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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912939/dietary-supplementation-is-more-prevalent-among-adults-with-arthritis-in-the-united-states-population
#1
Patrick B Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Sparse data are available to describe the prevalence of dietary supplementation among individuals with arthritis. Using a nationally representative sample, this investigation assessed the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Americans self-reporting arthritis. SETTING AND DESIGN: Data from 4606 participants of the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed, including from 1170 participants self-reporting arthritis...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#2
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909553/effects-of-gangliosides-from-deer-bone-extract-on-the-gene-expressions-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-collagen-type-ii-in-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-osteoarthritic-chondrocytes
#3
Hyung Joo Suh, Hyunji Lee, Byung Jung Min, Sung Ug Jung, Eun Young Jung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the anti-osteoarthritic effects of deer bone extract on the gene expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and collagen type II (COL2) in interleukin-1β-induced osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: Primary rabbit chondrocytes were treated as follows: CON (PBS treatment), NC (IL-1β treatment), PC (IL-1β + 100 µg/mL glucosamine sulphate/chondroitin sulphate mixture), and DB (IL-1β + 100 µg/mL deer bone extract)...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906600/role-of-polysaccharide-and-lipid-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-prion-protein-conversion
#4
Carol L Ladner-Keay, Marcia LeVatte, David S Wishart
Conversion of native cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) from an α-helical structure to a toxic and infectious β-sheet structure (PrP(Sc)) is a critical step in the development of prion disease. There are some indications that the formation of PrP(Sc) is preceded by a β-sheet rich PrP (PrP(β)) form which is non-infectious, but is an intermediate in the formation of infectious PrP(Sc). Furthermore the presence of lipid cofactors is thought to be critical in the formation of both intermediate-PrP(β) and lethal, infectious PrP(Sc)...
December 1, 2016: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903560/commonly-prescribed-drugs-associate-with-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-study-in-uk-biobank
#5
Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Chi-Hun Kim, Laura Winchester, John Gallacher, Simon Lovestone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate medications associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: UK Biobank participants aged 37-73 years who completed cognitive tests at the baseline visit in 2006-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive test outcomes on verbal-numerical reasoning test (n=165 493), memory test (n=482 766) and reaction time test (n=496 813)...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890013/in-silico-characterization-of-a-hypothetical-protein-rv1288-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-containing-an-esterase-signature-and-an-uncommon-lyte-domain
#6
Arbind Kumar, Pratibha Maan, Gurpreet Singh, Jagdeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: Death toll due to tuberculosis is still rising day by day. Whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has provided a platform to conduct research in order to identify the probable drug target. OBJECTIVES: Out of 4000 gene products of M. tuberculosis, approximately 40% of proteins are annotated as hypothetical. Identifying and characterizing these proteins could provide a new prescriptive for developing new TB drugs. Rv1288, a protein of M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been annotated as a hypothetical protein in database...
November 24, 2016: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886097/investigating-glycol-split-heparin-derived-inhibitors-of-heparanase-a-study-of-synthetic-trisaccharides
#7
Minghong Ni, Stefano Elli, Annamaria Naggi, Marco Guerrini, Giangiacomo Torri, Maurice Petitou
Heparanase is the only known endoglycosidase able to cleave heparan sulfate. Roneparstat and necuparanib, heparanase inhibitors obtained from heparin and currently being tested in man as a potential drugs against cancer, contain in their structure glycol-split uronic acid moieties probably responsible for their strong inhibitory activity. We describe here the total chemical synthesis of the trisaccharide GlcNS6S-GlcA-1,6anGlcNS (1) and its glycol-split (gs) counterpart GlcNS6S-gsGlcA-1,6anGlcNS (2) from glucose...
