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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#1
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779295/neck-pain-what-if-it-is-not-musculoskeletal
#2
Nirosen Vijiaratnam, David R Williams, Kelly L Bertram
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a common presentation in general practice, with muscle strain or osteoarthritis the most common diagnoses. A systematic approach for identifying red flags for alternative causes is required to appropriately investigate or refer for specialist opinion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to highlight features of neurological and other causes of neck pain in adults that may present in general practice, and to outline a quick and practical diagnostic approach...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778196/vaccination-with-killed-whole-cells-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-hha-mutant-emulsified-with-an-adjuvant-induced-vaccine-strain-specific-serum-antibodies-and-reduced-e-coli-o157-h7-fecal-shedding-in-cattle
#3
Vijay K Sharma, Robert G Schaut, Crystal L Loving
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) can cause from a mild diarrheal illness to hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Cattle are the primary reservoir for O157 and fecal shedding of O157 by these animals is a major risk factor in contamination of cattle hides and carcasses at slaughter. Vaccination is an important strategy to reduce fecal shedding of O157 in cattle. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine strain of O157 formulated with an adjuvant...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776992/cardiomyopathy-mutation-f88l-in-troponin-t-abolishes-length-dependency-of-myofilament-ca-2-sensitivity
#4
Sherif M Reda, Murali Chandra
Recent clinical studies have revealed a new hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated mutation (F87L) in the central region of human cardiac troponin T (TnT). However, despite its implication in several incidences of sudden cardiac death in young and old adults, whether F87L is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction is unknown. Because the central region of TnT is important for modulating the muscle length-mediated recruitment of new force-bearing cross-bridges (XBs), we hypothesize that the F87L mutation causes molecular changes that are linked to the length-dependent activation of cardiac myofilaments...
May 18, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775504/biomimetic-supramolecular-fibers-exhibit-water-induced-supercontraction
#5
Yuchao Wu, Darshil U Shah, Baoyuan Wang, Ji Liu, Xiaohe Ren, Michael H Ramage, Oren A Scherman
Spider silk is a fascinating material, combining high strength and elasticity that outperforms most synthetic fibers. Another intriguing feature of spider silk is its ability to "supercontract," shrinking up to 50% when exposed to water. This is likely on account of the entropy-driven recoiling of secondary structured proteins when water penetrates the spider silk. In contrast, humidity-driven contraction in synthetic fibers is difficult to achieve. Here, inspired by the spider silk model, a supercontractile fiber (SCF), which contracts up to 50% of its original length at high humidity, comparable to spider silk, is reported...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775428/the-involvement-of-human-monogenic-cardiomyopathy-genes-in-experimental-polygenic-cardiac-hypertrophy
#6
Priscilla R Prestes, Francine Z Marques, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Paul Lewandowski, Lea M D Delbridge, Fadi J Charchar, Stephen B Harrap
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy thickens heart muscles reducing functionality and increasing risk of cardiac disease and morbidity. Genetic factors are involved, but their contribution is poorly understood. We used the hypertrophic heart rat (HHR), a unique normotensive polygenic model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure to investigate the role of genes associated with monogenic human cardiomyopathy. We selected 42 genes involved in monogenic human cardiomyopathies to study: 1) DNA variants, by sequencing the whole-genome of 13-week old HHR and age-matched normal heart rat (NHR), its genetic control strain; 2) mRNA expression, by targeted RNA-sequencing in left ventricles of HHR and NHR at five ages (2-days old, 4-, 13-, 33- and 50-weeks old) compared to human idiopathic dilated data; and 3) microRNA expression, with rat microRNA microarrays in left ventricles of 2-days old HHR and age-matched NHR...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774440/in-vivo-estimation-of-elastic-heterogeneity-in-an-infarcted-human-heart
#7
Gabriel Balaban, Henrik Finsberg, Simon Funke, Trine F Håland, Einar Hopp, Joakim Sundnes, Samuel Wall, Marie E Rognes
In myocardial infarction, muscle tissue of the heart is damaged as a result of ceased or severely impaired blood flow. Survivors have an increased risk of further complications, possibly leading to heart failure. Material properties play an important role in determining post-infarction outcome. Due to spatial variation in scarring, material properties can be expected to vary throughout the tissue of a heart after an infarction. In this study we propose a data assimilation technique that can efficiently estimate heterogeneous elastic material properties in a personalized model of cardiac mechanics...
