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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811321/identification-of-drivers-for-the-metamorphic-transition-of-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase
#1
Xunhai Zheng, Geoffrey A Mueller, Kyungmin Kiim, Lalith Perera, Eugene F DeRose, Robert E London
Recent structural characterizations of the p51 and p66 monomers has established an important starting point for understanding the maturation pathway of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase p66/p51 heterodimer. This process requires a metamorphic transition of the polymerase domain leading to formation of a p66/p66' homodimer that exists as a structural heterodimer. In order to better understand the drivers for this metamorphic transition, we have performed NMR studies of (15)N-labeled RT216 - a construct that includes the fingers and most of the palm domains...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807577/a-comparison-of-inflammatory-responses-between-robotically-enhanced-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-and-conventional-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-implications-for-hybrid-revascularization
#2
Galina Leyvi, Kumar Vivek, Sankalp Sehgal, Adrienne Warrick, Kea Alexa Moncada, Nancy Shilian, Jonathan D Leff, Robert E Michler, Joseph J DeRose
OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory response elicited by robotically enhanced coronary artery bypass grafting (r-CABG) has not been well described. When r-CABG is performed as part of hybrid coronary revascularization, the inflammatory milieu and the timing of percutaneous coronary intervention may affect the stent patency negatively in the short and long term. The goal of this study was to describe the extent and time course of cytokine release after r-CABG compared with conventional CABG (c-CABG) and to elucidate the optimal timing for r-CABG in the setting of hybrid coronary revascularization for a future study...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798556/a-metabolomic-geographic-and-seasonal-analysis-of-the-contribution-of-pollen-derived-adenosine-to-allergic-sensitization
#3
Geoffrey A Mueller, Peter M Thompson, Eugene F DeRose, Thomas M O'Connell, Robert E London
BACKGROUND: Studies on ragweed and birch pollen extracts suggested that the adenosine content is an important factor in allergic sensitization. However, exposure levels from other pollens and considerations of geographic and seasonal factors have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the metabolite profile of pollen species important for allergic disease, specifically measured the adenosine content, and evaluated exposure to pollen-derived adenosine...
December 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766937/a-structural-basis-for-biguanide-activity
#4
Scott A Gabel, Michael R Duff, Lars C Pedersen, Eugene F DeRose, Juno M Krahn, Elizabeth E Howell, Robert Elliot London
Metformin is the most commonly prescribed treatment for Type II diabetes and related disorders, however molecular insights into its mode(s) of action have been limited by an absence of structural data. Structural considerations along with an increasing body of literature demonstrating its effects on one-carbon metabolism suggest the possibility of folate mimicry and anti-folate activity. Motivated by increasing recognition that anti-diabetic biguanides may act directly upon the gut microbiome, we have determined structures of the complexes formed between the anti-diabetic biguanides: phenformin, buformin, and metformin and E...
August 2, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742870/factors-contributing-to-food-insecurity-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-dominican-republic-a-qualitative-study
#5
Kathryn P Derose, Denise D Payán, María Altagracia Fulcar, Sergio Terrero, Ramón Acevedo, Hugo Farías, Kartika Palar
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. METHODS: We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681631/severe-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-overweight-and-increased-body-fat-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-dominican-republic
#6
Kathryn P Derose, Israel Ríos-Castillo, María Altagracia Fulcar, Denise D Payán, Kartika Palar, Lisbeth Escala, Hugo Farías, Homero Martínez
Food insecurity is an important risk factor for overweight and obesity among low-income populations in high income countries, but has not been well-studied among people living with HIV (PLHIV), particularly in resource-poor settings. To explore the association between food insecurity and overweight and obesity among PLHIV in the Dominican Republic, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected adults between March-December 2012 in four geographically-dispersed health centers (Santo Domingo, Puerto Plata, San Juan, and Higuey)...
July 6, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645058/promoting-physical-activity-in-high-poverty-neighborhood-parks-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Deborah A Cohen, Bing Han, Kathryn P Derose, Stephanie Williamson, Terry Marsh, Laura Raaen, Thomas L McKenzie
Although physical activity can help mitigate or prevent multiple chronic diseases, most people in the U.S., especially high-poverty minority groups, engage in insufficient levels of physical activity. To test ways to promote more physical activity in high-poverty area public parks we conducted a randomized controlled intervention trial. After completing baseline measures of park-based physical activity using systematic direct observation three times/day each month for six months and assessing preferences for park programming among 1445 residents living within 1 mile of study parks, we randomized 48 parks in high poverty neighborhoods in the City of Los Angeles, California during 2013-2014 to four study arms: 1) free physical activity classes over a 6-month period, 2) a frequent user program where participants could win prizes based upon the number of visits they made to the park, 3) both the programs, and 4) neither one (control condition)...
