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Zahra Ranjbar-Navazi, Morteza Eskandani, Mohammad Johari-Ahar, Ali Nemati, Hamid Akbari, Soudabeh Davaran, Yadollah Omidi
Nanoscaled quantum dots (QDs), with unique optical properties have been used for development of theranostics. Here, InP/ZnS QDs were synthesized and functionalized with folate (QD-FA), D-glucosamine (QD-GA) or both (QD-FA-GA). The bi-functionalized QDs were further conjugated with doxorubicin (QD-FA-GA-DOX). Optimum Indium to fatty acid (In: MA) ratio was 1:3.5. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs revealed spherical morphology for the QDs (11 nm). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectrum confirmed the chemical composition of the QDs...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
Andri M T Lubis, Carles Siagian, Erick Wonggokusuma, Aldo F Marsetyo, Bambang Setyohadi
BACKGROUND: Glucosamine, chondroitinsulfate are frequently used to prevent further joint degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a supplement containing organic sulphur and also reported to slow anatomical joint progressivity in the knee OA. The MSM is often combined with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. However, there are controversies whether glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate or their combination with methylsulfonylmethane could effectively reduce pain in OA...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Jiehua Lei, Yuqi Yuan, Zhonglin Lyu, Mengmeng Wang, Qi Liu, Hongwei Wang, Lin Yuan, Hong Chen
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) hold great potential for inducing the neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and have brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the disadvantages of natural heparin/HS, such as difficulty in isolating with a sufficient amount, highly heterogeneous in structure, the risk of immune responses, have limited their further therapeutic applications. Thus, there is a great demand for stable, controllable and well-defined synthetic alternatives of heparin/HS with more effective biological functions...
August 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shengyu Zhang, Liuwan Zhao, Nanqin Qiu, Yanjun Liu, Bohui Xu, Hongyan Zhu
Hypoxia, an outstanding characteristic of various solid tumors, has been considered a critical factor of aggressive tumor phenotypes, poor clinical prognosis, and increased expression of the multi drug-resistant gene. Therefore, it is critical to develop a drug delivery system to enhance the delivery effect of the antitumor drug in the hypoxic tumor. We constructed two types of tumor-targeting micelles based on chitosan, and evaluated their properties in targeting hypoxic tumors. Chitosan-based micelles consisted of a hydrophobic group octyl group, a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol, tumor-targeting ligands glucosamine or folic acid, and a transmembrane peptide 9-D-arginine...
August 7, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Yuntao Hu, Qing Zheng, Wolfgang Wanek
Soil fluxomics analysis can provide pivotal information for understanding diverse soil biochemical pathways and their regulation, but direct measurement methods are very rare. In this work, we describe an approach to measure soil extracellular metabolite (amino sugar and amino acid) fluxes based on the (15)N isotope pool dilution technique via liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS). We produced commercially unavailable (15)N and (13)C labeled amino sugars and amino acids by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan isolated from isotopically labeled bacterial biomass, and used them as tracers ((15)N) and internal standards ((13)C)...
August 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Guihua Cui, Zhengguo Gao, Nannan Qiu, Toshifumi Satoh, Toyoji Kakuchi, Qian Duan
Regioselective modification of d-glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose, GA) through C-1 and C-2 positions to synthesized thermo-responsive D-Glucosamine-poly(N-iso-propylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was investigated for the first time. Two different schemes of the synthesis for GA derivatives (GA-PNIPAM (i) and (ii)) with well-defined structures using 3,4,6-tri-o-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-phthalimido-β-d-glucopyranose and 1,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose intermediates were examined...
November 10, 2016: Materials
Julius Toeri, Anayancy Osorio-Madrazo, Marie-Pierre Laborie
Chemically stable porous azacrown ether-crosslinked chitosan films were prepared by reacting varying molar amounts of N,N-diallyl-7,16-diaza-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-dibenzo-18-crown-6 (molar equivalents ranging from 0, 0.125, 0.167, 0.25 and 0.5) with chitosan. Their chemical and structural properties were characterized by solid state-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), microscopy, and X-ray analyses, as well as gel content. NMR and FTIR analyses of the reaction products suggested that new -CH₂- crosslink bridges were produced between the amine groups of chitosan (Ch) and the allyl groups of the azacrown (DAC)...
April 11, 2017: Materials
Maria Cecília Zorél Meneghetti, Tarsis Gesteira Ferreira, Alexandre Keiji Tashima, Suely F Chavante, Edwin Alexander Yates, Jian Liu, Helena Bonciani Nader, Marcelo A Lima
3-O-Sulfotransferase enzyme (sHS) from Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and its substrate specificity was investigated against a number of GAG structures, including modified heparin polysaccharides and model oligosaccharides. For the heparin polysaccharides, derived from porcine intestinal mucosa heparin, sulfate groups were incorporated into glucosamine residues containing both N-sulfated and N-acetylated substitution within the regions of the predominant repeating disaccharide, either I-ANS or I-ANAc. However, the resulting polysaccharides did not stabilize antithrombin, which is correlated with anticoagulant activity...
August 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Qinghua Han, Yi Qian, Xuda Wang, Qingying Zhang, Jingrong Cui, Pengfei Tu, Hong Liang
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin led to the isolation of ten new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, julibrosides J37-J46 (1-10), along with six known analogues (11-16). In addition, 11 prosapogenins (17-27) were prepared by mild or strong alkaline hydrolysis of the total saponin. The structures of 1-27 were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means, and their cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines, BGC-823, A549, HCT-116, and HepG2 were evaluated...