May 17, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764681/plasmid-pcdna3-1-s11-constructed-based-on-the-s11-segment-of-grass-carp-reovirus-as-dna-vaccine-provides-immune-protection
#8
Yan Gao, Chao Pei, Xiaoying Sun, Chao Zhang, Li Li, Xianghui Kong
Although some commercial vaccines against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) are available, given the many varieties of GCRV and limited types of vaccines, the disease caused by GCRV remains a major problem, which leads to economic losses in grass carp aquaculture. A reovirus strain (GCRV-HN14) was recently isolated from local diseased fish in our laboratory. The S11 segment of GCRV-HN14 was speculated to encode the virus capsid protein VP35. In our study, the S11 segment was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3...
May 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761543/influence-of-backrest-angle-on-swallowing-musculature-activity-and-physical-strain-during-the-head-lift-exercise-in-elderly-women-compared-with-young-women
#9
Naomi Koshi, Hiromi Matsumoto, Tetsuya Hiramatsu, Yoko Shimizu, Hiroshi Hagino
BACKGROUND: The head lift exercise (HLE) is the most common exercise for strengthening the swallowing musculature in clinical situations. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether a change in the backrest angle of a bed influences swallowing musculature activity and physical strain during the HLE and whether it can generate an appropriate exercise load for swallowing musculature activity for older women compared with younger women. METHODS: Participants were 10 elderly women and 10 young women, each of whom performed the HLE with a backrest randomly angled at 0°, 15°, 30°, or 45°...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756656/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-achalasia-in-a-muscle-mechanical-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Hans Gregersen, Kar Man Lo
This review provides a biomechanical perspective on the pathophysiology and treatment of achalasia. The esophagus is efficient in transporting ingested material to the stomach in healthy subjects. A fine balance exists between the peristaltic forces generated in the esophageal body (which herein is defined as the preload) and the resistance in the outlet, the esophago-gastric junction (which is defined as the afterload). Achalasia is a rare esophageal disease that progressively over many years challenges esophageal efficacy...
May 14, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756630/a-biomimetic-microfluidic-model-to-study-signalling-between-endothelial-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-under-hemodynamic-conditions
#11
Nicole C A van Engeland, Andreas M A O Pollet, Jaap M J den Toonder, Carlijn V C Bouten, Oscar M J A Stassen, Cecilia M Sahlgren
Cell signalling and mechanics influence vascular pathophysiology and there is an increasing demand for in vitro model systems that enable examination of signalling between vascular cells under hemodynamic conditions. Current 3D vessel wall constructs do not recapitulate the mechanical conditions of the native tissue nor do they allow examination of cell-cell interactions under relevant hemodynamic conditions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic chip model of arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells where cellular organization, composition and interactions, as well as the mechanical environment of the arterial wall are mimicked...
May 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754258/glycerol-induced-injury-as-a-new-model-of-muscle-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Mohamed A A Mahdy
Skeletal muscle regenerates efficiently following injuries and diseases. However, muscle regeneration is compromised in several conditions by adipocyte infiltration and excessive collagen deposition. Adipocyte infiltration is a characteristic feature of sarcopenia, diabetes, cachexia, muscular dystrophies and advanced cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), while excessive collagen deposition is a hallmark of muscular dystrophies and severe muscle injuries, such as lacerations, contusions and strains. Muscle adipogenesis and fibrosis are major causes of muscle weakness that impairs muscle function...
May 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745983/muscle-hardness-and-masticatory-myofascial-pain-assessment-and-clinical-relevance
#13
REVIEW
Yuri M Costa, Yoshiko Ariji, Dyna Mara A O Ferreira, Leonardo R Bonjardim, Paulo César R Conti, Eiichiro Ariji, Peter Svensson
BACKGROUND: The impression of increased muscle hardness in painful muscles is commonly reported in the clinical practice but may be difficult to assess. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present and discuss relevant aspects regarding the assessment of muscle hardness and its association with myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. METHODS: A non-systematic search for studies of muscle hardness assessment in patients with pain-related TMDs was carried out in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Google Scholar...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741391/relationship-between-deltoid-and-rotator-cuff-muscles-during-dynamic-shoulder-abduction-a-biomechanical-study-of-rotator-cuff-tear-progression
#14
Felix Dyrna, Neil S Kumar, Elifho Obopilwe, Bastian Scheiderer, Brendan Comer, Michael Nowak, Anthony A Romeo, Augustus D Mazzocca, Knut Beitzel
BACKGROUND: Previous biomechanical studies regarding deltoid function during glenohumeral abduction have primarily used static testing protocols. HYPOTHESES: (1) Deltoid forces required for scapular plane abduction increase as simulated rotator cuff tears become larger, and (2) maximal abduction decreases despite increased deltoid forces. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders with a mean age of 67 years (range, 64-74 years) were used...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731739/single-gene-congenic-strain-reveals-the-effect-of-zbtb16-on-dexamethasone-induced-insulin-resistance
