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Qian Zhou, Li Cui, Lamei Ren, Ping Wang, Chao Deng, Qiang Wang, Xuedong Fan
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has the characteristic of antioxidant and antibacterial effects. To improve the properties of silk fibroin (SF), COS was enzymatically grafted onto SF membranes using a laccase from Trametes versicolor. d-Glucosamine hydrochloride (GAH) and p-hydroxyphenylacetamide (PHAD), as the model compound of COS and tyrosine residues in SF were utilized to disclose the grafting mechanism, respectively. The data from UPLC-TQD and GPC analysis implied that laccase might catalyze the oxidation of PHAD and led to the formation of self-polymerized products...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sheryl O Fernandes, Lankalapalli Surya Prakash, Mechirackal Balan Binish, Kottekkatu Padinchati Krishnan, Palayil John Kurian
Mn-oxidizing potential of two metal-tolerant bacterial strains - Halomonas meridiana and Marinobacter algicola isolated from the South West Indian Ridge waters were compared at varying concentrations of Mn (II), i.e., 1, 10, and 100 μmol and mmol L-1 . Accompanying changes in their morphology and metabolism were also determined. At concentrations >1 mmol L-1 Mn (II), Mn-oxidizing potential of M. algicola was 2-7 times greater than that of H. meridiana. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that exposure to elevated metal content prompted bacterial cells especially those of M...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ye Liang, Wenhua Xu, Shihai Liu, Jingwei Chi, Jisheng Zhang, Aihua Sui, Liping Wang, Zhijuan Liang, Dan Li, Yuanbin Chen, Haitao Niu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anti-cancer agent due to its selective toxicity. However, many human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells are partially resistant to TRAIL, thereby limiting its clinical application. Therefore, there is a need for the development of novel adjuvant therapeutic agents to be used in combination with TRAIL. METHODS: In this study, the effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), a type of monosaccharide derived from chitosan, combined with TRAIL was evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Winai Jamjan, Chanwit Suriyachadkun, Somboon Tanasupawat, Kenji Sakai, Yukihiro Tashiro, Yuki Okugawa, Saowanit Tongpim
A novel actinobacterial strain, designated C12CA1T , was isolated from forest soil in the conservation area of Chulabhorn dam, Thailand, and its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Strain C12CA1T contained meso-2,6 diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, and arabinose and galactose as diagnostic sugars of the whole-cell hydrolysate. On the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain C12CA1T was classified in the genus Amycolatopsis. It contained MK-9(H4) as the predominant menaquinone, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids, and several phospholipids consisting of diphosphotidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified glucosamine-containing phospholipid...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano, Mohammad Atikur Rahman, Bala Rathinasabapathi, Md Ali Babar
Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in chickpea requires a solid understanding of biochemical processes involved with different physiological mechanisms. The objective of this study is to demonstrate genetic variations in altered metabolic levels in chickpea varieties (tolerant and sensitive) grown under contrasting water regimes through UPLC-HRMS based untargeted metabolomic profiling. Chickpea plants were exposed to drought stress at the three-leaf stage for 25 days and the leaves were harvested at 14 days and 25 days after the imposition of drought stress...
March 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
João Carlos Alves, Ana Margarida Santos, Patrícia Isabel Jorge
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an oral joint supplement in working dogs with hip osteoarthritis compared with a positive control group (CG). Fifteen animals were divided in treatment group (TG, n = 10) and CG (n = 5). To TG a commercially available joint supplement, containing glucosamine HCl, chondroitin sulphate, and hyaluronic acid was given for 40 days and a 70-day course of a placebo, to be administered as if it was carprofen. The CG received carprofen for 70 days, and a placebo to be administered as the joint supplement...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Anna Katarzyna Wrońska, Mieczysława Irena Boguś, Emilia Włóka, Michalina Kazek, Agata Kaczmarek, Katarzyna Zalewska
The entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus produces enzymes that may hydrolyze the cuticle of Galleria mellonella. Of these enzymes, elastase activity was the highest: this figure being 24 times higher than NAGase activity 553 times higher than chitinase activity and 1844 times higher than lipase activity. The present work examines the differences in the hydrolysis of cuticles taken from larvae, pupae and adults (thorax and wings), by C. coronatus enzymes. The cuticles of the larvae and adult thorax were the most susceptible to digestion by proteases and lipases...
