used for such computations as sound localization. Timing information is relayed through several cell types in the auditory brainstem that share an unusual property: their APs are not overshooting, suggesting that the cells have very low somatic sodium conductance (gNa). However, it is not clear how gNa influences temporal precision. We addressed this by comparing bushy cells (BCs) in the mouse cochlear nucleus with T-stellate cells (SCs), which do have normal overshooting APs...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879402/hyperpolarized-13c-magnetic-resonance-treatment-response-monitoring-a-new-paradigm-for-multiorgan-metabolic-assessment-of-pharmacological-interventions
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875876/dissolution-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-of-deuterated-molecules-enhanced-by-cross-polarization
#16
Dennis Kurzbach, Emmanuelle M M Weber, Aditya Jhajharia, Samuel F Cousin, Aude Sadet, Sina Marhabaie, Estel Canet, Nicolas Birlirakis, Jonas Milani, Sami Jannin, Dmitry Eshchenko, Alia Hassan, Roberto Melzi, Stephan Luetolf, Marco Sacher, Marc Rossire, James Kempf, Joost A B Lohman, Matthias Weller, Geoffrey Bodenhausen, Daniel Abergel
We present novel means to hyperpolarize deuterium nuclei in (13)CD2 groups at cryogenic temperatures. The method is based on cross-polarization from (1)H to (13)C and does not require any radio-frequency fields applied to the deuterium nuclei. After rapid dissolution, a new class of long-lived spin states can be detected indirectly by (13)C NMR in solution. These long-lived states result from a sextet-triplet imbalance (STI) that involves the two equivalent deuterons with spin I = 1. An STI has similar properties as a triplet-singlet imbalance that can occur in systems with two equivalent I = 12 spins...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875871/remote-detection-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-resonances-via-multiple-distant-dipolar-field-interactions-with-1-h
#17
Le Zhang, Michael Antonacci, Alex Burant, Karl M Koshlap, Rosa Tamara Branca
A remote detection scheme utilizing the distant dipolar field interaction between two different spin species was proposed by Granwehr et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 176(2), 125 (2005)]. In that sequence (1)H spins were detected indirectly via their dipolar field interaction with (129)Xe spins, which served as the sensing spins. Here we propose a modification of the proposed detection scheme that takes advantage of the longer T1 relaxation time of xenon to create a long lasting dipolar field with which the fast relaxing (1)H spins are allowed to interact many times during a single acquisition...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872234/downregulation-of-endothelial-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-type-4-channel-and-small-conductance-of-ca2-activated-k-channels-underpins-impaired-endothelium-dependent-hyperpolarization-in-hypertension
#18
Takunori Seki, Kenichi Goto, Kanako Kiyohara, Yasuo Kansui, Noboru Murakami, Yoshie Haga, Toshio Ohtsubo, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Takanari Kitazono
Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated responses are impaired in hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been determined. The activation of small- and intermediate-conductance of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SKCa and IKCa) underpins EDH-mediated responses. It was recently reported that Ca(2+) influx through endothelial transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channel (TRPV4) is a prerequisite for the activation of SKCa/IKCa in endothelial cells in specific beds. Here, we attempted to determine whether the impairment of EDH in hypertension is attributable to the dysfunction of TRPV4 and S/IKCa, using isolated superior mesenteric arteries of 20-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
November 21, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871900/insulin-adenosine-axis-linked-signalling
#19
REVIEW
Luis Silva, Mario Subiabre, Joaquín Araos, Tamara Sáez, Rocío Salsoso, Fabián Pardo, Andrea Leiva, Rody San Martín, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia
Regulation of blood flow depends on systemic and local release of vasoactive molecules such as insulin and adenosine. These molecules cause vasodilation by activation of plasma membrane receptors at the vascular endothelium. Adenosine activates at least four subtypes of adenosine receptors (A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, A3AR), of which A2AAR and A2BAR activation leads to increased cAMP level, generation of nitric oxide, and relaxation of the underlying smooth muscle cell layer. Vasodilation caused by adenosine also depends on plasma membrane hyperpolarization due to either activation of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle or activation of ATP-activated K(+) channels in the endothelium...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870463/13c-mr-hyperpolarization-of-lactate-using-parahydrogen-and-metabolic-transformation-in-vitro
#20
Eleonora Cavallari, Carla Carrera, Silvio Aime, Francesca Reineri
Hyperpolarization of the 13C magnetic resonance signal of L-[1-13C]Lactate has been obtained using the chemically based, cost-effective method named ParaHydrogen Induced Polarization by means of Side Arm Hydrogenation (PHIP-SAH). Two ester derivatives of lactate have been tested and the factors that determine the polarization level on the product have been investigated into details. The metabolic conversion of hyperpolarized L-[1-13C]Lactate into Pyruvate has been observed in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and in a cells lysate...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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