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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917671/scanning-electron-microscopy-and-histopathological-observations-of-beauveria-bassiana-infection-of-colorado-potato-beetle-larvae
#1
Yulin Duan, Hui Wu, Zhiyan Ma, Liu Yang, Deying Ma
Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916862/monitoring-the-response-of-urothelial-precancerous-lesions-to-bacillus-calmette-guerin-at-the-proteome-level-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model
#2
Kerem Teke, Nil Guzel, Ali Kemal Uslubas, Murat Kasap, Hasan Yilmaz, Gurler Akpinar, Demir Kursat Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the best treatment modality for progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. We aimed to monitor changes at the proteome level to identify putative protein biomarkers associated with the response of urothelial precancerous lesions to intravesical BCG treatment. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): control, non-treated, and BCG-treated groups. The non-treated and BCG-treated groups received N-methyl-N-nitrosourea intravesically. BCG Tice-strain was instilled into bladder in BCG-treated group...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915224/systolic-and-diastolic-left-ventricular-mechanics-during-and-after-resistance-exercise
#3
Eric J Stöhr, Mike Stembridge, Rob Shave, T Jake Samuel, Keeron Stone, Joseph I Esformes
PURPOSE: To improve the current understanding of the impact of resistance exercise on the heart, by examining the acute responses of left ventricular (LV) strain, twist, and untwisting rate ("LV mechanics"). METHODS: LV echocardiographic images were recorded in systole and diastole before, during and immediately after (7-12 s) double-leg press exercise at two intensities (30% and 60% of maximum strength, one-repetition maximum). Speckle tracking analysis generated LV strain, twist, and untwisting rate data...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913691/intestinal-mechanomorphological-remodeling-induced-by-long-term-low-fiber-diet-in-rabbits
#4
Yue Liu, Jingbo Zhao, Donghua Liao, Guixue Wang, Hans Gregersen
Short-term feeding with low-fiber diet remodels the mechanomorphological properties in the rabbit small intestine. The aims were to study the effect of feeding low-fiber diet for 5 months on mechanomorphological properties including the collagen fraction in the rabbit intestines. Fifteen rabbits were divided into an Intervention group (IG, n = 10) fed a low-fiber diet and a Control group (CG, n = 5) fed a normal diet for 5 months. Five months later, four 10-cm-long segments obtained from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and large intestine were used for histological and mechanical analysis, respectively...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913656/new-insights-into-cardiac-involvement-in-juvenile-scleroderma-a-three-dimensional-echocardiographic-assessment-unveils-subclinical-ventricle-dysfunction
#5
Reyhan Dedeoglu, Amra Adroviç, Funda Oztunç, Sezgin Sahin, Kenan Barut, Ozgur Kasapcopur
Cardiac manifestations in juvenile scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (JSSc) have poor prognosis, begin in early stages of the disease, and remain clinically asymptomatic. New echocardiography modalities, such as 2D/3D speckle tracking (STE, strain analysis for regional and global ventricular functions), can detect cardiac involvement in early stages. We assessed 21 JSSc patients and 19 controls using 2D/3D STE. The left ventricular end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, and ejection fraction of the patient and control groups were significantly different (99...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912726/cardiovascular-and-muscular-consequences-of-work-matched-interval-type-of-concentric-and-eccentric-pedaling-exercise-on-a-soft-robot
#6
Martin Flück, Rebekka Bosshard, Max Lungarella
Eccentric types of endurance exercise are an acknowledged alternative to conventional concentric types of exercise rehabilitation for the cardiac patient, because they reduce cardiorespiratory strain due to a lower metabolic cost of producing an equivalent mechanical output. The former contention has not been tested in a power- and work-matched situation of interval-type exercise under identical conditions because concentric and eccentric types of exercise pose specific demands on the exercise machinery, which are not fulfilled in current practice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912111/crispr-cas9-mediated-g4946e-substitution-in-the-ryanodine-receptor-of-spodoptera-exigua-confers-high-levels-of-resistance-to-diamide-insecticides
#7
Yayun Zuo, Hui Wang, Yanjun Xu, Jianlei Huang, Shuwen Wu, Yidong Wu, Yihua Yang
Diamide insecticides selectively activate insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs), inducing uncontrolled release of calcium ions, and causing muscle contraction, paralysis and eventually death. The RyR(G4946E) substitution associated with diamide resistance has been identified in three lepidopteran pests, Plutella xylostella, Tuta absoluta and Chilo suppressalis. Recently, the T. absoluta RyR(G4946V) mutation was knocked into the model insect Drosophila melanogaster by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing and provided in vivo functional confirmation for its role in diamide resistance...
