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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634232/the-phosphocarrier-protein-hpr-of-the-bacterial-phosphotransferase-system-globally-regulates-energy-metabolism-by-directly-interacting-with-multiple-enzymes-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Irina A Rodionova, Zhongge Zhang, Jitender Mehla, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
The histidine-phosphorylatable phosphocarrier protein HPr, is an essential component of the sugar-transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS) in many bacteria. Recent interactome findings suggested that HPr interacts with several carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, but whether HPr plays a regulatory role was unclear. Here, we provide evidence that HPr interacts with a large number of proteins in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate HPr-dependent allosteric regulation of the activities of pyruvate kinase (PykF, but not PykA), phosphofructokinase (PfkB, but not PfkA), glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) and adenylate kinase (Adk)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629066/glucosamine-modified-polyethylene-glycol-hydrogel-mediated-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Hang Yao, Jingchen Xue, Qunfang Wang, Renjian Xie, Weichang Li, Sa Liu, Jinglei Cai, Dajiang Qin, Dong-An Wang, Li Ren
Glucosamine (GA) is an important cartilage matrix precursor for the glycosaminoglycan biochemical synthesis, and has positive effects on cartilage regeneration, particularly in osteoarthritis therapy. However, it has not been used as a bioactive group in scaffolds for cartilage repair widely. In this study, we synthesized modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel with glucosamine and then encapsulated human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in the hydrogel to induce the differentiation of hBMSCs into chondrocytes in three-dimensional culture...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628891/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-6-sulfo-6-deoxy-d-glucosamine-and-its-derivatives
#3
Kornelia Skarbek, Iwona Gabriel, Piotr Szweda, Marek Wojciechowski, Muna A Khan, Boris Görke, Sławomir Milewski, Maria J Milewska
6-Sulfo-6-deoxy-D-glucosamine (GlcN6S), 6-sulfo-6-deoxy-D-glucosaminitol (ADGS) and their N-acetyl and methyl ester derivatives have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of enzymes catalyzing reactions of the UDP-GlcNAc pathway in bacteria and yeasts. GlcN6S and ADGS at micromolar concentrations inhibited glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) synthase of microbial origin. The former was also inhibitory towards fungal GlcN6P N-acetyl transferase, but at millimolar concentrations. Both compounds and their N-acetyl derivatives exhibited antimicrobial in vitro activity, with MICs in the 0...
June 12, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627871/the-sulfur-linked-analog-of-o-glcnac-s-glcnac-is-an-enzymatically-stable-and-a-reasonable-structural-surrogate-for-o-glcnac-at-the-peptide-and-protein-levels
#4
Cesar A De Leon, Paul M Levine, Timothy W Craven, Matthew R Pratt
Synthetic proteins bearing site-specific posttranslational modifications have revolutionized our understanding of their biological functions in vitro and in vivo. One such modification, O-GlcNAcylation, is the dynamic addition of β-N-acetyl glucosamine to the side-chains of serine and threonine residues of proteins. Yet, our understanding of the site-specific impact of O-GlcNAcylation remains difficult to evaluate in vivo due to the potential for enzymatic removal by endogenous O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Thioglycosides are generally perceived to be enzymatically stable structural mimics of O-GlcNAc; however, in vitro experiments small-molecule GlcNAc thioglycosides have demonstrated that OGA can hydrolyze these linkages, indicating thatS-linked-β-N-acetyl glucosamine (S-GlcNAc) on peptides or proteins may not be completely stable...
June 19, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624662/a-mucosa-mimetic-material-for-the-mucoadhesion-testing-of-thermogelling-semi-solids
#5
Jessica Bassi da Silva, Vitaliy V Khutoryanskiy, Marcos L Bruschi, Michael T Cook
Mucosa-mimetic materials are synthetic substrates which aim to replace animal tissue in mucoadhesion experiments. One potential mucosa-mimetic material is a hydrogel comprised of N-acryloyl-D-glucosamine and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, which has been investigated as a surrogate for animal mucosae in the mucoadhesion testing of tablets and solution formulations. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of this mucosa-mimetic material in the testing of thermogelling semi-solid formulations, which transition from solution to gel upon warming...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623254/high-throughput-mass-spectrometry-analysis-revealed-a-role-for-glucosamine-in-potentiating-recovery-following-desiccation-stress-in-chironomus
#6
Leena Thorat, Dasharath Oulkar, Kaushik Banerjee, Sushama M Gaikwad, Bimalendu B Nath
Desiccation tolerance is an essential survival trait, especially in tropical aquatic organisms that are vulnerable to severe challenges posed by hydroperiodicity patterns in their habitats, characterized by dehydration-rehydration cycles. Here, we report a novel role for glucosamine as a desiccation stress-responsive metabolite in the underexplored tropical aquatic midge, Chironomus ramosus. Using high- throughput liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) analysis, biochemical assays and gene expression studies, we confirmed that glucosamine was essential during the recovery phase in C...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622807/the-comparison-of-the-effects-of-a-novel-hydrogel-compound-and-traditional-hyaluronate-following-micro-fracture-procedure-in-a-rat-full-thickness-chondral-defect-model
#7
Yunus Emre Akman, Erhan Sukur, Ahmet Senel, Nur Ece Oztas Sukur, Canan Kelten Talu, Yusuf Ozturkmen
PURPOSE: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the impact of HA-CS-NAG compound (hyaluronate, sodium chondroitin sulfate, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) on the quality of repair tissue after micro-fracture and to compare it with HA (hyaluronat), in a rat full-thickness chondral defect model. METHODS: Full-thickness chondral defects were created in a non-weight bearing area by using a handle 2.7-mm drill bit, in the right knees of 33 Sprague-Dawley rats...