November 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886065/dual-function-of-glucosamine-in-gelatin-hyaluronic-acid-cryogel-to-modulate-scaffold-mechanical-properties-and-to-maintain-chondrogenic-phenotype-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#8
Chih-Hao Chen, Chang-Yi Kuo, Yan-Jie Wang, Jyh-Ping Chen
Glucosamine (GlcN) fulfills many of the requirements as an ideal component in scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering. The incorporation of GlcN in a gelatin/hyaluronic acid (GH) cryogel scaffold could provide biological cues in maintaining the phenotype of chondrocytes. Nonetheless, substituting gelatin with GlcN may also decrease the crosslinking density and modulate the mechanical properties of the cryogel scaffold, which may be beneficial as physical cues for chondrocytes in the scaffold. Thus, we prepared cryogel scaffolds containing 9% GlcN (GH-GlcN9) and 16% GlcN (GH-GlcN16) by carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reactions at -16 °C...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883045/acidic-mammalian-chitinase-is-a-proteases-resistant-glycosidase-in-mouse-digestive-system
#9
Misa Ohno, Masahiro Kimura, Haruko Miyazaki, Kazuaki Okawa, Riho Onuki, Chiyuki Nemoto, Eri Tabata, Satoshi Wakita, Akinori Kashimura, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Nobuyuki Nukina, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc)2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883023/a-comparison-of-the-performance-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-nanoparticles-for-small-molecule-targets-and-antibodies-in-the-elisa-format
#10
Katarzyna Smolinska-Kempisty, Antonio Guerreiro, Francesco Canfarotta, César Cáceres, Michael J Whitcombe, Sergey Piletsky
Here we show that molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles, prepared in aqueous media by solid phase synthesis with immobilised L-thyroxine, glucosamine, fumonisin B2 or biotin as template, can demonstrate comparable or better performance to commercially produced antibodies in enzyme-linked competitive assays. Imprinted nanoparticles-based assays showed detection limits in the pM range and polymer-coated microplates are stable to storage at room temperature for at least 1 month. No response to analyte was detected in control experiments with nanoparticles imprinted with an unrelated template (trypsin) but prepared with the same polymer composition...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880890/potential-antidepressant-and-resilience-mechanism-revealed-by-metabolomic-study-on-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-stress-resilient-rats
#11
Juan Li, Shu-Xiao Zhang, Wei Wang, Ke Cheng, Hua Guo, Cheng-Long Rao, De-Yu Yang, Yong He, De-Zhi Zou, Yu Han, Li-Bo Zhao, Peng-Fei Li, Peng Xie
Resilience is an active coping response to stress, which plays a very important role in major depressive disorder study. The molecular mechanisms underlying such resilience are poorly understood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were promising objects in unveiling the underlying pathogenesis of resilience. Hereby we carried out successive study on PBMCs metabolomics in resilient rats of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomic approach coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to detect differential metabolites in PBMCs of resilient rats...
November 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879249/glucosamine-induces-er-stress-by-disrupting-lipid-linked-oligosaccharide-biosynthesis-and-n-linked-protein-glycosylation
#12
Daniel R Beriault, Vi T Dang, Lexy H Zhong, Christina I Petlura, Cameron S McAlpine, Yuanyuan Shi, Geoff H Werstuck
Glucosamine is an essential substrate for N-linked protein glycosylation. However, elevated levels of glucosamine can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Glucosamine-induced ER stress has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigate the potential relationship between the effects of glucosamine on lipid linked oligosaccharide (LLO) biosynthesis, N-linked glycosylation, and ER homeostasis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were cultured in the presence of 0-5 mM glucosamine for up to 18 hours and LLO biosynthesis was monitored by fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864466/thiamet-g-mediates-neuroprotection-in-experimental-stroke-by-modulating-microglia-macrophage-polarization-and-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-signaling
#13
Yating He, Xiaofeng Ma, Daojing Li, Junwei Hao
Inflammatory responses are accountable for secondary injury induced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Previous studies indicated that O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is involved in the pathology of AIS, and increase of O-GlcNAcylation by glucosamine attenuated the brain damage after ischemia/reperfusion. Inhibition of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA) with thiamet G (TMG) is an alternative option for accumulating O-GlcNAcylated proteins. In this study, we investigate the neuroprotective effect of TMG in a mouse model of experimental stroke...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864169/increasing-the-thermostable-sugar-1-phosphate-nucleotidylyltransferase-activities-of-archaeal-st0452-protein-through-site-saturation-mutagenesis-of-the-97th-amino-acid-position
#14
Yuki Honda, Qian Zang, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Mohammad Dadashipour, Zilian Zhang, Yutaka Kawarabayasi
: The ST0452 protein is a bifunctional protein exhibiting sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferase (Sugar-1-P NTase) and amino-sugar-1-phosphate acetyltransferase activities and was isolated from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii Based on the previous observation that five single mutations increased ST0452 Sugar-1-P NTase activity, nine double mutant ST0452 proteins were generated with the intent of obtaining enzymes exhibiting a further increase in catalysis, but all showed less than 15% of the wild-type N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlcNAc-1-P UTase) activity...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858138/engineered-biosynthesis-and-characterisation-of-disaccharide-modified-8-deoxyamphoteronolides
#15
Simon Walmsley, Eimear De Poire, Bernard Rawlings, Patrick Caffrey
Several polyene macrolides are potent antifungal agents that have severe side effects. Increased glycosylation of these compounds can improve water solubility and reduce toxicity. Three extending glycosyltransferases are known to add hexoses to the mycosaminyl sugar residues of polyenes. The Actinoplanes caeruleus PegA enzyme catalyses attachment of a D-mannosyl residue in a β-1,4 linkage to the mycosamine of the aromatic heptaene 67-121A to form 67-121C. NppY from Pseudonocardia autotrophica adds an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to the mycosamine of 10-deoxynystatin...