2018: PloS One
Zengli Zhang, Hanyi Jiang, Yongsheng Wang, Minhua Shi
Background: Due to high metastasis and recurrence rate. Recent studies indicated that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was involved in the progression and metastasis in cancer. Some reports also indicate that HS3ST3B1 played a role in angiogenesis and the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we aim to investigate its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) . Materials and Methods: All cell lines were purchased from ATCC and cultured in our central lab...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Davide Bressanello, Erica Liberto, Massimo Collino, Fausto Chiazza, Raffaella Mastrocola, Stephen E Reichenbach, Carlo Bicchi, Chiara Cordero
This study exploits the information potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography configured with a parallel dual secondary column-dual detection by mass spectrometry and flame ionization (GC×2GC-MS/FID) to study changes in urinary metabolic signatures of mice subjected to high-fructose diets. Samples are taken from mice fed with normal or fructose-enriched diets provided either in aqueous solution or in solid form and analyzed at three stages of the dietary intervention (1, 6, and 12 weeks)...
March 7, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Marta Cova, Borja López-Gutiérrez, Sara Artigas-Jerónimo, Aida González-Díaz, Giulia Bandini, Steven Maere, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Luis Izquierdo
Apicomplexa form a phylum of obligate parasitic protozoa of great clinical and veterinary importance. These parasites synthesize glycoconjugates for their survival and infectivity, but the enzymatic steps required to generate the glycosylation precursors are not completely characterized. In particular, glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (GNA1) activity, needed to produce the essential UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) donor, has not been identified in any Apicomplexa. We scanned the genomes of Plasmodium falciparum and representatives from six additional main lineages of the phylum for proteins containing the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Dadashipour, Mariko Iwamoto, Md Murad Hossain, Jun-Ichi Akutsu, Zilian Zhang, Yutaka Kawarabayasi
Most organisms, from Bacteria to Eukarya, synthesize UDP- N -acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) from fructose-6-phosphate via a four-step reaction, and UDP- N -acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) can only be synthesized from UDP-GlcNAc by UDP-GlcNAc 4-epimerase. In Archaea, the bacterial-type UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway was reported for Methanococcales. However, the complete biosynthetic pathways for UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc present in one Archaeal species are unidentified. Previous experimental analyses on enzymatic activities of the ST0452 protein, identified from the thermophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii , predicted the presence of both a bacterial-type UDP-GlcNAc and an independent UDP-GalNAc biosynthetic pathway in this Archaeon...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yunpeng Zhao, Ying Feng, Jianqi Li, Yongzhao Guo, Liming Chen, Sitong Liu
Anammox aggregates have been extensively observed in high-efficiency nitrogen-removal reactors, yet the variation and inherent cause of its aggregation capacity related to reactor operation are still unknown. Here, we used microbial detection, metabolomics, extended DLVO theory and multivariate statistical analysis to address this issue. The aggregation capacity of anammox consortia varied periodically during reactor operation, which was determined by the hydrophobic force and the ratio of extracellular protein (PN) to extracellular polysaccharides (PS)...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Fabio Alessandro Facchini, Lenny Zaffaroni, Alberto Minotti, Silvia Rapisarda, Valentina Calabrese, Matilde Forcella, Paola Fusi, Cristina Airoldi, Carlotta Ciaramelli, Jean-Marc Billod, Andra Schromm, Harald Braun, Charys Palmer, Rudi Beyaert, Roman Jerala, Grisha Pirianov, Sonsoles Martin Santamaria, Francesco Peri
The structure-activity relationship was investigated in a series of synthetic TLR4 antagonists formed by a glucosamine core linked to two phosphate esters and two linear carbon chains. Molecular modeling showed that the compounds with 10, 12 and 14 carbons chains are associated to higher stabilization of the TLR4/MD-2 antagonist conformation than in the case of the C16 variant. Binding experiments with human MD-2 showed that the C12 and C14 variants have higher affinity than C10, while the C16 variant did not interact with the protein...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Boon Hooi Tan, Nafees Ahemad, Yan Pan, Uma Devi Palanisamy, Iekhsan Othman, Beow Chin Yiap, Chin Eng Ong
Many dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis (OA) including the three naturally derived compounds, glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein. Despite their wide spread use, research on interaction of these antiarthritic compounds with human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is limited. This study aimed to examine the modulatory effects of these compounds on CYP2C9, a major CYP isoform, using in vitro biochemical assay and in silico models. Utilizing valsartan hydroxylase assay as probe, all forms of glucosamine and chondroitin exhibited IC50 values beyond 1000 μM, indicating very weak potential in inhibiting CYP2C9...