July 29, 2017: Fitoterapia
Qais Ibrahim Abualassal, Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam, Zead Helmi Abudayeh, Loay Khaled Hassouneh
Purpose: To describe a chemoenzymatic approach joining an enzymatic regioselective hydrolysis of peracetylated N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine (A) with a mild controlled acyl relocation which resulted 2-acetamido-2 deoxy-1,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranose (1B). Methods: Immobilization of lipase on decaoctyl (DSEOD) and octyl-agarose (OSCL) was carried out as reported by the work of Bastida et al. The newly developed RP-HPLC method for examining the enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out isocratically utilizing a HPLC system...
June 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ellis C O'Neill, Giulia Pergolizzi, Clare E M Stevenson, David M Lawson, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Robert A Field
The GH94 glycoside hydrolase cellodextrin phosphorylase (CDP, EC produces cellodextrin oligomers from short β-1→4-glucans and α-D-glucose 1-phosphate. Compared to cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP), which produces cellobiose from glucose and α-D-glucose 1-phosphate, CDP is biochemically less well characterised. Herein, we investigate the donor and acceptor substrate specificity of recombinant CDP from Ruminiclostridium thermocellum and we isolate and characterise a glucosamine addition product to the cellobiose acceptor with the non-natural donor α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate...
July 21, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Yuna Naraoka, Hiroshi Harada, Mikiyuki Katagiri, Haruo Yamamura, Takuji Shirasawa
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-acetyl glucosamine and proteoglycan-containing supplement (NGPS) on knee pain and locomotor functions in middle-aged and elderly persons with knee pain. An open trial was conducted on 19 subjects suffering from knee pain. The subjects, aged (55.6 ± 6.9) years, were given the NGPS tablets, which they must take 3 times per day, that contain 526.5 mg of N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) and 33.6 mg of proteoglycan for 12 weeks. Subjective pain was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), while the function of the knee with regard to daily operation was evaluated using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Score (JKOM)...
2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Amy Christine Brown
BACKGROUND: No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. METHODS: Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jos Runhaar, Rianne M Rozendaal, Marienke van Middelkoop, Hans J W Bijlsma, Michael Doherty, Krysia S Dziedzic, L Stefan Lohmander, Timothy McAlindon, Weiya Zhang, Sita Bierma Zeinstra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral glucosamine in subgroups of people with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) based on baseline pain severity, body mass index (BMI), sex, structural abnormalities and presence of inflammation using individual patient data. METHODS: After a systematic search of the literature and clinical trial registries, all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of any oral glucosamine substance in patients with clinically or radiographically defined hip or knee OA were contacted...
July 28, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Zheng Wu, Wenli Gao, Shaotong Zhou, Zhaolin Wen, Xianpu Ni, Huanzhang Xia
Gentamicin B and gentamicin C1a are the direct precursor for Isepamicin and Etimicin synthesis, respectively. Although producing strains have been improved for many years, both gentamicin B titer and gentamicin C1a titer in the fermentation are still low. Because all gentamicin components are biosynthesized using UDP-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and UDP-xylose as precursors, we tried to explore strategies for development of strains capable of directing greater fluxes of these precursors into production of gentamicins...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Flávia Santiago de Sousa Rosa, Rúbia Teodoro Stuepp, Filipe Modolo, Michelle Tillmann Biz
Organic silicon (OS), glucosamine sulfate (GS), and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) have been related to bone and connective tissue health and have been considered as basic therapy for osteoarthrosis disorders. Therefore, the aim was to analyze the effect of the association of these three components in mandibular bone defects in rats. Nine rats were used for histocompatibility test. In each animal was implanted the composition (70% OS, 15% GS, 15% MSM) and gutta percha (control) under the dorsal subcutaneous tissue...
July 28, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yangyang Xu, Zhigang Wu, Peiru Zhang, He Zhu, Hailiang Zhu, Qitao Song, Li Wang, Faxing Wang, Peng George Wang, Jiansong Cheng
A novel enzymatic approach was developed for facile production of glycopeptides carrying natural eukaryotic N-glycans. In this approach, peptides can be GlcNAcylated at one or two natural N-glycosylation sites via two-step enzymatic reactions catalyzed by an evolved N-glycosyltransferase (ApNGT(Q469A)) and a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase (GlmA), respectively. The resulting GlcNAc-peptides were further modified by an endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase M mutant (EndoM(N175Q)) to generate glycopeptides. In three steps of enzymatic catalysis, glycopeptides carrying complex-type N-glycans can be efficiently synthesized...
July 28, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Eri Tabata, Akinori Kashimura, Satoshi Wakita, Misa Ohno, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Yoshihiro Kino, Vaclav Matoska, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), functions as a major structural component in crustaceans, insects and fungi and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in the nature. Although these chitin-containing organisms have been suggested as novel animal feed resources, chitin has long been considered as indigestible fibers in the animal body. Recently, we reported that acidic chitinase (Chia) is a protease-resistant major glycosidase in mouse gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and that it digests chitin in the mouse stomach...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Rong Fan, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Yuqi Gao, Xuebo Liu
Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Tatiana V Tyrtysh, Elena Yu Korchagina, Ivan M Ryzhov, Nicolai V Bovin
Gram scale synthesis of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides in the form of 3-aminopropyl glycosides is proposed starting from 3-O-benzoyl-1,6-anhydro-N-acetylglucosamine. Its galactosylation followed by re-protection gave lactosamine derivative with single free 2'-OH group in total yield 75%. Standard fucosylation and next run of re-protection in total yield 88% gave a trisaccharide Fuc-Gal-anhydroGlcNAc with single free 3'-OH group. Its standard α-galactosylation gave protected B (type 2) tetrasaccharide...
June 27, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
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