August 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549028/hybrid-coronary-revascularization-has-improved-short-term-outcomes-but-worse-mid-term-reintervention-rates-compared-to-cabg-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#8
Yu Xia, Abraham N Katz, Stephen J Forest, Robert T Pyo, Mark A Greenberg, Joseph J DeRose
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated short-term outcomes and mid-term survival and reintervention of hybrid coronary revascularization versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting using a propensity score matched cohort. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing surgery for multivessel coronary artery disease from 2007 to 2015 at a single institution. Patients were propensity matched 1:1 to receiving hybrid coronary revascularization or conventional bypass grafting by multivariate logistic regression on preoperative characteristics...
May 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508707/maternal-union-instability-and-childhood-mortality-risk-in-the-global-south-2010-14
#9
Laurie F DeRose, Andrés Salazar-Arango, Paúl Corcuera García, Montserrat Gas-Aixendri, Reynaldo Rivera
Efforts to improve child survival in lower-income countries typically focus on fundamental factors such as economic resources and infrastructure provision, even though research from post-industrial countries confirms that family instability has important health consequences. We tested the association between maternal union instability and children's mortality risk in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia using children's actual experience of mortality (discrete-time probit hazard models) as well as their experience of untreated morbidity (probit regression)...
May 16, 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504420/use-of-supramolecular-assemblies-as-lithographic-resists
#10
Scott M Lewis, Antonio Fernandez, Guy A DeRose, Matthew S Hunt, George F S Whitehead, Agnese Lagzda, Hayden R Alty, Jesus Ferrando-Soria, Sarah Varey, Andreas K Kostopoulos, Fredrik Schedin, Christopher A Muryn, Grigore A Timco, Axel Scherer, Stephen G Yeates, Richard E P Winpenny
A new resist material for electron beam lithography has been created that is based on a supramolecular assembly. Initial studies revealed that with this supramolecular approach, high-resolution structures can be written that show unprecedented selectivity when exposed to etching conditions involving plasmas.
May 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502023/sources-of-care-for-alcohol-and-other-drug-problems-the-role-of-the-african-american-church
#11
Eunice C Wong, Kathryn P Derose, Paula Litt, Jeremy N V Miles
African Americans experience significant disparities in treatment access, retention, and quality of care for alcohol and drug use (AOD) problems. Religious congregations, often the first point of contact for help with AOD problems, can play an integral role in improving access to treatment. However, little is known about the role of African American churches in addressing AOD problems. We administered a survey to a faith-based collaborative of 169 African American churches in Los Angeles to examine how AOD problems are identified in congregations, the types of support provided, barriers to providing treatment referrals, and factors associated with the provision of treatment referrals...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484654/exophiala-wangiella-dermatitidis-prosthetic-aortic-valve-endocarditis-and-prosthetic-graft-infection-in-an-immune-competent-patient
#12
Jay S Berger, Lucas R Cusumano, Joseph J Derose, Uzma N Sarwar
Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis is an emerging dematiaceous fungus associated with high mortality rates and is a rare cause of endocarditis. We describe the first case of E. dermatitidis endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve and aortic graft in an immune competent patient with no clear risk factors of hematological acquisition.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472227/cortical-nnos-nk1-receptor-neurons-are-regulated-by-cholinergic-projections-from-the-basal-forebrain
#13
Rhîannan H Williams, Jacqueline Vazquez-DeRose, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
Cholinergic (ACh) basal forebrain (BF) neurons are active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and are involved in sleep homeostasis. We have previously shown in adult animals that cortical neurons that express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the receptor for Substance P (NK1R) are activated during non-REM (NREM) sleep in proportion to homeostatic sleep drive. Here, we show that BF neurons modulate cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. In vitro optogenetic stimulation of BF terminals both activated and inhibited nNOS/NK1R neurons...
May 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380985/active-phase-correction-of-high-resolution-silicon-photonic-arrayed-waveguide-gratings
#14
M Gehl, D Trotter, A Starbuck, A Pomerene, A L Lentine, C DeRose
Arrayed waveguide gratings provide flexible spectral filtering functionality for integrated photonic applications. Achieving narrow channel spacing requires long optical path lengths which can greatly increase the footprint of devices. High index contrast waveguides, such as those fabricated in silicon-on-insulator wafers, allow tight waveguide bends which can be used to create much more compact designs. Both the long optical path lengths and the high index contrast contribute to significant optical phase error as light propagates through the device...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375565/emergency-department-vital-signs-and-outcomes-after-discharge
#15
Gelareh Z Gabayan, Michael K Gould, Robert E Weiss, Stephen F Derose, Vicki Y Chiu, Catherine A Sarkisian
OBJECTIVE: Vital signs are critical markers of illness severity in the Emergency Department (ED). Providers need to understand the abnormal vital signs in older adults that are problematic. We hypothesized that in patients age > 65 years discharged from the ED, there are abnormal vital signs that are associated with an admission to an inpatient bed within 7 days of discharge. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from a regional integrated health system of members age > 65 years during the years 2009-2010...
