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Lucas Modesto-Costa, Sabrina T Martinez, Angelo C Pinto, Ricardo Vessecchi, Itamar Borges
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are natural molecules playing important roles in different biochemical processes in nature and in humans. In this work, the electron ionization mass spectrum (EI-MS) of retronecine, an alkaloid molecule found in plants, is investigated computationally. Its mass spectrum can be characterized by three main fragment ions having the following m/z ratios: 111, 94 and 80. In order to rationalize the mass spectrum, minima and transition state geometries were computed using density functional theory (DFT)...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Gulay Erdogan Kayhan, Mukadder Sanli, Ulku Ozgul, Ramazan Kirteke, Saim Yologlu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Multimodal analgesic strategies are recommended to decrease opioid requirements and opioid-induced respiratory complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous ibuprofen decreases opioid consumption compared with placebo. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effect of intravenous ibuprofen and intravenous acetaminophen on opioid consumption. We also aimed to compare postoperative pain levels and side effects of the drugs...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Mohsen Khalili, Mitra Alavi, Elham Esmaeil-Jamaat, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Brain inflammation is associated with cognitive dysfunction, especially in elderly. Trigonelline is a plant alkaloid and a major component of coffee and fenugreek with anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, the beneficial effect of trigonelline against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline was assessed in the rat. LPS was injected i.p. at a dose of 500 μg/kg to induce neuroinflammation and trigonelline was administered p.o. at doses of 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg/day 1 h after LPS that continued for one week...
June 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Alexey Rayevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Michael Tukalo
The accuracy of protein synthesis is provided by the editing functions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), a mechanism that eliminates misactivated amino acids or mischarged tRNAs. Despite research efforts, some molecular bases of these mechanisms are still unclear. The post-transfer editing pathway of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) carried out in a special insertion domain (the Connective Polypeptide 1 or CP1), as editing domain. Recently, it was shown by in vivo studies and was supported by mutagenesis, and the kinetics approaches that the CP1 domain of LeuRS has discriminatory power for different substrates...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Andy Schieler, Melissa Koenig, David Buttelmann
Infants are selective in their learning from others. However, there is only very limited research on the possible factors that shape this selectivity, especially when it comes to the impact of infants' familiarity with the informant and the context. The current study investigated whether 14-month-olds preferred to receive and use information provided by an unfamiliar informant (experimenter) compared with a familiar informant (parent) and whether this pattern depended on the context (home vs. laboratory). We tested infants either in the laboratory (n = 67) or in their home (n = 70)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Julia Isidro, Javier Llanos, Cristina Sáez, Dirk Brackemeyer, Pablo Cañizares, Thorsten Matthee, Manuel A Rodrigo
In this work, the disinfection of highly faecal-polluted surface water was studied using a new electrochemical cell (CabECO® cell, manufactured by CONDIAS) specifically designed to produce ozone in water with very low conductivity. The disinfection tests were carried out in a discontinuous mode to evaluate the influence of the electrode current charge passed. The effect of the current density was also studied in order to optimize the disinfection conditions and to simultaneously prevent the formation of undesirable by-products (chlorates and perchlorates) during the electrolysis...
June 18, 2018: Chemosphere
Klariz Tucker, Tyra Dark, Jeffrey S Harman
PURPOSE: Given that out-of-pocket (OOP) costs impact adherence to treatment and recent and proposed changes to the health insurance system that impact OOP costs, it is imperative to understand the OOP cost burden faced by individuals with anxiety disorders depending upon type of insurance coverage. The objective of this study was to determine the annual OOP cost burden faced by individuals with anxiety disorders and the variation of these costs by type of insurance coverage. METHODS: Using weighted nationally representative data from the 2011-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, total OOP health care costs were assessed for all respondents who indicated that they had an anxiety disorder (N = 9985)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
O M M Abdelwahab, G F Ricci, A M De Girolamo, F Gentile
In this study, the simulations generated by two of the most widely used hydrological basin-scale models, the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were compared in a Mediterranean watershed, the Carapelle (Apulia, Southern Italy). Input data requirements, time and efforts needed for input preparation, strength and weakness points of each model, ease of use and limitations were evaluated in order to give information to users. Models were calibrated and validated at monthly time scale for hydrology and sediment load using a four year period of observations (streamflow and suspended sediment concentrations)...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Angélica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Randy J Kulesza, Partha S Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Topi Rönkkö, Richard L Doty
There is growing evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). It is generally assumed that the pathology of these diseases arises only later in life and commonly begins within olfactory eloquent pathways prior to the onset of the classical clinical symptoms. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure to high levels of air pollution results in AD- and PD-related pathology within the olfactory bulbs of children and relatively young adults ages 11 months to 40 years...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Yang Yang, Ting Fong May Chui
Attention is increasingly being paid to low impact development (LID) practices in urban stormwater management. Because LID practices offer a wide variety of hydro-environmental benefits, it is often necessary to account for these benefits collectively in cost-benefit analysis and LID alternative selection. The conventional methods of quantifying these benefits, however, can hardly incorporate the preferences of decision makers, and commonly involve tedious parameter estimations. To address these shortcomings, this study adopts a relative performance evaluation method to assess the various hydro-environmental impacts of LID alternatives in small urban catchments...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Nikita Nirwan, Fouzia Siraj, Divya Vohora
OBJECTIVE: Currently, lacosamide (LCM) is not approved for use in status epilepticus (SE) but several shreds of evidence are available to support its use. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate the effect of LCM on pilocarpine (PILO) induced SE and neurodegeneration in C57BL/6 mice and to ascertain the involvement of CRMP-2 in mediating above effect. METHODS: Pilocarpine-induced SE model was developed to explore the effect of LCM 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg in mice...
