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Alexander Karabanov, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Carlo U Perotto, Daniel Wiśniewski, Jonathan McMaster, Igor Lesanovsky, Walter Köckenberger
A theory of dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) by thermal mixing is suggested based on purely quantum considerations. A minimal 6-level microscopic model is developed to test the theory and link it to the well-known thermodynamic model. Optimal conditions for the nuclear polarization enhancement and effects of inhomogeneous broadening of the electron resonance are discussed. Macroscopic simulations of nuclear polarization spectra displaying good agreement with experiments, involving BDPA and trityl free radicals, are presented...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anurag Mishra, Giorgio Pariani, Thomas Oerther, Markus Schwaiger, Gil Gregor Westmeyer
We introduce hyperpolarizable (13)C-labelled probes that identify multiple biologically important divalent metals via metal-specific chemical shifts. These features enable NMR measurements of calcium concentrations in human serum in the presence of magnesium. In addition, signal enhancement through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) increases the sensitivity of metal detection to afford measuring micromolar concentrations of calcium as well as simultaneous multi-metal detection by chemical shift imaging. The hyperpolarizable (13)C-MRI sensors presented here enable sensitive NMR measurements and MR imaging of multiple divalent metals in opaque biological samples...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Cheng-Hua Zhou, Ming-Xing Zhang, Sha-Sha Zhou, Huan Li, Jian Gao, Lei Du, Xiao-Xing Yin
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modification-mediated changes in pain-related gene expressions play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), anicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, is involved in the development of chronic pain. Moreover, SIRT1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But the role of SIRT1 in T2DM-induced neuropathic pain remains unknown. In this study, we found that spinal SIRT1 expression and activity were down-regulated significantly in high-fat-fed/low-dose STZ-induced neuropathic pain rats...
September 29, 2016: Pain
Liliana Lefticariu, Stephen R Sutton, Kelly S Bender, Mihai Lefticariu, Martin Pentrak, Joseph W Stucki
Pollutants in acid mine drainage (AMD) are usually sequestered in neoformed nano- and micro-scale particles (nNP) through precipitation, co-precipitation, and sorption. Subsequent biogeochemical processes may control nNP stability and thus long-term contaminant immobilization. Mineralogical, chemical, and microbiological data collected from sediments accumulated over a six-year period in a coal-mine AMD treatment system were used to identify the pathways of contaminant dynamics. We present evidence that detrital nano- and micron-scale particles (dNP), composed mostly of clay minerals originating from the partial weathering of coal-mine waste, mediated biogeochemical processes that catalyzed AMD contaminant (1) immobilization by facilitating heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nNP in oxic zones, and (2) remobilization by promoting phase transformation and reductive dissolution of nNP in anoxic zones...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Doreen C Harper, Teena M McGuinness, Jean Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree positions nurse practitioners (NPs) and other advanced practice registered nurses, with clinical competencies similar to other disciplines requiring doctoral education (medicine, physical therapy, psychology, and pharmacy). In addition, all these disciplines also offer residencies. However, nursing is the only discipline that does not require a doctoral degree and/or have a systematic approach to residency training for advanced practice roles...
August 31, 2016: Nursing Outlook
Nathan G Tipton, Patricia M Speck, Trimika L Bowdre, Pamela D Connor
Despite nurses' demonstrated expertise in the public health workforce, there has been a continued erosion of public health nursing (PHN) positions in health departments and academe. The need for a strong public health infrastructure and well-educated public health workforce remains vital in meeting PHN research challenges. In response to these needs, our college of nursing undertook a six-year Health Resources and Services Administration-funded expansion of the PHN Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program. This article illustrates program evaluation, lessons learned, and PHN DNP graduate and workforce outcomes related to supplying culturally diverse PHN leaders, assuring quality improvement, creating sustainable partnerships, and improving poor health outcomes...