February 27, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Nicola Zerbinati, Torello Lotti, Damiano Monticelli, Virginia Martina, Giovanna Cipolla, Edoardo D'Este, Alberto Calligaro, Roberto Mocchi, Cristina Maccario, Sabrina Sommatis, Jacopo Lotti, Uwe Wollina, Georgi Tchernev, Katlein França
Neauvia Intense is biocompatible, injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) filler PEG cross-linked for facial soft-tissue augmentation that provides volume to tissues. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Neauvia Intense in hyaluronidase from bovine testes in a time-course analysis. The test is based on the colourimetric determination of the N-acetyl - D - glucosamine (NAG) released by the hyaluronidase in standardised conditions. The in vitro conditions involve the treatment of Neauvia Intense with a known concentration of the enzyme (6080U/ml)...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Luke A Gurtowski, Chris S Griggs, Veera G Gude, Manoj K Shukla
This manuscript reports results of combined computational chemistry and batch adsorption investigation of insensitive munition compounds, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) and nitroguanidine (NQ), and traditional munition compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the surfaces of cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan biopolymers. Cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan were modeled as trimeric form of the linear chain of4 C1 chair conformation of β-d-glucopyranos, its triacetate form, β-N-acetylglucosamine and D-glucosamine, respectively, in the 1➔4 linkage...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Xiaoyue Zhu, Dandong Wu, Lingli Sang, Yidan Wang, Yi Shen, Xun Zhuang, Minjie Chu, Liying Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacies of oral glucosamine, chondroitin, the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin, acetaminophen and celecoxib on the treatment of knee and/or hip osteoarthritis. METHODS: We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library and the reference lists of relevant articles published from inception to October 23, 2017. A Bayesian hierarchical random effects model was used to examine the overall effect size among mixed multiple interventions...
January 31, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Yi Zhu, Ilja L Kruglikov, Yucel Akgul, Philipp E Scherer
Hyaluronic acid (HA, also known as hyaluronan), is a non-sulfated linear glycosaminoglycan polymer consisting of repeating disaccharide units of d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine abundantly present in the extracellular matrix. The sizes of hyaluronic acid polymers range from 5000 to 20,000,000 Da in vivo, and the functions of HA are largely dictated by its size. Due to its high biocompatibility, HA has been commonly used as soft tissue filler as well as a major component of biomaterial scaffolds in tissue engineering...
February 16, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Diego Esposito, Regina A Günster, Luigi Martino, Kamel El Omari, Armin Wagner, Teresa L M Thurston, Katrin Rittinger
The Salmonella secreted effector SseK3 translocates into host cells, targeting innate immune responses including NF-κB activation. SseK3 is a glycosyltransferase that transfers an N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moiety onto the guanidino group of a target arginine, modulating host cell function. However, a lack of structural information has precluded elucidation of the molecular mechanisms in arginine and GlcNAc selection. We report here the crystal structure of SseK3 in its apo form and in complex with hydrolysed UDP-GlcNAc...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Caroline Soliman, Anna K Walduck, Elizabeth Yuriev, Jack S Richards, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Gerald B Pier, Paul A Ramsland
In response to the widespread emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes, new therapeutic agents are required for many human pathogens. A non-mammalian polysaccharide, poly- N -acetyl-D-glucosamine (PNAG), is produced by bacteria, fungi, and protozoan parasites. Antibodies that bind to PNAG and its deacetylated form (dPNAG) exhibit promising in vitro and in vivo activities against many microbes. A human IgG1 mAb (F598) that binds both PNAG and dPNAG has opsonic and protective activities against multiple microbial pathogens and is undergoing preclinical and clinical assessments as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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