June 18, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Kaisar Kushibar, Sergi Valverde, Sandra González-Villà, Jose Bernal, Mariano Cabezas, Arnau Oliver, Xavier Lladó
Sub-cortical brain structure segmentation in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) has attracted the interest of the research community for a long time as morphological changes in these structures are related to different neurodegenerative disorders. However, manual segmentation of these structures can be tedious and prone to variability, highlighting the need for robust automated segmentation methods. In this paper, we present a novel convolutional neural network based approach for accurate segmentation of the sub-cortical brain structures that combines both convolutional and prior spatial features for improving the segmentation accuracy...
June 15, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Patrick T Brewick, Kirubel Teferra
The results of a study comparing model calibration techniques for Ogden's constitutive model that describes the hyperelastic behavior of brain tissue are presented. One and two-term Ogden models are fit to two different sets of stress-strain experimental data for brain tissue using both least squares optimization and Bayesian estimation. For the Bayesian estimation, the joint posterior distribution of the constitutive parameters is calculated by employing Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) sampling, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo method...
May 31, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Shipra Kanjlia, Lisa Feigenson, Marina Bedny
Humans and non-human animals can approximate large visual quantities without counting. The approximate number representations underlying this ability are noisy, with the amount of noise proportional to the quantity being represented. Numerate humans also have access to a separate system for representing exact quantities using number symbols and words; it is this second, exact system that supports most of formal mathematics. Although numerical approximation abilities and symbolic number abilities are distinct in representational format and in their phylogenetic and ontogenetic histories, they appear to be linked throughout development--individuals who can more precisely discriminate quantities without counting are better at math...
June 20, 2018: Cognition
Inga Korolczuk, Boris Burle, Jennifer T Coull
While the benefit of temporal predictability on sensorimotor processing is well established, it is still unknown whether this is due to efficient execution of an appropriate response and/or inhibition of an inappropriate one. To answer this question, we examined the effects of temporal predictability in tasks that required selective (Simon task) or global (Stop-signal task) inhibitory control of prepotent responses. We manipulated temporal expectation by presenting cues that either predicted (temporal cues) or not (neutral cues) when the target would appear...
June 20, 2018: Cognition
Andrea Gredelj, Alberto Barausse, Laura Grechi, Luca Palmeri
Over the past decades, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) found in environmental matrices worldwide have raised concerns due to their toxicity, ubiquity and persistence. A widespread pollution of groundwater and surface waters caused by PFASs in Northern Italy has been recently discovered, becoming a major environmental issue, also because the exact risk for humans and nature posed by this contamination is unclear. Here, the Po River in Northern Italy was selected as a study area to assess the ecological risk posed by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a class of PFASs, considering the noticeable concentration of various PFAAs detected in the Po waters over the past years...
June 20, 2018: Environment International
Dayna Mason, Xiaoying Zhang, Tânia Monteiro Marques, Barbara Rose, Samantha Khoury, Meredith Hill, Fiona Deutsch, J Guy Lyons, Margarida Gama-Carvalho, Nham Tran
Human papillomavirus (HPV), notably type 16, is a risk factor for up to 75% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). It has been demonstrated that small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs play a vital role in the cellular transformation process. In this study, we used an LNA array to further investigate the impact of HPV16 on the expression of microRNAs in oropharyngeal (tonsillar) cancer. A number of miRNAs were found to be deregulated, with miR-496 showing a four-fold decrease. Over-expression of the high risk E6 oncoprotein down-regulated miR-496, impacting upon the post-transcriptional control of the transcription factor E2F2...
June 20, 2018: Virology
Mayada Said, Ibrahim Elsayed, Ahmed A Aboelwafa, Ahmed H Elshafeey
Agomelatine suffers from extensive inactivation through 1st pass effect with a limited oral bioavailability (5%). The aim of this study was to formulate and optimize liquid nanocrystals (LNC) containing agomelatine to enhance the transdermal permeation of the drug. The independent factors of the employed Box-Behnken design were the Pluronic F127, deoxycholic acid sodium salt and propylene glycol percentages. On the other hand, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, cumulative amount permeated at certain time intervals and permeation enhancement ratio were considered as dependent responses...
June 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Zeqing Bao, Christopher Q Lan
This study investigated the role of chlorophyll and light in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using disrupted cell aqueous extract of Neochloris oleoabundans. It was found that, while increasing sonication time increased the percentage of disrupted cells and efficiency of aqueous cell extraction, over-sonication reduced AgNPs production. AgNPs biosynthesis required illumination of white, blue, or purple light while AgNPs formation was undetectable under dark condition or illumination of orange or red light, indicating only photons of high energy levels among the photosynthetic active radiations are capable of exciting the electrons of chlorophylls to a state that is sufficient for Ag+ reduction...
June 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Victor Boureau, Robert McLeod, Benjamin Mayall, David Cooper
In this paper we discuss developments for Lorentz mode or "medium resolution" off-axis electron holography such that it is now routinely possible obtain very high sensitivity phase maps with high spatial resolution whilst maintaining a large field of view. Modifications of the usual Fourier reconstruction procedure have been used to combine series of holograms for sensitivity improvement with a phase-shifting method for doubling the spatial resolution. In the frame of these developments, specific attention is given to the phase standard deviation description and its interaction with the spatial resolution as well as the processing of reference holograms...
June 4, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
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