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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792954/increased-brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-has-no-effect-on-the-resolution-of-neuroinflammation-following-intracerebroventricular-lipopolysaccharide-injection
#1
Marc-Olivier Trépanier, Kathryn E Hopperton, Vanessa Giuliano, Mojgan Masoodi, Richard P Bazinet
Resolution of inflammation in the periphery was once thought to be a passive process, but new research now suggests it is an active process mediated by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, this has yet to be illustrated in neuroinflammation. The purpose of this study was to measure resolution of neuroinflammation and to test whether increasing brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects the resolution of neuroinflammation. C57Bl/6 mice, fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates, fed either fish oil or safflower oil, received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the left lateral ventricle...
May 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790685/f2-isoprostanes-and-f4-neuroprostanes-as-markers-of-intracranial-aneurysm-development
#2
Anna Syta-Krzyżanowska, Iwona Jarocka-Karpowicz, Jan Kochanowicz, Grzegorz Turek, Robert Rutkowski, Krzysztof Gorbacz, Zenon Mariak, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms are common, occurring in about 1-2% of the population. Saccular aneurysm is a pouch-like pathological dilatation of an intracranial artery that develops when the cerebral artery wall becomes too weak to resist hemodynamic pressure and distends. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether the development of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects neuronal phospholipid metabolism, and what influence different invasive treatments have on brain free radical phospholipid metabolism...
April 24, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789928/effects-of-fundamental-nutrient-stresses-on-the-lipid-accumulation-profiles-in-two-diatom-species-thalassiosira-weissflogii-and-chaetoceros-muelleri
#3
Qun Lin, Wen-Hao Zhuo, Xin-Wei Wang, Chang-Ping Chen, Ya-Hui Gao, Jun-Rong Liang
Microalgae are considered as attractive feedstocks for biofuel production nowadays because of their high lipid contents and easy cultivation. In the present study, two diatoms, Thalassiosira weissflogii and Chaetoceros muelleri, were cultured under various nutrient-limitation conditions to explore their comprehensive lipid accumulation profiles for further commercialization. In T. weissflogii, the highest neutral lipid accumulation and highest lipid productivity (14.28 mg L-1  day-1 ) were both recorded under P-limitation...
May 22, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789131/randomized-trials-of-replacing-saturated-fatty-acids-with-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-coronary-heart-disease-prevention-not-the-gold-standard
#4
REVIEW
Jyrki K Virtanen
Several trials in the 1950s through 1970s tested the hypothesis that replacing saturated fat in the diet predominantly with n-6 polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) would reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), mainly through modifying blood lipid profile. Most of these trials did observe a reduction in serum total cholesterol in the intervention group, but many trials failed to find a significant reduction in the incidence of CHD. However, some meta-analyses have found a reduced incidence of CHD by pooling the results from the trials...
June 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789129/trends-in-linoleic-acid-intake-in-the-united-states-adult-population-nhanes-1999-2014
#5
Susan K Raatz, Zach Conrad, Lisa Jahns
Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the NHANES waves 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014. Mean daily intake of (LA) was estimated for each survey wave overall, and by age, gender, educational attainment, race/ethnicity, and income-to-poverty ratio...
June 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789127/maternal-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-dietary-supply-modulates-microglia-lipid-content-in-the-offspring
#6
Charlotte Rey, Agnès Nadjar, Florent Joffre, Camille Amadieu, Agnès Aubert, Carole Vaysse, Véronique Pallet, Sophie Layé, Corinne Joffre
The brain is highly enriched in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) that are esterified into phospholipids, the major components of cell membranes. They accumulate during the perinatal period when the brain is rapidly developing. Hence, the levels of LC-PUFAs in the brains of the offspring greatly depend on maternal dietary intake. Perinatal n-3 PUFA consumption has been suggested to modulate the activity of microglial cells, the brain's innate immune cells which contribute to the shaping of neuronal network during development...
