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2 hydroxyglutarate

Peipei Lin, Yingwan Luo, Shuanghong Zhu, Dominic Maggio, Haiyang Yang, Chao Hu, Jinghan Wang, Hua Zhang, Yanling Ren, Xinping Zhou, Chen Mei, Liya Ma, Weilai Xu, Li Ye, Zhengping Zhuang, Jie Jin, Hongyan Tong
PURPOSE: The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematologic disorders characterized by the presence of somatically mutated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that increase the risk of progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHmut ) are thought to correlate with the increased production of the oncogenic protein 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) in AML. The aim of this study was to examine whether serum 2-HG has utility as a prognostic biomarker, and whether elevated 2-HG levels are predictive of IDH mutations in patients with MDS...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, L Eric Huang
OBJECTIVE Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Recent studies have supported the importance of key genetic alterations, including isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and 1p19q codeletion, in glioma prognosis. Mutant IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite of the Krebs cycle. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is composed of MPC1 and MPC2 subunits and is functionally essential for the Krebs cycle. The authors sought to explore the impact of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on patient prognosis...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Tie Li, Christopher D Cox, Byram Ozer, Nhung T Nguyen, Huytram N Nguyen, Thomas J Lai, Sichen Li, Fei Liu, Harley I Kornblum, Linda M Liau, Phioanh Leia Nghiemphu, Timothy F Cloughesy, Albert Lai
Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 converts α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), a putative oncometabolite that can inhibit α-KG dependent enzymes, including ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) DNA demethylases. We recently established that miRNAs are components of the IDH1 mutant-associated glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), and specifically identified MIR148A as a tumor-suppressive miRNA within G-CIMP. However, the precise mechanism by which mutant IDH induces hypermethylation of MIR148A and other G-CIMP promoters remains to be elucidated...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Feng Peng, Yingzi Liu, Chenjie He, Yi Kong, Qianying Ouyang, Xiaonv Xie, Tong Liu, Zhaoqian Liu, Jingbo Peng
Lung cancer is the common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for lung cancer. Platinum sensitivity is a major possibility for effective cancer treatment. In this study, several potential biomarkers were identified for evaluating and predicting the response to platinum-based chemotherapy. LC-MS-based metabolomics was performed on plasma samples from 43 lung cancer patients with different chemotherapy efficacy. By combing multivariate statistical analysis, pathway analysis with correlation analysis, 8 potential biomarkers were significantly associated with platinum chemotherapy response...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Guillermo Montalban-Bravo, Courtney D DiNardo
Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) are enzymes involved in multiple metabolic and epigenetic cellular processes. Mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are detected in approximately 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and induce amino acid changes in conserved residues resulting in neomorphic enzymatic function and production of an oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2-HG). This leads to DNA hypermethylation, aberrant gene expression, cell proliferation and abnormal differentiation. IDH mutations diversely affect prognosis of patients with AML based on the location of the mutation and other co-occurring genomic abnormalities...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
Prem Prakash, Narayan S Punekar, Prasenjit Bhaumik
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme connecting carbon and nitrogen metabolism in all living organisms. Despite extensive studies on GDHs from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the last 40 years, the structural basis of the catalytic features of this enzyme remains incomplete. This study reports the structural basis of the GDH catalytic mechanism and allosteric behavior. We determined the first high-resolution crystal structures of glutamate dehydrogenase from the fungus Aspergillus niger (AnGDH), a unique NADP+ -dependent allosteric enzyme that is forward inhibited by the formation of mixed disulfide...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Esther Fernández-Galán, Núria Massana, Marina Parra-Robert, Susana Hidalgo, Gregori Casals, Jordi Esteve, Wladimiro Jiménez
High circulating levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) have been reported in patients with determinate isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutated tumors. Recent studies indicate that in malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), measurements of 2HG in serum provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information and improve patient selection and monitoring of IDH-targeted treatments. In the current study, we validated a sensitive and specific gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method specifically intended to quantify serum levels of 2HG in routine clinical laboratories...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Rémi Longuespée, Annika K Wefers, Elena De Vita, Aubry K Miller, David E Reuss, Wolfgang Wick, Christel Herold-Mende, Mark Kriegsmann, Peter Schirmacher, Andreas von Deimling, Stefan Pusch
All isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant solid neoplasms exhibit highly elevated levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Detection of 2HG in tumor tissues currently is performed by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- or LC-MS) or biochemical detection. While these methods are highly accurate, a considerable amount of time for tissue preparation and a relatively high amount of tissue is required for testing. We here present a rapid approach to detect 2HG in brain tumor tissue based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)...
