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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334671/glucosamine-promotes-osteoblast-proliferation-by-modulating-autophagy-via-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#1
Chen Lv, Lu Wang, Xiongbai Zhu, Wenjun Lin, Xin Chen, Zhengxiang Huang, Lintuo Huang, Shengwu Yang
Glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis; however, its effect on osteoporosis remains unclear. Decreased activity of osteoblasts is the main cause of osteoporosis. Here, we examined the effects of glucosamine on osteoblasts. The potential underlying mechanisms were explored. The results showed that glucosamine had a biphasic effect on the viability of hFOB1.19 osteoblasts. At low concentrations (<0.6 mM), glucosamine induced hFOB1.19 cell proliferation, whereas at high concentrations (>0...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327068/the-specific-effect-of-gallic-acid-on-escherichia-coli-biofilm-formation-by-regulating-pgaabcd-genes-expression
#2
Jiamu Kang, Qianqian Li, Liu Liu, Wenyuan Jin, Jingfan Wang, Yuyang Sun
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is associated with an array of health-threatening contaminations, some of which are related to biofilm states. The pgaABCD-encoded poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA) polymer plays an important role in biofilm formation. This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect of gallic acid (GA) against E. coli biofilm formation. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of GA against planktonic E. coli were 0.5 and 4 mg/mL, and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration and minimal biofilm eradication concentration values of GA against E...
January 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319168/hepatic-mir-125b-inhibits-insulin-signaling-pathway-by-targeting-pik3cd
#3
Xiliang Du, Xiaobing Li, Liang Chen, Min Zhan, Lin Lei, Wenwen Gao, Zhen Shi, Yuhao Dong, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
Insulin resistance is often characterized as the most critical factor contributing to the development of (T2D) type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding short single-stranded RNAs that function as negative regulators in many physiological and pathological processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the roles of miR-125b in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes. We found that hepatic miR-125b levels were significantly increased in the patients with type 2 diabetes, high fat diet (HFD) mice, ob/ob and db/db mice...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317504/structural-analysis-of-group-ii-chitinase-chtii-catalysis-completes-the-puzzle-of-chitin-hydrolysis-in-insects
#4
Wei Chen, Mingbo Qu, Yong Zhou, Qing Yang
Chitin is a linear homopolymer of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamines and a major structural component of insect cuticles. Chitin hydrolysis involves glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) chitinases. In insects, chitin hydrolysis is essential for periodic shedding of the old cuticle ecdysis and proceeds via a pathway different from that in the well-studied bacterial chitinolytic system. Group II chitinase (ChtII) is a widespread chitinolytic enzyme in insects and contains the greatest number of catalytic domains and chitin binding domains among chitinases...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315243/conditions-inducing-excessive-o-glcnacylation-inhibit-bmp2-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-cells
#5
Hanna Gu, Mina Song, Kanitsak Boonanantanasarn, Kyunghwa Baek, Kyung Mi Woo, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Jeong-Hwa Baek
Hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic patients can affect various cellular functions, including the modulation of osteogenic differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which hyperglycemia affects osteogenic differentiation are yet to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate whether the aberrant increase in protein O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) contributes to the suppression of osteogenic differentiation due to hyperglycemia. To induce osteogenic differentiation, C2C12 cells were cultured in the presence of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310655/methylene-blue-induced-morphological-deformations-in-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes-implications-for-transmission-blocking
#6
Ishan Wadi, C Radhakrishna Pillai, Anupkumar R Anvikar, Abhinav Sinha, Mahendra Nath, Neena Valecha
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a global health problem despite availability of effective tools. For malaria elimination, drugs targeting sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum need to be incorporated in treatment regimen along with schizonticidal drugs to interrupt transmission. Primaquine is recommended as a transmission blocking drug for its effect on mature gametocytes but is not extensively utilized because of associated safety concerns among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients...