April 4, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341473/pneumonia-after-cardiac-surgery-experience-of-the-national-institutes-of-health-canadian-institutes-of-health-research-cardiothoracic-surgical-trials-network
#16
Gorav Ailawadi, Helena L Chang, Patrick T O'Gara, Karen O'Sullivan, Y Joseph Woo, Joseph J DeRose, Michael K Parides, Vinod H Thourani, Sophie Robichaud, A Marc Gillinov, Wendy C Taddei-Peters, Marissa A Miller, Louis P Perrault, Robert L Smith, Lyn Goldsmith, Keith A Horvath, Kristen Doud, Kim Baio, Annetine C Gelijns, Alan J Moskowitz, Emilia Bagiella, John H Alexander, Alexander Iribarne
RATIONALE: Pneumonia remains the most common major infection after cardiac surgery despite numerous preventive measures. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine the timing, pathogens, and risk factors, including modifiable management practices, for postoperative pneumonia and estimate its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: A total of 5158 adult cardiac surgery patients were enrolled prospectively in a cohort study across 10 centers. All infections were adjudicated by an independent committee...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187031/x-ray-of-excised-cancerous-breast-tissue-does-not-affect-clinical-biomarker-expression
#17
Isaac E Lloyd, Alana L Welm, Yoko DeRose, Leigh A Neumayer, Jessica L Kohan, Elisabeth M Malmberg, Mohamed E Salama, Rachel E Factor
CONTEXT: College of American Pathologists (CAP) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have emphasized the need to reduce preanalytic variables for evaluating predictive biomarker expression in breast cancer. Postoperative x-ray of excised breast tissue is commonplace, yet is a variable that has not been investigated previously. We asked whether such radiation affects expression of relevant biomarkers. DESIGN: A previous study found that human breast cancers grown in mice demonstrate the same immunohistochemical and molecular profiles as the original tumors...
February 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163659/achieving-broad-participation-in-congregational-health-surveys-at-african-american-and-latino-churches
#18
Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Kathryn Pitkin Derose, Frances M Aunon, Blanca X Dominguez, Alexandria Felton, Michael A Mata, Clyde W Oden, Sandra Paffen
Congregation-based health program evaluations often rely on surveys, but little documentation is available regarding specific methods and challenges. Here we describe methods used to achieve acceptable response rates (73-79%) to a survey of HIV-related attitudes and behaviors in 2 African American and 3 Latino churches in high HIV prevalence communities in Los Angeles County. Survey participation was enhanced by: conducting survey sessions at church-based meetings (e.g., women's Bible study) and after worship services; employing diverse survey staff; providing participation incentives for pastors, church coordinators, and survey participants; and working collaboratively and respectfully with congregational leaders...
February 2017: Field Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123208/church-based-hiv-screening-in-racial-ethnic-minority-communities-of-california-2011-2012
#19
Malcolm V Williams, Kathryn Pitkin Derose, Frances Aunon, David E Kanouse, Laura M Bogart, Beth Ann Griffin, Ann C Haas, Deborah Owens Collins
Community-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing at religious congregations has been proposed as a potentially effective way to increase screening among disproportionately affected populations, such as those self-identifying as African American and Latino. Although congregations may provide reach into these communities, the extent to which church-based HIV testing alleviates access barriers, identifies new cases, and reaches people at increased risk for HIV is not well documented. We examined the results of an HIV testing program that was conducted as part of a larger intervention aimed at reducing HIV stigma at five churches in Los Angeles County, California, in 2011-2012...
September 2016: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069843/nearly-one-third-of-enrollees-in-california-s-individual-market-missed-opportunities-to-receive-financial-assistance
#20
Vicki Fung, Catherine Y Liang, Karen Donelan, Cassandra G K Peitzman, William H Dow, Alan M Zaslavsky, Bruce Fireman, Stephen F Derose, Michael E Chernew, Joseph P Newhouse, John Hsu
The Affordable Care Act includes financial assistance that reduces both premiums and cost-sharing amounts for lower-income Americans, to increase the affordability of health insurance coverage and care. To receive both types of assistance, enrollees must purchase a qualified health plan through a public insurance exchange, and those eligible for the cost-sharing reduction must purchase a silver-tier plan. We estimate that 31 percent of individual-market enrollees in California who were likely eligible for financial assistance purchased plans that were not silver tier or that were not sold on the state's exchange and thus missed opportunities to receive premium or cost-sharing assistance or both...
January 1, 2017: Health Affairs
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