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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146530/identification-of-the-glucosamine-kinase-in-the-chitinolytic-pathway-of-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#1
Mehwish Aslam, Naoya Takahashi, Kohei Matsubara, Tadayuki Imanaka, Tamotsu Kanai, Haruyuki Atomi
Although the chitinolytic pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis is well-studied, the genome does not contain genes homologous to previously identified glucosamine kinase genes. As some ADP-dependent glucokinases in the order Thermococcales exhibit phosphorylation activities for both glucose and glucosamine in vitro, the homolog in T. kodakarensis, encoded by TK1110, was selected as a candidate for the missing glucosamine kinase gene. The purified, recombinant TK1110 enzyme exhibited phosphorylation activities for not only glucose but also glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145098/a-novel-simplified-strategy-of-relative-quantification-n-glycan-quantitative-glycomics-using-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-through-the-stable-isotopic-labeling-by-transglycosylation-reaction-of-mutant-enzyme-endo-m-n175q
#2
Qing Shi, Ryugo Hashimoto, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Kenichiro Todoroki, Hajime Mizuno, Dongri Jin, Toshimasa Toyo'oka, Zhe Jiang, Jun Zhe Min
The lack of a highly sensitive and simple method for the quantitative analysis of glycan has impeded the exploration of protein glycosylation patterns (glycomics), evaluation of antibody drug stability, and screening of disease glycan biomarkers. In this study, we describe a novel and simplified quantitative glycomics strategy. Quantitation by mutant enzyme reaction stable isotope labeling (QMERSIL) to label the N-glycans with either a nondeuterated (d0-) or deuterated (d8-) 4-(2,4-Dinitro-5-piperazin-1-yl-phenyl)-1,1-dimethyl-piperazin-1-ium (MPDPZ)-Boc-asparaginyl-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (Boc-Asn-GlcNAc) acceptor of a positive charge structure through the glycosynthase (Endo-M-N175Q) transglycosylation reaction with mass spectrometry facilitates comparative glycomics...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142425/hypoglycemic-hypolipidemic-and-wound-healing-potential-of-quercetin-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Mahrukh Ahmad, Mudasir Sultana, Rajinder Raina, Nrip Kishore Pankaj, Pawan Kumar Verma, Shahid Prawez
Background: Among the dietary polyphenolic, quercetin is the most common compound available in vegetables and fruits. The phytochemicals are used to treat diabetic wounds and diabetes, and specifically dietary polyphenols are being extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and wound healing potential of quercetin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134408/glucosamine-reduces-the-inhibition-of-proteoglycan-metabolism-caused-by-local-anaesthetic-solution-in-human-articular-cartilage-an-in-vitro-study
#4
Abhinav Gulihar, Shalin Shaunak, Pinelopi Linardatou Novak, Parthiban Vinayakam, Baljinder Dhinsa, Grahame Taylor
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether local anaesthetics caused inhibition of proteoglycan metabolism in human articular cartilage and whether the addition of Glucosamine sulphate could prevent or allow recovery from this adverse effect on articular cartilage metabolism. METHODS: Cartilage explants obtained from 13 femoral heads from fracture neck of femur patients (average age 80 years, 10 female) were exposed to either 1% Lidocaine, 2% Lidocaine, 0.25% Bupivacaine, 0...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133061/design-synthesis-and-cytotoxic-activity-of-n-modified-oleanolic-saponins-bearing-a-glucosamine
#5
You-Yu Lin, She-Hung Chan, Yu-Pu Juang, Hsin-Min Hsiao, Jih-Hwa Guh, Pi-Hui Liang
A series of N-acyl, N-alkoxycarbonyl, and N-alkylcarbamoyl derivatives of 2'-deoxy-glucosyl bearing oleanolic saponins were synthesized and evaluated against HL-60, PC-3, and HT29 tumor cancer cells. The SAR studies revealed that the activity increased in order of conjugation of 2' -amino group with carbamate > amide > urea derivatives. Lengthening the alkyl chain increased the cytotoxicity, the peak activity was found to around heptyl to nonyl substitutions. 2'-N-heptoxycarbonyl derivative 56 was found to be the most cytotoxic (IC50 = 0...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131015/therapeutic-response-to-paroxetine-in-major-depressive-disorder-predicted-by-dna-methylation
#6
Naohiro Takeuchi, Shinpei Nonen, Masaki Kato, Masataka Wakeno, Yoshiteru Takekita, Toshihiko Kinoshita, Fumihiko Kugawa
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants have variable therapeutic effects, depending on genetic and environmental factors. Approximately 30% of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients do not respond significantly to antidepressants such as paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). However, the biological mechanisms behind this phenomenon are mostly unknown. Here, we examined the role of patients' epigenetic background in SSRI efficacy. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of the peripheral blood of Japanese MDD patients was performed by using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip...