January 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308379/cloning-of-k26-hydrophilic-antigen-from-iranian-strain-of-leishmania-infantum
#7
Bibi Razieh Hosseini Farash, Mehdi Mohebali, Bahram Kazemi, Homa Hajjaran, Behnaz Akhoundi, Reza Raoofian, Abdolmajid Fata, Majid Mojarrad, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi-Yazdi
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is the most severe form of leishmaniasis in Iran, which causes a high mortality rate in the case of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to clone of K26 gene from Iranian strain of L. infantum and register the sequencing results in Genbank to facilitate the preparation a new K26 antigen for the detection of L. infantum infection. Methods: L. infantum was obtained from an infected domestic dog in Meshkin-Shahr area from northwestern Iran in 2015...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306439/intracellular-imaging-of-protein-specific-glycosylation
#8
Franziska Doll, Jessica Hassenrück, Valentin Wittmann, Andreas Zumbusch
Posttranslational protein glycosylation is conserved in all kingdoms of life and implicated in the regulation of protein structure, function, and localization. The visualization of glycosylation states of designated proteins within living cells is of great importance for unraveling the biological roles of intracellular protein glycosylation. Our generally applicable approach is based on the incorporation of a glucosamine analog, Ac4GlcNCyoc, into the cellular glycome via metabolic engineering. Ac4GlcNCyoc can be labeled in a second step via inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder chemistry with fluorophores inside living cells...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303968/functional-expression-and-characterization-of-the-recombinant-n-acetyl-glucosamine-n-acetyl-galactosamine-specific-marine-algal-lectin-bpl3
#9
Hyun-Ju Hwang, Jin-Woo Han, Gwang Hoon Kim, Jong Won Han
Lectins, characterized by their carbohydrate-binding ability, have extensive practical applications. However, their industrial use is limited due to impurity. Thus, quality-controlled production of recombinant lectin is necessary. In this study, the algal lectin BPL3 (Bryopsis plumosa lectin 3) was successfully produced using a bacterial expression system, BL21(DE3), with an artificial repeated structure (dimeric construct). Recombinant dimeric BPL3 (rD2BPL3) was confirmed by LC-MS/MS spectrometry. Expression efficiency was greater for the construct with the repeat structure (rD2BPL3) than the monomeric form (rD1BPL3)...
January 5, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284152/catalpol-ameliorates-hepatic-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-through-acting-on-ampk-nox4-pi3k-akt-pathway
#10
Jiting Yan, Changyuan Wang, Yue Jin, Qiang Meng, Qi Liu, Zhihao Liu, Kexin Liu, Huijun Sun
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance in target tissues and hyperglycemia. Catalpol is a natural product isolated from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, which has been reported to produce the effect of anti-diabetes in recent reports. The goal of the current study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of catalpol on hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes in vivo was induced by combined high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) injection in C57BL/6J mice...
December 25, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280476/protein-engineering-of-chitosanase-from-bacillus-sp-mn-to-alter-its-substrate-specificity
#11
Eva K Regel, Tobias Weikert, Anna Niehues, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Ratna Singh
Partially acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (paCOS) have various potential applications in agriculture, biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to their suitable bioactivities. One method to produce paCOS is partial chemical hydrolysis of chitosan polymers, but that leads to poorly defined mixtures of oligosaccharides. However, the effective production of defined paCOS is crucial for fundamental research and for developing applications. A more promising approach is enzymatic depolymerization of chitosan using chitinases or chitosanases, as the substrate specificity of the enzyme determines the composition of the oligomeric products...
December 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277660/properties-and-mechanism-of-d-glucosaminate-6-phosphate-ammonia-lyase-an-aminotransferase-family-enzyme-with-d-amino-acid-specificity
#12
Robert S Phillips, Samuel C Ting, Ange G Tetsadjio, Kaitlin L Anderson, Kyle M Friez, Katherine A Miller, Timothy R Hoover
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes a wide range of growth substrates, some of which are relatively novel. One of these unusual substrates is d-glucosaminate, which is metabolized by the enzymes encoded in the dga operon. d-Glucosaminate is transported and converted to d-glucosaminate-6-phosphate (G6P) by a phosphotransferase system, composed of DgaABCD. The protein product of dgaE, d-glucosaminate-6-phosphate ammonia lyase (DGL), converts G6P to 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate-6-phosphate, which undergoes a retroaldol reaction catalyzed by the DgaF protein to give d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate...