September 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911200/homozygous-eef1a2-mutation-causes-dilated-cardiomyopathy-failure-to-thrive-global-developmental-delay-epilepsy-and-early-death
#8
Siqi Cao, Laura L Smith, Sergio R Padilla-Lopez, Brandon S Guida, Elizabeth Blume, Jiahai Shi, Sarah U Morton, Catherine A Brownstein, Alan H Beggs, Michael C Kruer, Pankaj B Agrawal
Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (EEF1A), is encoded by two distinct isoforms, EEF1A1 and EEF1A2; whereas EEF1A1 is expressed almost ubiquitously, EEF1A2 expression is limited such that it is only detectable in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord. Currently, the role of EEF1A2 in normal cardiac development and function is unclear. There have been several reports linking de novo dominant EEF1A2 mutations to neurological issues in humans. We report a pair of siblings carrying a homozygous missense mutation p...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902110/asymmetrie-of-maximum-trunk-hand-and-leg-in-comparison-of-volleyball-and-fitness-athletes
#9
Klaus Mattes, Bettina Wollesen, Stefanie Manzer
Playing volleyball and corresponding training loads lead to specific strains and might result in asymmetric muscle pattern. The study aimed to identify volleyball specific maximum bilateral strength asymmetries in comparison to fitness athletes. The cross-sectional study design compared an age-matched male volleyball group (n= 23; 27.9 ± 5 years) with a fitness group (n= 30; 26.3 ± 3 years). The participants performed an isometric maximum handgrip strength test followed by two isokinetic concentric maximum strength tests to determine the performance capacity of the axial trunk rotators (left-right) and bilateral leg extensors...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900151/in-situ-vocal-fold-properties-and-pitch-prediction-by-dynamic-actuation-of-the-songbird-syrinx
#10
Daniel N Düring, Benjamin J Knörlein, Coen P H Elemans
The biomechanics of sound production forms an integral part of the neuromechanical control loop of avian vocal motor control. However, we critically lack quantification of basic biomechanical parameters describing the vocal organ, the syrinx, such as material properties of syringeal elements, forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895770/the-use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-in-the-treatment-of-gastrocnemius-strains-a-retrospective-observational-study
#11
Paolo Borrione, Chiara Fossati, Maria Teresa Pereira, Silvana Giannini, Marco Davico, Carlo Minganti, Fabio Pigozzi
The aim of the present retrospective observational study was to evaluate the time of functional recovery following a specific combined therapeutic approach characterized by an active exercise therapy carried out immediately after Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for the treatment of the muscular lesion of the distal musculotendinous junction of the gastrocnemius medial head.Medical records of 31 subjects treated with three PRP intra-lesional ultrasound guided injections and 30 patients treated with the standard therapeutic approach (control group) were analyzed...
September 12, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895191/early-assessment-of-the-left-ventricular-function-by-epirubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-postoperative-breast-cancer-patients
#12
Runlan Luo, Hongyan Cui, Dongmei Huang, Guangsen Li
OBJECTIVE: Epirubicin (Epi) is a potent and effective drug for many malignant cancers with serious cardiotoxicity. Therefore, layer-specific two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) was used to evaluate the longitudinal and circumferential systolic function of the left ventricular for the early detection of cardiotoxicity in this retrospective work. METHODS: Overall, 130 female patients with postoperative breast cancer who did not receive radiotherapy were classified into three groups: Group A (control group, n = 40) without any chemotherapy; Group B (n = 44) administered Epi at 180 ~ 240 mg/m(2) ; and Group C (n = 46) administered Epi at ≥360 mg/m(2) ...
September 12, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891439/the-regulation-of-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-a-look-at-signalling-molecules-involved-in-myogenesis
#13
Bethany Hodgson, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are an attractive option for the development of treatment for musculoskeletal pathologies due to their wide availability, clinical safety and multiple techniques available. Understanding the control of MSC differentiation into skeletal muscle is vital for developing protocols and therapeutic applications that are safe and effective. This paper therefore aims to review the current understanding of factors that regulate the differentiation of MSCs into skeletal muscle. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched December 2015 using the terms 'differentia*, skeletal*, skeleton*, myocyt*, myogen* and mesenchym* stem-cell*...