November 4, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119193/outpatient-management-of-knee-osteoarthritis
#7
Yiyang Liow, Wilson Wang, Victor Weng Keong Loh
Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common disease that causes significant disability. Most patients can be managed conservatively in the outpatient setting. A small minority require surgery. The cornerstones of treatment are weight loss, exercise and analgesia. Walking aids, medial patellar taping, acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are useful management adjuncts. Current evidence does not support routine prescription of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements. Early consultation with an orthopaedic surgeon should be made when conservative measures fail...
October 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117378/insecticidal-activities-of-constituents-of-litsea-cubeba-fruit-extracts-effective-against-the-maize-weevil-coleoptera-curculionidae
#8
Hong Jian Zhang, Lian He Zheng, Kuo Zhao, Yan Chen, Zou Yi
In this study, we investigated the insecticidal activities, including contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity, and repellent activity, of Litsea cubeba fruit extracts against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The extracts, obtained by liquid-liquid extraction in n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and water were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the different extract types, chloroform extracts exhibited the strongest repellent, contact, and fumigant activities against S...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117148/physical-structural-barrier-and-antifungal-characterization-of-chitosan-zein-edible-films-with-added-essential-oils
#9
Monserrat Escamilla-García, Georgina Calderón-Domínguez, Jorge J Chanona-Pérez, Angélica G Mendoza-Madrigal, Prospero Di Pierro, Blanca E García-Almendárez, Aldo Amaro-Reyes, Carlos Regalado-González
Edible films (EFs) have gained great interest due to their ability to keep foods safe, maintaining their physical and organoleptic properties for a longer time. The aim of this work was to develop EFs based on a chitosan-zein mixture with three different essential oils (EOs) added: anise, orange, and cinnamon, and to characterize them to establish the relationship between their structural and physical properties. The addition of an EO into an EF significantly affected (p < 0.05) the a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values of the film surface...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111978/the-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-eif4e-harnesses-hyaluronan-production-to-drive-its-malignant-activity
#10
Hiba Ahmad Zahreddine, Biljana Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Audrey Emond, Filippa Pettersson, Ronald Midura, Mark Lauer, Sonia Del Rincon, Valbona Cali, Sarit Assouline, Wilson H Miller, Vincent Hascall, Katherine Borden
The microenvironment provides a functional substratum supporting tumour growth. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of this structure. While the role of HA in malignancy is well-defined, the mechanisms driving its biosynthesis in cancer are poorly understood. We show that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E, an oncoprotein, drives HA biosynthesis. eIF4E stimulates production of enzymes that synthesize the building blocks of HA, UDP-Glucuronic acid and UDP-N-Acetyl-Glucosamine, as well as hyaluronic acid synthase which forms the disaccharide chain...
