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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216796/design-and-synthesis-of-nanofibers-of-self-assembled-de-novo-glycoconjugates-towards-mucosal-lining-restoration-and-anti-inflammatory-drug-delivery
#1
Jie Zhou, Michael O'Keeffe, Gongxian Liao, Fan Zhao, Cox Terhorst, Bing Xu
The medical practice for IBD is solely based on anti-inflammatory drugs, but the outcome is far from ideal. Our long-term research goal is to seek a better clinical outcome by combining the anti-inflammatory therapy with physical mucus layer restoration. As the first step towards that objective, we choose to develop self-assembled hydrogels of de novo glycoconjugates that consist of anti-inflammatory drugs and glycopeptides. By covalently linking peptides (e.g., nap-phe-phe-lys), saccharides (e.g., glucosamine), and an anti-inflammatory drug (i...
October 6, 2016: Tetrahedron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215637/polyglycolic-acid-sheet-attached-with-fibrin-glue-can-facilitate-faster-epithelialization-of-the-mastoid-cavity-after-canal-wall-down-tympanoplasty
#2
Taisuke Kobayashi, Kiyofumi Gyo, Masahiro Komori, Masamitsu Hyodo
OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively investigated whether polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet attached to the bone surface using fibrin glue facilitate faster epithelialization of the mastoid bowl after canal wall-down (CWD) tympanoplasty compared to a simple dressing using poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine (Kichin) sheet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After completion of the CWD tympanoplasty, PGA sheet (n=16, PGA group) with fibrin glue or Kichin sheet (n=38, Kichin group) were placed on the bone surface of the mastoid bowl...
February 16, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214837/efficacy-of-glucosamine-sulphate-in-skin-ageing-results-from-an-ex-vivo-anti-ageing-model-and-a-clinical-trial
#3
Audrey Gueniche, Isabelle Castiel-Higounenc
BACKGROUND: Glucosamine sulphate (GS) is essential in the biosynthesis of glycolipids, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronate, and proteoglycans. Connective tissues primarily contain collagen and proteoglycans and play an important role in skin ageing. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess ex vivo the impact of GS on skin ageing parameters and in vivo the effect of GS on the skin physiology of mature healthy volunteers after oral intake. METHODS: The impact of GS on skin ageing was assessed ex vivo via different immunohistochemical assays and histology and via a clinical study using biopsies...
February 18, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214084/il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-roles-in-chondroprotective-effects-of-glucosamine-in-experimental-osteoarthritis
#4
Nermien E Waly, Abeer Refaiy, Nora M Aborehab
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease of the whole joint. Glucosamine (GlcN) treatment may have a chondroprotective effect on OA. We investigated the mechanism of action of glucosamine treatment through interleukin-10 (Il-10) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF β-1). METHODS: Thirty male albino rats were used. A single intraarticular (i.a.) injection of 2mg of Monosodium Iodoacetate (MIA) was injected into the knee joint of anesthetized rats...
February 11, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212932/purification-and-characterisation-of-a-pronase-inducible-lectin-isolated-from-human-serum
#5
Beulaja Manikandan, Manikandan Ramar, Thiagarajan Raman, Mullainadhan Periasamy, Arumugam Munusamy
A new lectin was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from pronase treated human serum by a single-step of affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B. The isolated lectin agglutinated five types of vertebrate RBC, with highest titer against hen RBC. This activity was independent of divalent cations, insensitive to EDTA and specific to mannosamine, glucosamine as well as galactosamine. This lectin gave a single symmetrical peak in its native form with a molecular mass estimate of 6kDa in FPLC analysis and 6...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202308/nanaomycin-h-a-new-nanaomycin-analog
#6
Takuji Nakashima, Toru Kimura, Rei Miyano, Hirotaka Matsuo, Tomoyasu Hirose, Aoi Kimishima, Kenichi Nonaka, Masato Iwatsuki, Jun Nakanishi, Yōko Takahashi, Satoshi Ōmura
Physicochemical screening identified a new nanaomycin analog, nanaomycin H, which was isolated from a culture broth of Streptomyces rosa subsp. notoensis OS-3966. This microorganism is already known to produce seven nanaomycin compounds, (nanaomycin A to G). Structural elucidation of nanaomycin H showed it to be a pyranonaphthoquinone with a mycothiol moiety. A N-acetylcysteine S-conjugate of nanaomycin H, without α-glucosamine linked to myo-inositol moiety, mercapturic acid derivative, was also detected in the same culture broth...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197935/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-total-saponin-fraction-from-dioscorea-nipponica-makino-on-gouty-arthritis-and-its-influence-on-nalp3-inflammasome
#7
Qi Zhou, Dong-Hua Yu, Ning Zhang, Shu-Min Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine Dioscorea nipponica for the treatment of monosodium urate crystals-induced gouty arthritis (GA) in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: normal, model, indomethacin and three total saponin (900, 300 and 100 mg/kg) groups. The liver, kidney and serum levels of lysosomal enzymes, antioxidant capacities, and inflammatory factors were measured. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of the NALP3 inflammasome components in the mononuclear cells of rats' peripheral blood were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting methods, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197132/combined-carbohydrates-support-rich-communities-of-particle-associated-marine-bacterioplankton