September 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888004/cardiomyocyte-coculture-on-layered-fibrous-scaffolds-assembled-from-micropatterned-electrospun-mats
#14
Yaowen Liu, Guisen Xu, Jiaojun Wei, Qiang Wu, Xiaohong Li
Challenges remain in engineering cardiac tissues with functional and morphological properties similar to those of native myocardium. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats are obtained by deposition of electrospun fibers on lithographic collectors to reproduce the anisotropic structure of myocardium, and carbon nanotubes are included in fibers to provide conductivities at the same level of cardiac muscles. The patterned mats are assembled layer-by-layer into patterned scaffolds for coculture of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) with cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and endothelial cells (ECs)...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887840/pre-clinical-evaluation-of-n-acetylcysteine-reveals-side-effects-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#15
Gavin J Pinniger, Jessica R Terrill, Evanna B Assan, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle wasting disease characterised by severe muscle weakness, necrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic intervention for DMD boys. We investigated the capacity of NAC to improve dystrophic muscle function in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Young (6 w old) mdx and non-dystrophic C57 mice receiving 2% NAC in drinking water for 6 w were compared with untreated mice. Grip strength and body weight were measured weekly, before the 12 w old mice were anaesthetized and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles excised for functional analysis and tissues sampled for biochemical analyses...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884093/hamstring-injuries-update-article
#16
Lucio Ernlund, Lucas de Almeida Vieira
Hamstring (HS) muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification...
June 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883087/modulation-of-muscle-tendon-interaction-in-the-human-triceps-surae-during-an-energy-dissipation-task
#17
Amelie Werkhausen, Kirsten Albracht, Neil J Cronin, Rahel Meier, Jens Bojsen-Møller, Olivier R Seynnes
The compliance of elastic elements allows muscles to dissipate energy safely during eccentric contractions. This buffering function is well documented in animal models but our understanding of its mechanism in humans is confined to non-specific tasks, requiring a subsequent acceleration of the body. The present study aimed to examine the behaviour of the human triceps surae muscle-tendon unit (MTU) during a pure energy dissipation task, under two loading conditions.Thirty-nine subjects performed a single-leg landing task, with- and without added mass...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875081/the-jaw-is-a-second-class-lever-in-pedetes-capensis-rodentia-pedetidae
#18
Philip G Cox
The mammalian jaw is often modelled as a third-class lever for the purposes of biomechanical analyses, owing to the position of the resultant muscle force between the jaw joint and the teeth. However, it has been proposed that in some rodents the jaws operate as a second-class lever during distal molar bites, owing to the rostral position of the masticatory musculature. In particular, the infraorbital portion of the zygomatico-mandibularis (IOZM) has been suggested to be of major importance in converting the masticatory system from a third-class to a second-class lever...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874604/mitochondrial-redox-signaling-enables-repair-of-injured-skeletal-muscle-cells
#19
Adam Horn, Jack H Van der Meulen, Aurelia Defour, Marshall Hogarth, Sen Chandra Sreetama, Aaron Reed, Luana Scheffer, Navdeep S Chandel, Jyoti K Jaiswal
Strain and physical trauma to mechanically active cells, such as skeletal muscle myofibers, injures their plasma membranes, and mitochondrial function is required for their repair. We found that mitochondrial function was also needed for plasma membrane repair in myoblasts as well as nonmuscle cells, which depended on mitochondrial uptake of calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Calcium uptake transiently increased the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which locally activated the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RhoA, triggering F-actin accumulation at the site of injury and facilitating membrane repair...
September 5, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872819/a-facile-approach-to-prepare-tough-and-responsive-ultrathin-physical-hydrogel-films-as-artificial-muscles
#20
Ye Tian, Xiaoshuang Wei, Zhi Jian Wang, Pengju Pan, Fangyuan Li, Daishun Ling, Zi Liang Wu, Qiang Zheng
We report a facile approach to prepare ultrathin physical hydrogel films based on Marangoni effect, which drives ethanol solution of poly(stearyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(SA-co-AAc)) to rapidly spread on water surface. The subsequent solvent exchange leads to sol-gel transition, where the long alkyl chains of SA units segregate to form physical crosslinking junctions. The resultant disk-shaped single-network (SN) gel films are uniform with tunable thickness (40-80 μm) and diameter (5-12 cm), and possess robust mechanical properties with tensile breaking stress, εb, and breaking strain, εb, being 0...
September 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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