July 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
A Leyte-Manrique, U Hernández-Salinas, A Ramírez-Bautista, V Mata-Silva, J C Marshall
Studies on habitat use have often helped explain observed variation in morphology, behavior, and reproductive characteristics among populations within a single species. Here we analyze morphological and ecological characteristics of individuals from the Sceloporus grammicus species complex from seven different localities (El Cerezo: CER, Pachuca: PAC, Huichapan: HUI, Emiliano Zapata: EZA, San Miguel Regla: SMR, La Mojonera: LMJ, and La Manzana: LMZ) in the state of Hidalgo, and one locality (Cahuacán) in the State of México...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Tanya K Todorova, Xavier Rozanska, Christel Gervais, Alexandre Legrand, Linh N Ho, Pierrick Berruyer, Anne Lesage, Lyndon Emsley, David Farrusseng, Jérôme Canivet, Caroline Mellot-Draznieks
We use density functional theory, newly parameterized molecular dynamics simulations, and last generation (15) N dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy (DNP SENS) to understand graft-host interactions and effects imposed by the metal-organic framework (MOF) host on peptide conformations in a peptide-functionalized MOF. Focusing on two grafts typified by MIL-68-proline (-Pro) and MIL-68-glycine-proline (-Gly-Pro), we identified the most likely peptide conformations adopted in the functionalized hybrid frameworks...
October 11, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Karen Hande, Linda Beuscher, Terri Allison, Julia Phillippi
Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) faculty advisers help students navigate academic challenges, professional development, and leadership opportunities while earning a DNP degree. Student needs during DNP education are unique from other programs and require careful advising to address common challenges. This article links student needs with advising competencies and presents strategies for faculty development and support.
October 5, 2016: Nurse Educator
Yaewon Kim, Mengxiao Liu, Christian Hilty
Protein-ligand interactions are frequently screened using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The dissociation constant (KD) of a ligand of interest can be determined via a spin-spin relaxation measurement of a reporter ligand, in a single scan when using hyperpolarization by means of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Despite nearly instantaneous signal acquisition, a limitation of D-DNP for the screening of protein-ligand interactions is the required polarization time on the order of tens of minutes...
October 10, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Yixun Xing, Ashish K Jindal, Martín Regueiro-Figueroa, Mariane Le Fur, Nelly Kervarec, Piyu Zhao, Zoltan Kovacs, Laura Valencia, Paulo Pérez-Lourido, Raphaël Tripier, David Esteban-Gómez, Carlos Platas-Iglesias, A Dean Sherry
Recently developed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technology offers the potential of increasing the NMR sensitivity of even rare nuclei for biological imaging applications. Hyperpolarized (89) Y is an ideal candidate because of its narrow NMR linewidth, favorable spin quantum number (I=1/2 ), and long longitudinal relaxation times (T1 ). Strong NMR signals were detected in hyperpolarized (89) Y samples of a variety of yttrium complexes. A dataset of (89) Y NMR data composed of 23 complexes with polyaminocarboxylate ligands was obtained using hyperpolarized (89) Y measurements or (1) H,(89) Y-HMQC spectroscopy...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Khurrum Shahzad, Fabian Bock, Moh'd Mohanad Al-Dabet, Ihsan Gadi, Sumra Nazir, Hongjie Wang, Shrey Kohli, Satish Ranjan, Peter R Mertens, Peter P Nawroth, Berend Isermann
While a plethora of studies support a therapeutic benefit of Nrf2 activation and ROS inhibition in diabetic nephropathy (dNP), the Nrf2 activator bardoxolone failed in clinical studies in type 2 diabetic patients due to cardiovascular side effects. Hence, alternative approaches to target Nrf2 are required. Intriguingly, the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline, which has been in clinical use for decades, has been shown to convey anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic patients and nephroprotection in rodent models of dNP...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marta Silva, José Tiago Costa-Pereira, Daniel Martins, Isaura Tavares
Diabetic neuropathy has a profound impact in the quality of life of patients who frequently complain of pain. The mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) are no longer ascribed only to damage of peripheral nerves. The effects of diabetes at the central nervous system are currently considered causes of DPN. Management of DNP may be achieved by antidepressants that act on serotonin (5-HT) uptake, namely specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is a key pain control center involved in descending pain modulation at the spinal cord through local release of 5-HT and plays a peculiar role in the balance of bidirectional control (i...