#8
Martin Sperling, Judith Piontek, Anja Engel, Karen H Wiltshire, Jutta Niggemann, Gunnar Gerdts, Antje Wichels
Carbohydrates represent an important fraction of labile and semi-labile marine organic matter that is mainly comprised of exopolymeric substances derived from phytoplankton exudation and decay. This study investigates the composition of total combined carbohydrates (tCCHO; >1 kDa) and the community development of free-living (0.2-3 μm) and particle-associated (PA) (3-10 μm) bacterioplankton during a spring phytoplankton bloom in the southern North Sea. Furthermore, rates were determined for the extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis that catalyzes the initial step in bacterial organic matter remineralization...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192411/the-glcn6p-cofactor-plays-multiple-catalytic-roles-in-the-glms-ribozyme
#9
Jamie L Bingaman, Sixue Zhang, David R Stevens, Neela H Yennawar, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer, Philip C Bevilacqua
RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have remarkably diverse biological roles despite having limited chemical diversity. Protein enzymes enhance their reactivity through recruitment of cofactors; likewise, the naturally occurring glmS ribozyme uses the glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) organic cofactor for phosphodiester bond cleavage. Prior structural and biochemical studies have implicated GlcN6P as the general acid. Here we describe new catalytic roles of GlcN6P through experiments and calculations. Large stereospecific normal thio effects and a lack of metal-ion rescue in the holoribozyme indicate that nucleobases and the cofactor play direct chemical roles and align the active site for self-cleavage...
February 13, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192075/the-effect-of-additive-compounds-on-glycerol-induced-damage-to-human-chondrocytes
#10
Joshua Hahn, Leila Laouar, Janet A W Elliott, Gregory S Korbutt, Nadr M Jomha
High concentrations of cryoprotective agents are required for cryopreservation techniques such as vitrification. Glycerol is a common cryoprotective agent used in cryopreservation protocols but this agent is toxic at high concentrations. This work is an attempt to mitigate the toxic effects of high concentrations of glycerol on intact chondrocytes in human knee articular cartilage from total knee arthroplasty patients by simultaneous exposure to glycerol and a variety of additive compounds. The resulting cell viability in the cartilage samples as measured by membrane integrity staining showed that, in at least one concentration or in combination, all of the tested additive compounds (tetramethylpyrazine, ascorbic acid, chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine sulphate) were able to reduce the deleterious effects of glycerol exposure when examination of membrane integrity took place on a delayed time frame...
February 10, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188702/control-of-chitin-nanofiber-production-by-the-lipid-producing-diatom-cyclotella-sp-through-fed-batch-addition-of-dissolved-silicon-and-nitrate-in-a-bubble-column-photobioreactor
#11
Omar Chiriboga, Gregory L Rorrer
Diatoms are single-celled algae that make cell walls of nanopatterned biogenic silica called frustules through metabolic uptake of dissolved silicon and its templated condensation into biosilica. The centric marine diatom Cyclotella sp. also produces intracellular lipids and the valued co-product chitin, an N-acetyl glucosamine biopolymer that is extruded from selected frustule pores as pure nanofibers. The goal of this study was to develop a nutrient feeding strategy to control the production of chitin nanofibers from Cyclotella with the co-production of biofuel lipids...
February 11, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187312/glucose-phosphorylated-on-carbon-6-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-binding-to-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-and-inhibits-its-bioactivities
#12
Yuu Fujita, Kiyohito Yagi
Lipid A comprises the active region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and its phosphate group is required for LPS activities. Additionally, it is essential for effects of inhibitors of LPS-induced coagulation activity in limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) tests. Lipid A has phosphorylated glucosamine residues, which are structurally similar to glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). This study focused on the antagonistic effects of glucose phosphates on the action of protein or non-protein inhibitors against LAL coagulation, LPS-LPS-binding protein (LBP) interaction, and LPS bioactivities...
February 6, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177792/utilization-of-carbon-sources-by-clinical-isolates-of-i-aeromonas-i
#13
Karoline de Campos Prediger, Monica Surek, Cibelle De Borba Dalagassa, Flávia Emanoelli Araújo de Assis, Mário Sérgio Piantavini, Emanuel E M Souza, Fabio O F O Pedrosa, Sônia Maria de Souza Santos Farah, Dayane Alberton, Cyntia Maria Telles Fadel-Picheth
Bacteria in the genus <i>Aeromonas</i> are primarily aquatic organisms; however, some species can cause diseases in humans, ranging from wound infections to septicemia, of which diarrhea is the most common condition. The ability to use a variety of carbon substrates is advantageous for pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, we used Biolog GN2 microplates to analyze the ability of 103 clinical, predominantly diarrheal, isolates of <i>Aeromonas</i> to use various carbon sources and verified whether among the substrates metabolized by these strains there were some endogenous to the human intestine...