June 13, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615161/high-glucose-increases-action-potential-firing-of-catecholamine-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-by-increasing-spontaneous-glutamate-inputs
#8
Brandon L Roberts, Mingyan Zhu, Huan Zhao, Crystal Dillon, Suzanne M Appleyard
Glucose is a crucial substrate essential for cell survival and function. Changes in glucose levels impact neuronal activity and glucose deprivation increases feeding. Several brain regions have been shown to respond to glucoprivation, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brainstem. The NTS is the primary site in the brain that receives visceral afferent information from the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholaminergic (CA) subpopulation within the NTS modulates many homeostatic functions including cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, food intake, arousal and stress...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608138/a-functional-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-modified-with-pla-peg-dg-as-tumor-targeted-mri-contrast-agent
#9
Fei Xiong, Ke Hu, Haoli Yu, Lijun Zhou, Lina Song, Yu Zhang, Xiuhong Shan, Jianping Liu, Ning Gu
PURPOSE: Tumor targeting could greatly promote the performance of magnetic nanomaterials as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) agent for tumor diagnosis. Herein, we reported a novel magnetic nanoparticle modified with PLA (poly lactic acid)-PEG (polyethylene glycol)-DG (D-glucosamine) as Tumor-targeted MRI Contrast Agent. METHODS: In this work, we took use of the D-glucose passive targeting on tumor cells, combining it on PLA-PEG through amide reaction, and then wrapped the PLA-PEG-DG up to the Fe3O4@OA NPs...
June 12, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602983/box-behnken-design-for-extraction-optimization-of-crude-polysaccharides-from-tunisian-phormidium-versicolor-cyanobacteria-ncc-466-partial-characterization-in-vitro-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities
#10
Dalel Belhaj, Donyez Frikha, Khaled Athmouni, Bouthaina Jerbi, Mohammad Boshir Ahmed, Zouhaier Bouallagui, Monem Kallel, Sami Maalej, John Zhou, Habib Ayadi
In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the aqueous extraction of crude polysaccharides from Tunisian cyanobacteria Phormidium versicolor (NCC 466). The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.56±0.92% were as follows: extraction temperature at 81.05°C, extraction time of 3.99h, and water to raw material ratio of 21.52mLg(-1). Crude Phormidium versicolor polysaccharides (CPv-PS) are found to be a hetero-sulfated-anionic polysaccharides that contained carbohydrate (79...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600312/colonization-of-vibrio-cholerae-on-the-soft-shelled-turtle
#11
Jiazheng Wang, Meiying Yan, He Gao, Xin Lu, Biao Kan
Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae-contaminated soft-shelled turtles, mainly of toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization of toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surface and intestine of the soft-shelled turtle was explored...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586015/evaluation-of-the-anti-inflammatory-actions-of-various-functional-food-materials-including-glucosamine-on-synovial-cells
#12
Yoshie Yamagishi, Akimasa Someya, Kensuke Imai, Junji Nagao, Isao Nagaoka
The anti-inflammatory actions of glucosamine (GlcN) on arthritic disorders involve the suppression of inflammatory mediator production from synovial cells. GlcN has also been reported to inhibit the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The present study aimed to determine the cooperative and anti‑inflammatory actions of functional food materials and evaluated the production of interleukin (IL)‑8 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in IL-1β-activated synovial cells, incubated with the combination of GlcN and various functional food materials containing L‑methionine (Met), undenatured type II collagen (UC‑II), chondroitin sulfate (CS), methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and agaro-oligosaccharide (AO)...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584264/human-chitotriosidase-catalytic-domain-or-carbohydrate-binding-module-who-s-leading-hcht-s-biological-function
#13
Oscar Crasson, Gaston Courtade, Raphaël R Léonard, Finn Lillelund Aachmann, François Legrand, Raffaella Parente, Denis Baurain, Moreno Galleni, Morten Sørlie, Marylène Vandevenne
Chitin is an important structural component of numerous fungal pathogens and parasitic nematodes. The human macrophage chitotriosidase (HCHT) is a chitinase that hydrolyses glycosidic bonds between the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units of this biopolymer. HCHT belongs to the Glycoside Hydrolase (GH) superfamily and contains a well-characterized catalytic domain appended to a chitin-binding domain (ChBDCHIT1). Although its precise biological function remains unclear, HCHT has been described to be involved in innate immunity...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582574/a-genetic-model-to-study-increased-hexosamine-biosynthetic-flux
#14
Sarah E Hugo, Amnon Schlegel
Recently, we identified harvest moon (hmn), a fully penetrant and expressive recessive zebrafish mutant with hepatic steatosis. Larvae showed increased triacylglycerol in the absence of other obvious defects. When we attempted to raise these otherwise normal appearing mutants to adulthood, we observed a developmental arrest and death in the early juvenile period. Here we report the positional cloning of the hmn locus and characterization of the defects caused by the mutation. Using bulk segregant analysis, fine mapping, and immunoblot assays we find that hmn mutants harbor a point mutation in an invariant residue within the sugar isomerase 1 domain of the gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transamidase (Gfpt1)...