March 2, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Dan Ye, Kun-Liang Guan, Yue Xiong
Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH1/2) are frequently mutated in multiple types of human cancer, resulting in neomorphic enzymes that convert α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The current view on the mechanism of IDH mutation holds that 2-HG acts as an antagonist of α-KG to competitively inhibit the activity of α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including those involved in histone and DNA demethylation. Recent studies have implicated 2-HG in activities beyond epigenetic modification. Multiple enzymes have been discovered that lack mutations but that can nevertheless produce 2-HG promiscuously under hypoxic or acidic conditions...
February 2018: Trends in Cancer
Muhammad Ikram Ullah, Abdul Nasir, Arsalan Ahmad, Gaurav Vijay Harlalka, Wasim Ahmad, Muhammad Jawad Hassan, Emma L Baple, Andrew H Crosby, Barry A Chioza
BACKGROUND: L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a progressive neurometabolic disease of brain caused by mutations of in L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L2HGDH) gene. Cardinal clinical features include cerebellar ataxia, epilepsy, neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability, and other clinical neurological deficits. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an index case of the family presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizure, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and ataxia...
February 20, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Min Zhou, Yue Zhou, Huijun Liao, Benjamin C Rowland, Xiangquan Kong, Nils D Arvold, David A Reardon, Patrick Y Wen, Alexander P Lin, Raymond Y Huang
Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations result in abnormal accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in gliomas that can be detected by MRS. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of 2HG single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and chemical shift imaging (CSI) in both newly-diagnosed and post-treatment settings. Methods: Long-TE (97 ms) SVS and CSI were acquired in 85 subjects, including a discovery cohort of 39 patients who had postoperative residual or recurrent glioma with confirmed IDH-mutation status and 6 normal volunteers, a prospective preoperative validation cohort of 24 patients with newly-diagnosed brain mass, and a prospective recurrent-lesion validation cohort of 16 previously-treated IDH-mutant glioma patients with suspected tumor recurrence...
February 9, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Ângela Zanatta, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Guilhian Leipnitz, Francine Hehn de Oliveira, Bianca Seminotti, Moacir Wajner
Tissue accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) is the biochemical hallmark of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), a rare neurometabolic inherited disease characterized by neurological symptoms and brain white matter abnormalities whose pathogenesis is not yet well established. L-2-HG was intracerebrally administered to rat pups at postnatal day 1 (P1) to induce a rise of L-2-HG levels in the central nervous system (CNS). Thereafter, we investigated whether L-2-HG in vivo administration could disturb redox homeostasis and induce brain histopathological alterations in the cerebral cortex and striatum of neonatal rats...
February 6, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Jungdae Park, Hee-Kyung Na, Hyun Kyong Shon, Hye Young Son, Yong-Min Huh, Sang-Won Lee, Tae Geol Lee
The development of analytical tools for accurate and sensitive detection of intracellular metabolites associated with mutated metabolic enzymes is important in cancer diagnosis and staging. The gene encoding the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is mutated in various cancers, and mutant IDH1 could represent a good biomarker and potent target for cancer therapy. Owing to a mutation in an important arginine residue in the catalytic pocket, mutant IDH1 catalyzes the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) instead of its wild type product α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), which is involved in multiple cellular pathways involving the hydroxylation of proteins, ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA)...