December 22, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177244/replacing-d-glucosamine-with-its-l-enantiomer-in-glycosylated-antitumor-ether-lipids-gaels-retains-cytotoxic-effects-against-epithelial-cancer-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Makanjuola Ogunsina, Pranati Samadder, Temilolu Idowu, Gilbert Arthur, Frank M Schweizer
We describe metabolically inert L-glucosamine-based L-GAELs that retain the cytotoxic effects of the D-GAELs including the ability to kill BT-474 breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). When compared to adriamycin, cisplatin and the anti CSC agent salinomycin, L-GAELs display superior activity to kill cancer stem cells (CSCs). Mode of action studies indicate that L-GAELs like the D-GAELs kill cells via an apoptosis-independent mechanism that was not due to membranolytic effects.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169491/fermentative-production-of-l-pipecolic-acid-from-glucose-and-alternative-carbon-sources
#15
Fernando Pérez-García, Joe Max Risse, Karl Friehs, Volker F Wendisch
Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the million-ton scale production of amino acids and has recently been engineered for production of the cyclic non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolic acid (L-PA). In this synthetic pathway L-lysine was converted to L-PA by oxidative deamination, dehydration and reduction by L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (deaminating) from Silicibacter pomeroyi and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase from C. glutamicum. However, production of L-PA occurred as by-product of L-lysine production only...
February 7, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161954/-two-photon-dye-cocktail-for-dual-color-3d-imaging-of-pancreatic-beta-and-alpha-cells-in-live-islets
#16
Bikram Keshari Agrawalla, Hyo Won Lee, Wut-Hmone Phue, Anandhkumar Raju, Jong-Jin Kim, Hwan Myung Kim, Nam-Young Kang, Young-Tae Chang
Insulin secreting beta cell together with glucagon producing alpha cell play an essential role in maintaining the optimal blood glucose level in the body, development of selective probes for imaging of these cell types in live islet are highly desired. Herein, we report the development of 2-Glucosamine based two-photon fluorescent probe: TP-β, suitable for beta cell imaging in live pancreatic islet from mice. The flow cytometry studies confirmed that TP-β is suitable for isolation of primary beta cells. Moreover, the two-photon imaging of TP-β stained pancreatic islet showed brightly stained beta cells in live islets...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150883/analysis-of-protein-o-glcnacylation-by-mass-spectrometry
#17
Junfeng Ma, Gerald W Hart
O-linked β-D-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) addition (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification of serine/threonine residues of proteins, is involved in diverse cellular metabolic and signaling pathways. Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation underlies the initiation and progression of multiple chronic diseases including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for the analysis of protein O-GlcNAcylation, but instead of discussing the classical biochemical techniques, this unit covers O-GlcNAc characterization by combining several enrichment methods and mass spectrometry detection techniques [including collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher energy collision dissociation (HCD), and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry]...
February 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Protein Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144573/glucosamine-and-chondroitin-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#18
EDITORIAL
Haris S Vasiliadis, Konstantinos Tsikopoulos
The prevalence of primary or idiopathic osteoarthritis (OA) of knee and hip joints has substantially increased in general population during the last decades. Analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are currently extensively used as non-surgical treatment options. However, they act as symptomatic treatments, not offering a cure of OA and they are accused for an increased risk of adverse events. Glucosamine (GL) and chondroitin (CH) are nutritional supplements that have recently gained widespread use as treatment options for OA...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143744/can-fungi-compete-with-marine-sources-for-chitosan-production
#19
REVIEW
V Ghormade, E K Pathan, M V Deshpande
Chitosan, a β-1,4-linked glucosamine polymer is formed by deacetylation of chitin. It has a wide range of applications from agriculture to human health care products. Chitosan is commercially produced from shellfish, shrimp waste, crab and lobster processing using strong alkalis at high temperatures for long time periods. The production of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources has gained increased attention in recent years due to potential advantages in terms of homogenous polymer length, high degree of deacetylation and solubility over the current marine source...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137280/high-dimensional-assessment-of-b-cell-responses-to-quadrivalent-meningococcal-conjugate-and-plain-polysaccharide-vaccine
#20
Daniel O'Connor, Elizabeth A Clutterbuck, Amber J Thompson, Matthew D Snape, Maheshi N Ramasamy, Dominic F Kelly, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a globally important cause of meningitis and septicaemia. Twelve capsular groups of meningococci are known, and quadrivalent vaccines against four of these (A, C, W and Y) are available as plain-polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. Here we apply contemporary methods to describe B-cell responses to meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. METHODS: Twenty adults were randomly assigned to receive either a meningococcal plain-polysaccharide or conjugate vaccine; one month later all received the conjugate vaccine...
January 30, 2017: Genome Medicine
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