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muscular distension

Giuseppe Fiorentino, Anna Annunziata, Rosa Cauteruccio, Gianfranco Scotto di Frega, Antonio Esquinas
Objective: To evaluate mouthpiece ventilation (MPV) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are noncompliant with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods: We evaluated four young patients with DMD who had previously refused to undergo NIV. Each patient was reassessed and encouraged to try MPV. Results: The four patients tolerated MPV well and were compliant with NIV at home. MPV proved to be preferable and more comfortable than NIV with any other type of interface...
November 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Huimin Yan, Sushant M Ranadive, Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Rebecca M Kappus, Michael A Behun, Marc D Cook, Jeffrey A Woods, Kenneth R Wilund, Tracy Baynard, John R Halliwill, Bo Fernhall
African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Heidi Weberruß, Raphael Pirzer, Thorsten Schulz, Birgit Böhm, Robert Dalla Pozza, Heinrich Netz, Renate Oberhoffer
Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher cardiovascular risk, whereas high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness protect the cardiovascular system. Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial distensibility are well-established parameters to identify subclinical cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength on carotid intima-media thickness and arterial distensibility in 697 children and adolescents (376 girls), aged 7-17 years...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
M A Mouchli, M Camilleri, T Lee, G Parthasarathy, P Vijayvargiya, M Halland, A Acosta, A E Bharucha
BACKGROUND: Neostigmine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, stimulates colonic motor activity and may induce vagally mediated cardiovascular effects. Our aim was to evaluate effects of i.v. neostigmine on colonic compliance and its safety in patients with chronic constipation. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of a selected group of 144 outpatients with chronic constipation who were refractory to treatment. These patients had undergone intracolonic motility and compliance measurements with an infinitely compliant balloon linked to a barostat...
June 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Zakaria Hindi, Ehab Fadhel
BACKGROUND: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow's triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Raúl Juárez, René Zempoalteca, Pablo Pacheco, Rosa Angélica Lucio, Alfonso Medel, Yolanda Cruz
AIMS: To determine whether the external urethral sphincter (EUS) fasciculi of male rats respond to the mechanical stimulation of genital structures and to characterize the pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the three regions of the EUS: the cranial (CrEUS), the medial (MeEUS) and the caudal (CaEUS). METHODS: Electromyographic signals were recorded from the CrEUS, MeEUS and CaEUS regions of the male rat's EUS, before, during and after the mechanical stimulation of the urogenital structures...
August 7, 2015: Neurourology and Urodynamics
S M Favoretto, E G daSilva, J Menezes, R R Guerra, D B Campos
In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium...
August 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Thais Borges Lessa, Dilayla Kelly de Abreu, Márcio Nogueira Rodrigues, Marina Pandolphi Brólio, Maria Angélica Miglino, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease, characterized by atrophy and muscle weakness. The respiratory failure is a common cause of early death in patients with DMD. Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a canine model which has been extensively used for many advances in therapeutics applications. As the patients with DMD, the GRMD frequently died from cardiac and respiratory failure. Observing the respiratory failure in DMD is one of the major causes of mortality we aimed to describe the morphological and ultrastructural data of trachea, lungs (conductive and respiratory portion of the system), and diaphragm muscle using histological and ultrastructural analysis...
November 2014: Microscopy Research and Technique
Michael E Kiyatkin, Bin Feng, Erica S Schwartz, G F Gebhart
The ligand-gated channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined channel contributions to behavioral responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and afferent fiber responses to colorectal stretch...
November 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Edmundo I Cabrera-Fischer, Daniel Bia, Yanina Zócalo, Sandra Wray, Ricardo Armentano
There is a relationship between the intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) benefits and the dynamic behavior of muscular arteries, which is associated with induced changes on the vessel walls through an endothelial-dependent mechanism. The arterial wall elastic behavior is influenced by adventitial function; however, no studies were performed in order to elucidate if this layer plays a role in the changes determined by IABP. Our aim was to quantify acute IABP effects on the mechanical properties of muscular arteries in induced acute heart failure (AHF), before and after adventitia removal...
December 2013: Artificial Organs
Kentaro Inada, Dai Shida, Kazumasa Noda, Satoru Inoue, Masahiro Warabi, Nobutaka Umekita
Colonic metastasis from other organs is very rare. Here we report the case of a 62-year-old man with a history of pancreatoduodenectomy for stage IIB pancreatic head cancer performed seven years back. He presented with abdominal distension and pain. Under the preoperative diagnosis of bowel obstruction, surgical treatment was performed, and a circumferential lesion causing bowel obstruction of the ascending colon was detected. A right hemicolectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The specimen showed a 5-cm wall thickening with a cobble-stone like appearance of the ascending colon, which morphologically appeared scirrhous...
March 14, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Guillaume Galmiche, Carlos Labat, Mathias Mericskay, Karima Ait Aissa, Jocelyne Blanc, Kevin Retailleau, Mustapha Bourhim, Dario Coletti, Laurent Loufrani, Jacqueline Gao-Li, Robert Feil, Pascal Challande, Daniel Henrion, Jean-François Decaux, Véronique Regnault, Patrick Lacolley, Zhenlin Li
RATIONALE: Vascular smooth muscle (SM) cell phenotypic modulation plays an important role in arterial stiffening associated with aging. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor regulating SM genes involved in maintenance of the contractile state of vascular SM cells. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether SRF and its target genes regulate intrinsic SM tone and thereby arterial stiffness. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SRF gene was inactivated SM-specific knockout of SRF (SRF(SMKO)) specifically in vascular SM cells by injection of tamoxifen into adult transgenic mice...