November 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845778/identification-of-sex-specific-urinary-biomarkers-for-major-depressive-disorder-by-combined-application-of-nmr-and-gc-ms-based-metabonomics
#16
P Zheng, J-J Chen, C-J Zhou, L Zeng, K-W Li, L Sun, M-L Liu, D Zhu, Z-H Liang, P Xie
Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their respective healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845067/the-combined-therapy-with-chondroitin-sulfate-plus-glucosamine-sulfate-or-chondroitin-sulfate-plus-glucosamine-hydrochloride-does-not-improve-joint-damage-in-an-experimental-model-of-knee-osteoarthritis-in-rabbits
#17
Jorge A Roman-Blas, Aránzazu Mediero, Lidia Tardío, Sergio Portal-Nuñez, Paula Gratal, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont, Raquel Largo
Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disorder especially during aging. Although with controversies, glucosamine, both in its forms of sulfate and hydrochloride, and chondroitin sulfate are commonly employed to treat osteoarthritis. Due to the modest improve in the symptoms observed in patients treated with these drugs alone, a formulation combining both agents has been considered. The discrepant results achieved for pain control or structural improvement in osteoarthritis patients has been attributed to the quality of chemical formulations or different bias in clinical studies...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843094/metabolomics-predicts-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-transient-ischemic-attack-patients
#18
Francisco Purroy, Serafi Cambray, Gerard Mauri-Capdevila, Mariona Jové, Jordi Sanahuja, Joan Farré, Ikram Benabdelhak, Jessica Molina-Seguin, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Robert Begue, M Isabel Gil, Reinald Pamplona, Manuel Portero-Otín
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA). The discovery of a plasmatic biomarker related to neuroimaging findings is of enormous interest because, despite its relevance, magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is not always available in all hospitals that attend to TIA patients. METHODS: Metabolomic analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in order to establish the metabolomic patterns of positive DWI, DWI patterns and acute ischemic lesion volumes...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836674/chondroprotective-activity-of-n-acetyl-phenylalanine-glucosamine-derivative-on-knee-joint-structure-and-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-osteoarthritis
#19
F Veronesi, G Giavaresi, M Maglio, A Scotto d'Abusco, L Politi, R Scandurra, E Olivotto, B Grigolo, R M Borzì, M Fini
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common chronic degenerative joint disease, is characterized by joint structure changes and inflammation, both mediated by the IκB kinase (IKK) signalosome complex. The ability of N-acetyl phenylalanine derivative (NAPA) to increase cartilage matrix components and to reduce inflammatory cytokines, inhibiting IKKα kinase activity, has been observed in vitro. The present study aims to further clarify the effect of NAPA in counteracting OA progression, in an in vivo mouse model after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
November 9, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826450/dachslife-2015-an-investigation-of-lifestyle-associations-with-the-risk-of-intervertebral-disc-disease-in-dachshunds
#20
R M A Packer, I J Seath, D G O'Neill, S De Decker, H A Volk
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) represents a major problem in the Dachshund, with at a relative risk of IVDD 10-12 times higher than other breeds, and an estimated 19-24 % of Dachshunds showing clinical signs related to IVDD during their lifetime. A variety of genetic, physical and lifestyle-related risk factors for IVDD have previously been identified, with some conflicting findings. As such, advising owners and breeders regarding best-practice for IVDD prevention is challenging at present...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
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