January 30, 2018: Biointerphases
Remco J Molenaar, Jaroslaw P Maciejewski, Johanna W Wilmink, Cornelis J F van Noorden
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are key enzymes in cellular metabolism, epigenetic regulation, redox states, and DNA repair. IDH1/2 mutations are causal in the development and/or progression of various types of cancer due to supraphysiological production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate. In various tumor types, IDH1/2-mutated cancers predict for improved responses to treatment with irradiation or chemotherapy. The present review discusses the molecular basis of the sensitivity of IDH1/2-mutated cancers with respect to the function of mutated IDH1/2 in cellular processes and their interactions with novel IDH1/2-mutant inhibitors...
January 25, 2018: Oncogene
Pavithra Viswanath, Marina Radoul, Jose Luis Izquierdo-Garcia, Wei Qiang Ong, Hema Artee Luchman, John Gregory Cairncross, Bo Huang, Russell O Pieper, Joanna J Phillips, Sabrina M Ronen
Tumor metabolism is reprogrammed to meet the demands of proliferating cancer cells. In particular, cancer cells upregulate synthesis of the membrane phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdE) in order to allow for rapid membrane turnover. Nonetheless, we show here that, in mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDHmut) gliomas, which produce the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), PtdCho and PtdE biosynthesis is downregulated and results in lower levels of both phospholipids when compared to wild-type IDH1 cells...
January 22, 2018: Cancer Research
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Jason L Hornick, Judith V M G Bovée
The discovery of mutations in genes encoding the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and fumarate hydratase (FH) has expanded our understanding not only of altered metabolic pathways but also epigenetic dysregulation in cancer. IDH1/2 mutations occur in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas in patients with the non-hereditary enchondromatosis syndromes Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome and in sporadic tumors. IDH1/2 mutations result in excess production of the oncometabolite (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate...
January 16, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Jie Han, Dakota Jackson, Janette Holm, Kevin Turner, Paula Ashcraft, Xuan Wang, Beth Cook, Erland Arning, Robert M Genta, K Venuprasad, Rhonda F Souza, Lawrence Sweetman, Arianne L Theiss
d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) is produced in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is quickly converted to α-ketoglutarate by d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH). In a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC), urine level of D2HG during colitis correlates positively with subsequent polyp counts and severity of dysplasia. The i.p. injection of D2HG results in delayed recovery from colitis and severe tumorigenesis. The colonic expression of D2HGDH is decreased in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients at baseline who progress to cancer...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Remco J Molenaar, Tomas Radivoyevitch, Yasunobu Nagata, Mohammed Khurshed, Bartlomiej Przychodzen, Hideki Makishima, Mingjiang Xu, Fonnet E Bleeker, Johanna W Wilmink, Hetty Carraway, Sudipto Mukherjee, Mikkael A Sekeres, Cornelis J F Van Noorden, Jaroslaw P Maciejewski
PURPOSE: Somatic mutations in IDH1/2 occur in ~20% of patients with myeloid neoplasms, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IDH1/2MUT enzymes produce D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), which associates with increases in DNA damage and improved responses to chemo/radiotherapy and PARP inhibitors in solid tumor cells. Whether this also holds true for IDH1/2MUT AML is not known. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Well-characterized primary IDH1MUT, IDH2MUT and IDH1/2WT AML cells were analyzed for DNA damage and responses to daunorubicin, ionizing radiation and PARP inhibitors...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Lili Zhang, Mei Qi, Tingting Feng, Jing Hu, Lin Wang, Xinjun Li, Wei Gao, Hui Liu, Meng Jiao, Zhen Wu, Xinnuo Bai, Yifan Bie, Long Liu, Bo Han
Risk stratification using molecular features could potentially help distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) acquire an abnormal enzymatic activity, resulting in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate and alterations in cellular metabolism, histone modification, and DNA methylation. Mutant IDH1 has been identified in various human malignancies, and IDH1R132H constituted the vast majority of mutational events of IDH1. Most recent studies suggested that IDH1 mutations define a methylator subtype in PCa...
January 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
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