November 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103689/a-metabolomic-investigation-into-the-effects-of-temperature-on-streptococcus-agalactiae-from-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-based-on-uplc-ms-ms
#11
Wen-Ting Hu, Wei-Liang Guo, Ai-Yun Meng, Yun Sun, Shi-Feng Wang, Zhen-Yu Xie, Yong-Can Zhou, Chaozu He
Streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most serious diseases in farmed tilapia, and temperature is one of the most important environmental factors related to its outbreak. To elucidate the influence of temperature variation on the pathogen from a metabolic perspective, the global metabolomics of 2 pathogenic strains of S. agalactiae from sick tilapia were analyzed at 35°C and 25°C using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) combined with pattern recognition approaches and pathway analysis...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101051/histone-methyltransferase-g9a-modulates-hepatic-insulin-signaling-via-regulating-hmga1
#12
Weili Xue, Jin Huang, Hong Chen, Yu Zhang, Xiuqin Zhu, Jianshuang Li, Wenquan Zhang, Yangmian Yuan, Yan Wang, Ling Zheng, Kun Huang
Hepatic insulin sensitivity is critical for glucose homeostasis, and insulin resistance is a fundamental syndrome found in various metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Despite considerable studies on the mechanisms of hepatic insulin resistance, the link between epigenetic regulation and the development of insulin resistance remains elusive. Here, we reported that G9a/EHMT2, a histone methyltransferase, was markedly decreased in the liver of db/db mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
October 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098722/the-structure-of-the-cutaneous-pedal-glands-in-the-banded-snail-cepaea-hortensis-m%C3%A3-ller-1774
#13
Janek von Byern, Norbert Cyran, Waltraud Klepal, Livia Rudoll, Johannes Suppan, Sophie Greistorfer
Although gastropods have been crawling through the ocean and on the land for 60 million years, we still know very little about the sticky mucus produced in their foot. Most research has been focused on marine species in particular and, to a lesser extent, on the well-known terrestrial species Arion vulgaris and Cornu aspersum. Within this study, we aim to characterize the foot anatomy of a smaller representative of the family Helicidae, the banded snail Cepaea hortensis. We are particularly interested in the microanatomy of the foot glands, their position, and the histochemical nature of their secretory content...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091421/poly-methyl-6-acryloyl-%C3%AE-d-glucosaminoside-as-a-cationic-glycomimetic-of-chitosan
#14
Walter T Liau, Andrea M Kasko
Chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide derived from one of the most abundant natural polymers, chitin, has been investigated extensively for its antimicrobial properties. However, it suffers from the inherent drawbacks of natural products such as batch-to-batch variability, limited supply, contamination, and potential adverse reaction. Additionally, its solubility depends on the degree of deacetylation and pH, as it is only soluble under acidic conditions. As an alternative to chitosan, we synthesized the protected cationic glycomimetic monomer methyl N-Fmoc-6-acryloyl-β-d-glucosaminoside from glucosamine...
November 1, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090916/deinococcucins-a-d-aminoglycolipids-from-deinococcus-sp-a-gut-bacterium-of-the-carpenter-ant-camponotus-japonicus
#15
Bora Shin, So Hyun Park, Byung-Yong Kim, Shin-Il Jo, Sang Kook Lee, Jongheon Shin, Dong-Chan Oh
Four new aminoglycolipids, deinococcucins A-D (1-4), were discovered from a Deinococcus sp. strain isolated from the gut of queen carpenter ants, Camponotus japonicus. The structures of deinococcucins A-D were elucidated as a combination of N-acetyl glucosamine, 2,3-dihydroxypropanoic acid, and an alkyl amine with a C16 or C17 hydrocarbon chain primarily based on 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The exact location of the olefinic double bond in deinococcucins C and D (3 and 4) was assigned based on the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy data obtained after olefin metathesis...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089942/the-possible-influence-of-non-synonymous-point-mutations-within-the-fima-adhesin-of-non-typhoidal-salmonella-nts-isolates-in-the-process-of-host-adaptation
#16
Sahar Alshalchi, Shivdeep S Hayer, Ran An, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Christian Flores-Figueroa, Ryan Nguyen, Dale Lauer, Karen Olsen, Julio Alvarez, David Boxrud, Carol Cardona, Sinisa Vidovic
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) remains a global pathogen that affects a wide range of animal species. We analyzed a large number of NTS isolates of different host origins, including Salmonella Heidelberg (n = 80, avian), S. Dublin (50, bovine), S. Typhimurium var 5- (n = 40, porcine), S. 4,5,12,:i:- (n = 40, porcine), S. Cerro (n = 16, bovine), and S. Montevideo (n = 14, bovine), using virulence profiling of the bcfC, mgtC, ssaC, invE, pefA, stn, sopB, and siiE virulence-associated genes, a biofilm production assay, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and the full-length sequencing of the fimA (adhesin) and iroN (receptor) genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080074/bioconversion-of-%C3%AE-chitin-into-n-acetyl-glucosamine-using-chitinases-produced-by-marine-derived-aeromonas-caviae-isolates
#17
Flávio Augusto Cardozo, Juan Miguel Gonzalez, Valker Araujo Feitosa, Adalberto Pessoa, Irma Nelly Gutierrez Rivera
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide with great application potential in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and biomaterial areas. GlcNAc is currently produced by chemical hydrolysis of chitin, but the current processes are environmentally unfriendly, have low yield and high cost. This study demonstrates the potential to produce GlcNAc from α-chitin using chitinases of ten marine-derived Aeromonas isolates as a sustainable alternative to the current chemical process. The isolates were characterized as Aeromonas caviae by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using six housekeeping genes (gltA, groL, gyrB, metG, ppsA, and recA), not presented the virulence genes verified (alt, act, ast, ahh1, aer, aerA, hlyA, ascV and ascFG), but showed hemolytic activity on blood agar...