March 29, 2013: Circulation Research
R G Lentle, G Reynolds, C de Loubens, C Hulls, P W M Janssen, V Ravindran
We report the results of spatiotemporal mapping of the spontaneous actions of component muscles of the gizzard and associated structures in ex vivo preparations with combined superfusion and vascular perfusion. Ongoing spontaneous contraction of cranial and caudal thin muscles occurred at a frequency of 2.2 ± 0.1 cycles per minute. Contractions of M. tenuis craniodorsalis with mean duration of 2.8 ± 0.2 s commenced ventrally adjacent to the distal limit of the proventriculus and progressed dorsally at 2.02 ± 0...
February 2013: Poultry Science
I Upadhyaya
Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation. The rudimentary horn may or may not communicate with the uterine cavity with the majority of cases being non-communicating. The patient exhibits features of acute abdomen and carries a high risk of maternal death. Even modern scans remain elusive whereas laparatomy remains the confirmatory procedure for the diagnosis. Because of the varied muscular constitution in the thickness and distensibility of the wall of the rudimentary horn, pregnancy is accommodated for a variable period of gestation...
October 2011: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Mitchell P Engle, Timothy J Ness, Meredith T Robbins
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXY) is a neuropeptide that has recently been recognized as an important component of descending analgesic systems. The present study sought to determine if OXY produces antinociception to noxious visceral stimulation. METHODS: Urethane-anesthetized female rats had intrathecal catheters placed acutely, and the effect of intrathecal OXY on visceromotor reflexes (VMRs; abdominal muscular contractions quantified using electromyograms) to urinary bladder distension (UBD; 10-60 mm Hg, 20 seconds; transurethral intravesical catheter) was determined...
September 2012: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Jun-Ho La, Bin Feng, Erica S Schwartz, Pablo R Brumovsky, G F Gebhart
Carbohydrate malabsorption such as in lactose intolerance or enteric infection causes symptoms that include abdominal pain. Because this digestive disorder increases intracolonic osmolarity and acidity by accumulation of undigested carbohydrates and fermented products, we tested whether these two factors (hypertonicity and acidity) would modulate colorectal afferents in association with colorectal nociception and hypersensitivity. In mouse colorectum-pelvic nerve preparations in vitro, afferent activities were monitored after application of acidic hypertonic saline (AHS; pH 6...
October 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Dinesh K Hirenallur-S, Neil D Detweiler, Steven T Haworth, Jeaninne T Leming, John B Gordon, Nancy J Rusch
The development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in pediatric patients has been linked to the production of the arachidonic acid metabolite, thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)). The present study evaluated the therapeutic effect of furegrelate sodium, a thromboxane synthase inhibitor, on the development of PAH in a neonatal piglet model. Three-day-old piglets were exposed to 21 days of normoxia (N; 21% F(I)O(2)) or chronic hypoxia (CH; 10% F(I)O(2)). A third group of piglets received the oral TxA(2) synthase inhibitor, furegrelate (3 mg/kg, 2 or 3 times daily) at the induction of CH...
April 2012: Pulmonary Circulation
P Lemkens, Gem Boari, Ge Fazzi, Gmj Janssen, Je Murphy-Ullrich, Pmh Schiffers, Jgr De Mey
We tested the hypotheses that TSP-1 participates in the initiation of remodeling of small muscular arteries in response to altered blood flow and that the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (hepI) can reverse the pathological inward remodeling of resistance arteries from SHR.We measured (1) changes in gene/protein expression in MA of 6 week old WKY and SHR exposed to either increased (+ 100 %) or reduced blood flow (- 90 %) for 24-40 hours and (2) structural changes in MA of 12 week old SHR exposed for 3 days to hepI in organ culture...
2012: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
Vladimir P Zagorodnyuk, Melinda Kyloh, Simon J Brookes, Sarah J Nicholas, Nick J Spencer
The functional role of the different classes of visceral afferents that innervate the large intestine is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range rectal afferents play an important role in the detection and transmission of visceral pain induced by noxious colorectal distension in mice. However, it is not clear which classes of spinal afferents are activated during naturally occurring colonic motor patterns or during intense contractions of the gut smooth muscle. We developed an in vitro colorectum preparation to test how the major classes of rectal afferents are activated during spontaneous colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) or pharmacologically induced contraction...
August 1, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Bhaskara Canan, Wallace Silva do Nascimento, Naisandra Bezerra da Silva, Sathyabama Chellappa
This study investigated the morphohistology of the digestive tract and the mean intestinal coefficient of the damsel fish Stegastes fuscus captured from the tidal pools of Northeastern Brazil. The wall of the digestive tract of S. fuscus is composed of the tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The esophagus is short with sphincter and thick distensible wall with longitudinally folded mucosa. Mucous glands are predominant, and the muscular layer of the esophagus presented striated fibers all along its extension...
2012: TheScientificWorldJournal
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