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Nina Klimova, Aaron Long, Tibor Kristian
Mitochondria are complex organelles that undergo constant fusion and fission in order to adapt to the ever-changing cellular environment. The fusion/fission proteins, localized in the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane, play critical roles under pathological conditions such as acute brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Post-translational modifications of these proteins tightly regulate their function and activity, ultimately impacting mitochondrial dynamics and their efficiency to generate ATP. The individual post-translational modifications that are known to affect mitochondrial dynamics include SUMOylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, acetylation, O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, and proteolytic cleavage...
September 21, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
Mayank Khanna, Charani Ranasinghe, Ronald Jackson, Christopher Richard Parish
To establish the importance of virus-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions in virus infectivity, the poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) was used, as it binds HS and has both enveloped virus (EV) and non-enveloped mature virus (MV) forms. Initial studies showed that heparin inhibited plaque formation by both MV-rich WR and EV-rich IHD-J strains of VACV, with the EV-rich strain also losing trademark 'comet'-shaped plaques. However, using GFP-tagged EV and MV forms of VACV, based on IC50 values, heparin was 16-fold more effective at inhibiting the infectivity of the EV form compared to the MV form...
September 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Jing-Kun Yan, Yao-Yao Wang, Wen-Yi Qiu, Li-Xia Wu, Zhi-Chao Ding, Wu-Dan Cai
A novel proteoglycan, named CFPS-11, was isolated from Corbicula fluminea, which is a food source of freshwater bivalve mollusk. CFPS-11 had an average molecular weight of 807.7kDa and consisted of d-glucose and d-glucosamine in a molar ratio of 12.2:1.0. The protein moiety (∼5%) of CFPS-11 was covalently bonded to the polysaccharide chain in O-linkage type through both serine and thereonine residues. The polysaccharide chain of CFPS-11 was composed of (1→4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl and (1→3,6)-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, which branched at O-6...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Fatemeh Zahedipour, Razieh Dalirfardouei, Gholamreza Karimi, Khadijeh Jamialahmadi
Glucosamine is an amino sugar that is produced naturally in human body. It is an essential carbohydrate component of many cellular glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This popular over-the-counter supplement is also found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. Glucosamine and its derivatives have a long history in medicine for inflammatory conditions specially to relieve arthritis. This dietary supplement has numerous biological and pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-fibrotic, neuroprotective and cardioprotective activities...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hidemi Hattori, Hironori Tsujimoto, Kazuo Hase, Masayuki Ishihara
To examine the potential of chitosan-based agents for submucosal injection in endoscopic techniques, a chitosan derivative was prepared with lactose moieties linked to the amino groups of its glucosamine units (CH-LA). After dissolving CH-LA in neutral pH solutions, including physiological saline (CH-LA-S), its response to different concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans and proteins in the surrounding environment was examined. The CH-LA-S form changed in the presence of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and mucin) and protein (fibrinogen)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jos Runhaar, Rianne M Rozendaal, Marienke van Middelkoop, Hans J W Bijlsma, Michael Doherty, Krysia S Dziedzic, L Stefan Lohmander, Timothy McAlindon, Weiya Zhang, Sita Bierma Zeinstra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
C A Nuss, J Huegel, J F Boorman-Padgett, D S Choi, S N Weiss, J Vournakis, L J Soslowsky
Rotator cuff injuries frequently require surgical repairs which have a high failure rate. Biological augmentation has been utilized in an attempt to improve tendon repair. Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (sNAG) polymer containing nanofibers has been shown to increase the rate for healing of venous leg ulcers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing and analgesic properties of sNAG in a rat rotator cuff injury and repair model. 144 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a transection and repair of their left supraspinatus tendons...
September 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hirohiko Ise, Sadanori Yamasaki, Kazuaki Sueyoshi, Yoshiko Miura
Vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and peripherin belong to type III intermediate filament family and are expressed in mesenchymal cells, skeletal muscle cells, astrocytes and peripheral neurons, respectively. Vimentin and desmin possess N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding properties on cell surfaces. The rod II domain of these proteins is a GlcNAc-binding site, which also exists in GFAP and peripherin. However, the GlcNAc-binding activities and behaviors of these proteins remain unclear...