December 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238706/angular-phenozaxine-ethers-as-potent-multi-microbial-targets-inhibitors-design-synthesis-and-molecular-docking-studies
#13
Mercy A Ezeokonkwo, Onyinyechi N Ogbonna, Sunday N Okafor, Evelyn U Godwin-Nwakwasi, Fidelia N Ibeanu, Uchechukwu C Okoro
The reaction of diaza-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one and 5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one with various phenols catalyzed by Pd/t-BuXPhos/K3PO4 system gave previously unknown ether derivatives (7a-f and 8a-f) in good yields. UV-visible, FTIR, and 1H NMR data were used to confirm structures of the synthesized compounds. The parent compounds and the derivatives were screened in-silico for their drug-likeness and binding affinities to the microbial targets through molecular docking. Molinspiration software and AutoDock were used for the drug-likeness and docking studies, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233184/effects-of-angelicae-pubescentis-and-loranthi-decotion-on-repairing-knee-joint-cartilages-in-rats
#14
Shun Lyu, Bin Ji, Wenwu Gao, Xianqi Chen, Xiaotao Xie, Junjie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common orthopedics disease and its pathological changes at early stage are the damage and loss of articular cartilage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription contains multiple components and has the unique advantages of the diversity of targets.We compared the traditional Chinese medical formulae (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decotion, APLD, or Duhuo Jisheng) with a western medicine (glucosamine sulfate, GS) to treat the rat arthritis models, and tracked the outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229699/the-nitrogen-regulatory-pii-protein-glnb-and-n-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate-epimerase-nane-allosterically-activate-glucosamine-6-phosphate-deaminase-nagb-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Irina A Rodionova, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
Amino sugars are good sources of both ammonia and fructose-6-phosphate, produced by glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase, NagB. NagB is known to be allosterically regulated by N-acetyl-glucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) and the phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, HPr, in Escherichia coli We provide evidence that NanE, GlcNAc-6P epimerase, and the uridylylated PII protein also allosterically activate NagB by direct protein-protein interactions. NanE is essential for neuraminic acid (NANA) and N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) utilization, and PII is known to be a central metabolic nitrogen regulator...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224633/over-the-counter-medicines-and-diabetes-care
#16
Jeff Taylor
OBJECTIVES: People with diabetes turn to over-the-counter (OTC) medicines for many ailments. The focus of this brief review is the impact common OTC medicines might have on this group of patients. METHODS: Three types of OTC medicines were selected as most deserving of attention: 3 herbal agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cough/cold products. Existing literature was used to determine precautions that might be in order. RESULTS: Herbal/natural agents with the potential to impact blood sugar have been identified in various reports...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220808/metabolic-engineering-of-carbon-overflow-metabolism-of-bacillus-subtilis-for-improved-n-acetyl-glucosamine-production
#17
Wenlong Ma, Yanfeng Liu, Hyun-Dong Shin, Jianghua Li, Jian Chen, Guocheng Du, Long Liu
Bacillus subtilis is widely used as cell factories for the production of important industrial biochemicals. Although many studies have demonstrated the effects of organic acidic byproducts, such as acetate, on microbial fermentation, little is known about the effects of blocking the neutral byproduct overflow, such as acetoin, on bioproduction. In this study, we focused on the influences of modulating overflow metabolism on the production of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in engineered B. subtilis. We found that acetoin overflow competes with GlcNAc production, and blocking acetoin overflow increased GlcNAc titer and yield by 1...
October 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217302/c-source-metabolic-profilings-of-foodborne-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli-match-serogroup-differentiations-and-highlight-functional-adaptations
#18
Stéphane Kerangart, Benoit Cournoyer, Estelle Loukiadis
The tropism of pathogenic STEC for foodstuffs and cattle reservoir is related to functional specializations. An investigation of C-source utilization patterns among and between STEC serogroups was performed using omnilog phenotypic microarrays (OM). OM functional groupings were compared with STEC phylogroups, seropathotypes, EFSA's molecular risk assessment groups and serogroups. OM INT reduction activities of 37 STEC strains growing on 190 C-substrates were compared. Each strain had its own specific C-utilization profile but 23% of the substrates was used by all strains, 47% by none, and 30% was variably metabolized...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207809/therapeutic-efficacy-of-ozone-injection-into-the-knee-for-the-osteoarthritis-patient-along-with-oral-celecoxib-and-glucosamine
#19
Xu Feng, Li Beiping
Introduction: Suffering from osteoarthritis is prevalent among elderly patients so the use of intra-articular injection of medical ozone may well be the effective way to relieve their pain. Aim: To evaluate the effect of intra-articular injection of medical ozone given into the knee of the osteoarthritis patients, and to compare it with taking celecoxib and glucosamine orally. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 76 patients suffering from osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205898/effects-of-oral-glucosamine-hydrochloride-and-mucopolysaccharide-protein-in-a-rabbit-model-of-osteoarthritis
#20
Da-Hee Jeong, H M Arif Ullah, Moon-Jung Goo, Soong-Gu Ghim, Il-Hwa Hong, Ah-Young Kim, Sun-Min Jeon, Myung-Sook Choi, Ahmed K Elfadl, Myung-Jin Chung, Eun-Joo Lee, Yong D Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Shin-Yoon Kim, Kyu-Shik Jeong
AIM: The aim was to study whether oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN.HCl) or mucopolysaccharide protein (MucoP) has a structure-modifying effect on an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was surgically induced in the right knees of rabbits by transection of the ACLT. The left knees served as a sham-operated control. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): negative control (phosphate buffered saline, orally), positive control (oral celecoxib 10 mg/kg body weight/day), GlcN...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
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