October 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Filippo Caracciolo, Marta Filibian, Pietro Carretta, Alberto Rosso, Andrea De Luca
In dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments, the compound is driven out-of-equilibrium by the microwave (MW) irradiation of the radical electron spins. Their stationary state has been recently probed via electron double resonance (ELDOR) techniques showing, at low temperature, a broad depolarization of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum under microwave irradiation. In this theoretical manuscript, we develop a numerical method to compute exactly the EPR spectrum in the presence of dipolar interactions...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
David A Hirsh, Aaron J Rossini, Lyndon Emsley, Robert W Schurko
In this work, we show how to obtain efficient dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced (35)Cl solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectra at 9.4 T and demonstrate how they can be used to characterize the molecular-level structure of hydrochloride salts of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in both bulk and low wt% API dosage forms. (35)Cl SSNMR central-transition powder patterns of chloride ions are typically tens to hundreds of kHz in breadth, and most cannot be excited uniformly with high-power rectangular pulses or acquired under conditions of magic-angle spinning (MAS)...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Qiu-Yan Li, Zheng Ma, Wen-Qiang Zhang, Jia-Long Xu, Wei Wei, Han Lu, Xinsheng Zhao, Xiao-Jun Wang
AIE-active luminogen tetraphenylethene (TPE) was incorporated into a UiO-isoreticular zirconium metal-organic framework via the strategy of mixed dicarboxylate struts, and the resulting functionalized MOF shows a strong blue-green emission and selective sensing of nitroaromatic explosives 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) through fluorescence quenching. Moreover, the luminescent MOF exhibits efficient photocatalytic activity for aerobic cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions mediated by visible light...
September 13, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Guannan Zhang, Franz Schilling, Steffen J Glaser, Christian Hilty
Off-resonance decoupling using the method of Scaling of Heteronuclear Couplings by Optimal Tracking (SHOT) enables determination of heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts in single scan NMR spectra. Through modulation of J-coupling evolution by shaped radio frequency pulses, off resonance decoupling using SHOT pulses causes a user-defined dependence of the observed J-splitting, such as the splitting of (13)C peaks, on the chemical shift offset of coupled nuclei, such as (1)H. Because a decoupling experiment requires only a single scan, this method is suitable for characterizing on-going chemical reactions using hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Lingling Xuan, Rentao Jiang, Zhiyuan Wu, Honggan Yi, Chunsuo Yao, Qi Hou, Chunfeng Qu
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is one of the important mediators of colitis-related colon cancer (CRC). Abundant mast cells (MCs) were observed in the tumor microenvironment and mediators released upon MC activation play an important role in the process of chronic inflammation. Previously, we found that activation of intestine mucosal MCs recruited and modulated the inflammatory CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells to promote the CRC development. In the current study we investigated the effects of Vam3, a resveratrol dimer with potent anti-inflammatory effects, on CRC development...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Michael A Carter, Dwayne Accardo, Thomas Cooper, Patricia Cowan, Wendy Likes, Donna Lynch-Smith, Laura Melaro
BACKGROUND: Many changes have occurred in DNP programs since they first began. University of Tennessee Health Science Center began the practice doctoral program in 1999 and today enrolls over 100 new baccalaureate nursing (BSN)-to-Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students each year. More than 500 DNPs have graduated to date. METHOD: A review of the history and challenges of this program are presented as a potential exemplar for other programs to consider. RESULTS: Several changes have taken place, including a shift from Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)-to-DNP programs to almost all BSN-to-DNP programs, a new appreciation for writing skills, and movement away from a separate DNP project...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Beth A Staffileno, Marcia Pencak Murphy, Elizabeth Carlson
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists surrounding collaborative relations among Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)- and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)-prepared faculty. PURPOSE: This qualitative study explored the attitudes and determinants for effective collaboration among doctoral-prepared nursing faculty. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted using a convenience sample of doctoral faculty who taught in either/both DNP or PhD programs. Focus group questions were derived to identify interpersonal, organizational, and systemic determinants of collaboration...
August 28, 2016: Nursing Outlook
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