October 27, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050433/effect-of-the-addition-of-glycosaminoglycans-on-bone-and-cartilaginous-development-of-broiler-chickens
#18
Sarah Sgavioli, Elaine T Santos, Liliana L Borges, Giuliana M Andrade-Garcia, Diana M C Castiblanco, Vitor R Almeida, Rodrigo G Garcia, Antônio C Shimano, Irenilza A Nääs, Silvana M Baraldi-Artoni
Locomotion issues in broiler production may decrease performance (carcass yield and traits) and lead to high financial losses. This study evaluates the addition of glucosaminoglycans in broiler diets to minimize the lack of proper bone development and joint weakening. The experiment was conducted using 2,160 broilers randomly distributed in a factorial pattern (3 × 3) using 3 levels of glucosamine sulfate (0, 0.12, and 0.24%) and 3 levels of chondroitin sulfate addition (0, 0.08, and 0.16%). Eight repetitions were used for each treatment, distributed in 72 pens with 30 broilers each...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046501/characterization-of-amylolytic-enzyme-overproducing-mutant-of-aspergillus-luchuensis-obtained-by-ion-beam-mutagenesis
#19
Toshihiro Kojo, Chihiro Kadooka, Marisa Komohara, Shiori Onitsuka, Miya Tanimura, Yukiko Muroi, Shugo Kurazono, Yohei Shiraishi, Ken Oda, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Masahira Onoue, Kayu Okutsu, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kazunori Takamine, Taiki Futagami, Kazuki Mori, Hisanori Tamaki
Aspergillus luchuensis is a kuro (black) koji fungus that has been used as a starch degrader for the awamori- and shochu-making industries in Japan. In this study, we investigated the effect of ion beam irradiation on A. luchuensis RIB2601 and obtained a high starch-degrading mutant strain U1. Strain U1 showed reduced growth rate, whereas it showed higher α-amylase, glucoamylase, and α-glucosidase activities on a mycelial mass basis than the wild type (wt) strain both on agar plates and in rice koji. In addition, strain U1 showed higher N-acetylglucosamine content in the cell wall and higher sensitivity to calcofluor white, suggesting a deficiency in cell wall composition...
October 17, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045794/allosteric-modulation-of-the-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-hepatitis-delta-virus-like-ribozyme-by-glucosamine-6-phosphate-the-substrate-of-the-adjacent-gene-product
#20
Luiz F M Passalacqua, Randi M Jimenez, Jennifer Y Fong, Andrej Lupták
Self-cleaving ribozymes were discovered 30 years ago and have been found throughout nature, from bacteria to animals, but little is known about their biological functions and regulation, particularly how cofactors and metabolites alter their activity. A hepatitis delta virus-like self-cleaving ribozyme maps upstream of a phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM) open reading frame in the genome of the human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The presence of a ribozyme in the untranslated region of glmM suggests a regulation mechanism of gene expression...
November 3, 2017: Biochemistry
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