#15
Michaela Krupková, František Liška, Ludmila Kazdová, Lucie Šedová, Adéla Kábelová, Drahomíra Křenová, Vladimír Křen, Ondřej Šeda
Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent therapeutic agents frequently used for treatment of number of conditions, including hematologic, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. Both their therapeutic and adverse effects display significant interindividual variation, partially attributable to genetic factors. We have previously isolated a seven-gene region of rat chromosome 8 sensitizing to dexamethasone (DEX)-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) of skeletal muscle. Using two newly derived congenic strains, we aimed to investigate the effect of one of the prime candidates for this pharmacogenetic interaction, the Zbtb16 gene...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726885/low-grip-strength-predicts-incident-diabetes-among-mid-life-women-the-michigan-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation
#16
Carrie A Karvonen-Gutierrez, Qing Peng, Mark Peterson, Kate Duchowny, Bin Nan, Sioban Harlow
Background: skeletal muscle is the primary site of glucose uptake, yet the impact of age-related changes in muscle strength on diabetes risk is unknown. Methods: four hundred and twenty-four participants (60% Black, 40% White) from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation contributed annual grip strength measures and were followed from 1996 to 2012 to identify incident cases of diabetes. Diabetes was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, use of anti-diabetic medications or measured fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or haemoglobin A1c > 6...
May 3, 2018: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726395/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-drug-combination-for-the-treatment-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-a-multivariate-approach
#17
Mariana Strauss, Jean Henrique S Rodrigues, María Silvina Lo Presti, Paola Carolina Bazán, Alejandra Lidia Báez, Patricia Paglini-Oliva, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Juan Manuel Bustamante, Héctor Walter Rivarola
Combination therapies based on the available drugs have been proposed as promising therapeutic alternatives for many diseases. Clomipramine (CLO) has been found to modify the evolution of the experimental infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of benznidazole (BZ) and clomipramine (CLO) against different life-stages of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and their efficacy in a murine model. Life-stages of T. cruzi, BZ-partially-resistant (Y) strain, were incubated with BZ and CLO and isobolograms and combination index (CI) were obtained...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723911/specialized-properties-of-the-triceps-surae-muscle-tendon-unit-in-professional-ballet-dancers
#18
M M Moltubakk, M M Magulas, F O Villars, O R Seynnes, J Bojsen-Møller
This study compared professional ballet dancers (n=10) to non-stretching controls (n=10) with the purpose of comparing muscle and tendon morphology, mechanical, neural and functional properties of the triceps surae and their role for ankle joint flexibility. Torque-angle and torque-velocity data were obtained during passive and active conditions by use of isokinetic dynamometry, while tissue morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by ultrasonography. Dancers displayed longer gastrocnemius medialis fascicles (55 ± 5 vs 47 ± 6 mm) and a longer (207 ± 33 vs 167 ± 10 mm) and more compliant (230 ± 87 vs 364 ± 106 N·mm-1 ) Achilles tendon compared to controls...
May 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723229/effects-of-an-acute-bout-of-dynamic-stretching-on-biomechanical-properties-of-the-gastrocnemius-muscle-determined-by-shear-wave-elastography
#19
George M Pamboris, Marika Noorkoiv, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Hulya Gokalp, Robert Marzilger, Amir A Mohagheghi
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of dynamic stretching (DS) exercise on passive ankle range of motion (RoM), resting localized muscle stiffness, as measured by shear wave speed (SWS) of medial gastrocnemius muscle, fascicle strain, and thickness. METHODS/RESULTS: Twenty-three participants performed a DS protocol. Before and after stretching, SWS was measured in the belly of the resting medial gastrocnemius muscle (MGM) using shear wave elastography...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717811/shape-memory-alloy-sma-based-microscale-actuators-with-60-deformation-rate-and-1-6-khz-actuation-speed
#20
Hyun-Taek Lee, Min-Soo Kim, Gil-Yong Lee, Chung-Soo Kim, Sung-Hoon Ahn
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are widely utilized as an actuation source in microscale devices, since they have a simple actuation mechanism and high-power density. However, they have limitations in terms of strain range and actuation speed. High-speed microscale SMA actuators are developed having diamond-shaped frame structures with a diameter of 25 µm. These structures allow for a large elongation range compared with bulk SMA materials, with the aid of spring-like behavior under tensile deformation. These actuators are validated in terms of their applicability as an artificial muscle in microscale by investigating their behavior under mechanical deformation and changes in thermal conditions...
May 2, 2018: Small
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