September 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Xinping Xu, Jianfeng Lin, Youbao Zhao, Elyssa Kirkman, Yee-Seul So, Yong-Sun Bahn, Xiaorong Lin
Morphotype switch is a cellular response to external and internal cues. The Cryptococcus neoformans species complex can undergo morphological transitions between the yeast and the hypha form, and such morphological changes profoundly affect cryptococcal interaction with various hosts. Filamentation in Cryptococcus was historically considered a mating response towards pheromone. Recent studies indicate the existence of pheromone-independent signaling pathways but their identity or the effectors remain unknown...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
Jun Liu, Fei Li, Cheng-Hai Gao, Yu Han, Huili Hao, Xiang-Xi Yi, Ri-Ming Huang
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming, atrichous and short rod-shaped endophytic actinomycete, designated strain BGMRC 2075T, was isolated from the leaves of Kandelia candel, and was subjected to polyphasic characterization to unravel its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BGMRC 2075T belongs to the genus Nocardioides,showing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Nocardioides aestuarii JC2056T (96.1 %), Nocardioides agariphilus MSL-28T (95...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Linpei Zhang, Hao Wang, Zhengxiong Zhou, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Zhen Kang
Heparosan is the start point for chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin and it is of great significance to efficiently synthesize heparosan in microorganisms. The effects of overexpressing key enzyme genes of the UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) pathway (pgcA, gtaB and tuaD) or the UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) pathway (glmS, glmM and glmU) on the heparosan production and molecular mass were analyzed in the constructed heparosan-producing Bacillus subtilis ((1.71±0.08) g/L). On this basis, heparosan production was increased to (2...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Eman G Khedr, El-Zeiny M Ebeid, Mohamed L Salem, Abdel-Aziz A Zidan, Esraa M Mosalam
The incidence of breast cancer remarkably increases all over the world. Therefore, there is a great demand to introduce new approaches into cancer treatment field. The current study was designated to evaluate the role of doxorubicin (DOX) and/or thymoquinone (TQ) nanomatrix in potentiating the cytotoxicity of either drug, and to investigate the ability of TQ to reduce cardiotoxicity of DOX in solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC)-bearing mice. DOX and TQ were loaded into F2 gel, which is a fully-acetylated poly-N-acetyl glucosamine nanofiber...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S R Figueroba, M F Groppo, D Faibish, F C Groppo
This study evaluated the effects of dexamethasone, parecoxib, and glucosamine on cartilage thickness and cytokine levels in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Forty-eight rats (24 female, 24 male) were assigned to four treatments administered once daily for 7 days: control (saline intramuscularly), parecoxib (0.3mg/kg intramuscularly), dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg intramuscularly), and glucosamine (80mg/kg orally). The thickness of TMJ cartilage and levels of four cytokines were measured. Median cartilage thickness was higher in males than in females in the control (253...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jeffrey L Vallet, Jeremy R Miles, Bradley A Freking, Shane Meyer
BACKGROUND: During late gestation the placental epithelial interface becomes highly folded, which involves changes in stromal hyaluronan. Hyaluronan is composed of glucoronate and N-acetyl-glucosamine. We hypothesized that supplementing gestating dams with glucosamine during this time would support placental folded-epithelial-bilayer development and increase litter size. In Exp. 1, gilts were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (UHO). UHO gilts were mated and then supplemented daily with 10 g glucosamine (n = 16) or glucose (control, n = 17) from d 85 of gestation until slaughter (d 105)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Dairo Meza-Morelos, Roberto Fernandez-Maestre
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an analytical technique that separates gas-phase ions drifting under an electric field according to their size to charge ratio. We used electrospray ionization-drift tube IMS coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry to measure the mobilities of glucosamine (GH(+) ) and caffeine (CH(+) ) ions in pure nitrogen or when the shift reagent (SR) 2-butanol was introduced in the drift gas at 6.9 mmol m(-3) . Binding energies of 2-butanol-ion adducts were calculated using Gaussian 09 at the CAMB3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Antônia S DE Oliveira, Cláudia F Lóssio, Anne J Rangel, Maria G Q Martins, Fernando E P DO Nascimento, Maria L L DE Andrade, Benildo S Cavada, Sírleis R Lacerda, Kyria S DO Nascimento
Freshwater algae are rich sources of structurally biologically active metabolites, such as fatty acids, steroids, carotenoids and polysaccharides. Among these metabolites, lectins stand out. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin which bind to carbohydrates or glycoconjugates, without changing ligand structure. Many studies have reported on the use of Spirogyra spp. as effective bioindicators of heavy metals; however, reports on Spirogyra molecular bioprospecting are quite limited. Therefore, this study aimed to detect, isolate, purify and characterize a lectin present in the freshwater green algae Spirogyra...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Nathan Berthelot, Antoine Brossay, Virginie Gasciolli, Jean-Jacques Bono, Aurélie Baron, Jean-Marie Beau, Dominique Urban, François-Didier Boyer, Boris Vauzeilles
Lipo-chitotetrasaccharide analogues where one central GlcNAc residue was replaced by a triazole unit have been synthesized from a derivative obtained by chitin depolymerization and a functionalized N-acetyl-glucosamine via the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Their evaluation in a binding assay using LYR3, a putative lipo-chitooligosaccharide receptor in Medicago truncatula, shows a complete loss of binding.
September 6, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sevdalina Lambova, Walter Hermann, Ulf Müller-Ladner
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (ОА) is the most common joint disease and a leading cause for impaired function and disability with significant treatment costs and socio-economic burden. Despite recent achievements in the knowledge on disease pathogenesis, the treatment is still a challenge and contrary to inflammatory joint diseases, no disease-modifying drugs are currently available for OA. OBJECTIVE: Different response in different localizations of the disease further complicates the therapeutic choice...
August 29, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Yuqi Gao, Runnan Li, Yiwen Wang, Xingyu Li, Shuxian Huang, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: Normal physiological processes require a robust biological timer called the circadian clock. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms contributes to a variety of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance. EGCG has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective bioactivities. The objective of this study was to explore whether circadian clock is involved in the protective effect of EGCG against insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: The results demonstrated that EGCG reverses the relatively shallow daily oscillations of circadian clock genes transcription and protein expression induced by glucosamine in HepG2 cells...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Shuang Liang, Shao-Hua Huang, Wei Chen, Zheng-Wu Bai
In this study, two series of chitosan 3,6-bis(arylcarbamate)-2-(isobutylurea)s and corresponding coated-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were prepared from two kinds of chitosans with different molecular weights. Most of the prepared CSPs demonstrated better enantioseparation performance than the homemade CSP of cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). The CSPs of chitosan 3,6-bis(4-methylphenylcarbamate)-2-(isobutylurea) with higher molecular weight and chitosan 3,6-bis(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate)-2-(isobutylurea) with lower molecular weight possessed outstanding chiral recognition abilities which were at least as good as that of the commercialized CSP of Chiralcel OD-H towards the tested chiral analytes...
September 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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