June 5, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581831/development-and-characterization-of-new-and-scalable-topical-formulations-containing-n-acetyl-d-glucosamine-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#15
Joana Marto, Cecilia Sangalli, Priscilla Capra, Paola Perugini, Andreia Ascenso, Lídia Gonçalves, Helena Ribeiro
N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine (NAG) has been recently considered for topical treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders due to its inhibitory effect on thyrosinase enzymes in melanocytes. NAG is a precursor of hyaluronic acid, increasing its amount in skin, and consequently, preserving the skin hydration and elasticity. It may also act as an emulsion stabilizer. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are advanced delivery systems successfully used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations for the improvement of active molecules penetration into the skin...
June 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579399/prevention-of-icaa-regulated-poly-n-acetyl-glucosamine-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-through-new-drug-like-inhibitors-in-silico-approach-and-md-simulation-study
#16
Ayushi Gupta, Swechha Mishra, Sangeeta Singh, Sonali Mishra
OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of various ligands against the protein structure of IcaA of the IcaABCD gene locus of Staphylococcus aureus were examined using the approach of structure based drug designing in reference with the protein's efficiency to form biofilms. RESULTS: Four compounds CID42738592, CID90468752, CID24277882, and CID6435208 were secluded from a database of 31,242 inhibitory ligands on the justification of the evaluated values falling under the four - tier structure based virtual screening...
June 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579172/techno-economic-analysis-of-glucosamine-and-lipid-production-from-marine-diatom-cyclotella-sp
#17
Xuwen Xiang, Altan Ozkan, Omar Chiriboga, Nattaporn Chotyakul, Christine Kelly
A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed on glucosamine and lipid production from a marine diatom Cyclotella sp. in raceway open pond (RWP) and tubular photobioreactor (PBR) cultivation systems. Two PBR operating schemes were assessed: one to produce high lipid (HL) content, and another to produce high chitin (HC) content. In order to generate 1kg of glucosamine, 9700kg (RWP)/1050kg (PBR HL) freshwater, 40kg CO2, 0.70kg nitrogen, 0.18kg phosphorus, and 1.2kg silicon nutrients are required for algae cultivation with water and nutrient recovery...
May 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578959/enzymatic-production-of-n-acetyl-d-glucosamine-from-crayfish-shell-wastes-pretreated-via-high-pressure-homogenization
#18
Guoguang Wei, Alei Zhang, Kequan Chen, Pingkai Ouyang
This study presents an efficient pretreatment of crayfish shell using high pressure homogenization that enables N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) production by chitinase. Firstly, the chitinase from Serratia proteamaculans NJ303 was screened for its ability to degrade crayfish shell and produce GlcNAc as the sole product. Secondly, high pressure homogenization, which caused the crayfish shell to adopt a fluffy netted structure that was characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), was evaluated as the best pretreatment method...
September 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576028/synthesis-and-characterization-of-eu-iii-complexes-of-modified-d-glucosamine-and-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide
#19
Guihua Cui, Yu Bai, Wenliang Li, Zhengguo Gao, Shuiying Chen, Nannan Qiu, Toshifumi Satoh, Toyoji Kakuchi, Qian Duan
A series of chain-end functional polymers composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose(d-glucosamine, GA) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Novel fluorescent complexes of glucosamine-PNI- PAM/Eu(III) were then formed by chelation of the polymers and europium(III) ions. The aqueous solutions of the polymers and its Eu(III) complexes exhibited a lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs), and which were approximately equal to body temperature...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565917/differences-in-carbon-source-utilization-of-salmonella-oranienburg-and-saintpaul-isolated-from-river-water
#20
Andrés Medrano-Félix, Mitzi Estrada-Acosta, Felipe Peraza-Garay, Nohelia Castro-Del Campo, Jaime Martínez-Urtaza, Cristóbal Chaidez
Long-term exposure to river water by non-indigenous micro-organisms such as Salmonella may affect metabolic adaptation to carbon sources. This study was conducted to determine differences in carbon source utilization of Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul (isolated from tropical river water) as well as the control strain Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to laboratory, river water, and host cells (Hep-2 cell line) growth conditions. Results showed that Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul showed better ability for carbon source utilization under the three growth conditions evaluated; however, S...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
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