June 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788170/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-evidence-for-oral-nutritional-intervention-on-nutritional-and-clinical-outcomes-during-chemo-radio-therapy-current-evidence-and-guidance-for-design-of-future-trials
#7
M A E de van der Schueren, A Laviano, H Blanchard, M Jourdan, J Arends, V E Baracos
Background: Driven by reduced nutritional intakes and metabolic alterations, malnutrition in cancer patients adversely affects quality of life, treatment tolerance and survival. We examined evidence for oral nutritional interventions during chemo(radio)therapy. Design: We carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) with either dietary counseling (DC), high-energy oral nutritional supplements (ONS) aiming at improving intakes or ONS enriched with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) additionally aiming for modulation of cancer-related metabolic alterations...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787929/association-between-the-ratio-of-serum-arachidonic-acid-to-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-the-presence-of-depressive-symptoms-in-a-general-japanese-population-the-hisayama-study
#8
Mao Shibata, Tomoyuki Ohara, Daigo Yoshida, Jun Hata, Naoko Mukai, Hiroyuki Kawano, Shigenobu Kanba, Takanari Kitazono, Toshiharu Ninomiya
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-confer protection against depression. However, few studies have addressed the influence of the balance between n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in the human body on depression. METHODS: A total of 2,529 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed for depressive symptoms (defined as a score of 16 points or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) in 2007...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785907/the-fatty-acid-composition-of-estonian-and-latvian-retail-milk-implications-for-human-nutrition-compared-with-a-designer-milk
#9
Merike Henno, Tiia Ariko, Tanel Kaart, Sirje Kuusik, Katri Ling, Marko Kass, Hanno Jaakson, Ragnar Leming, D Ian Givens, Vita Sterna, Meelis Ots
The study reported in this Research Communication compared retail milks' FA profiles from two neighbouring countries, estimated the potential contributions of these milks and a designer milk (achieved by changing the diet of the dairy cow) to the recommended human dietary intake of FA, and predicted (based on the milk FA profile) methane emission from dairy cows. Retail milks in Estonia and Latvia were purchased from supermarkets monthly for one year. To compare the FA composition of retail milk with designer milk with an increased PUFA content, the bulk milk FA profile from a separate field trial was used...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783637/a-phosphatidylserine-source-of-docosahexanoic-acid-improves-neurodevelopment-and-survival-of-preterm-pigs
#10
Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov, Igor Y Iskusnykh, Helen J Sable, Jeffrey J Sable, Zade R Holloway, Tamar Blumenfeld Katzir, Marie van der Merwe, Taisiya Yakimkova, Karyl K Buddington, Yael Lifshitz, Shoshi Tessler, Ariel Gilbert
The amount, composition, and sources of nutrition support provided to preterm infants is critical for normal growth and development, and particularly for structural and functional neurodevelopment. Although omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), and particularly docosahexanoic acid (DHA), are considered of particular importance, results from clinical trials with preterm infants have been inconclusive because of ethical limitations and confounding variables. A translational large animal model is needed to understand the structural and functional responses to DHA...
May 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781483/dose-dependent-effects-of-fish-oil-on-cardio-metabolic-biomarkers-in-healthy-middle-aged-and-elderly-chinese-people-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Jia Song, Manjiang Hu, Cheng Li, Bo Yang, Qing Ding, Chunhong Wang, Limei Mao
n-3PUFA consumption has been widely accepted as a nutritional strategy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the dose-response relationship between dietary n-3PUFA and serum biomarkers associated with cardiovascular health in the general population. The present study involved a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of fish oil with different doses (0.31, 0.62 and 1.24 g d-1 of EPA and DHA) on serum fatty acids and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, inflammatory markers, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people...
May 21, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781410/the-addition-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-and-antioxidants-glutathione-peroxidase-and-superoxide-dismutase-in-extenders-to-epididymal-sperm-cryopreservation-in-bulls
#12
João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Bruno R Rui, Luana C Bicudo, Andressa Dalmazzo, Bárbara C S Silva, Carlos H C Viana, Camilla M Mendes, Mayra E O A Assumpção, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
SummaryThe cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an important technique that allows genetic material to be preserved, even post mortem. However, cryopreservation leads to increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may improve certain sperm characteristics, but it also makes sperm more susceptible to oxidative stress, therefore adding antioxidants that counteract oxidative stress has become an option. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and antioxidants on the quality after the cryopreservation of epididymal bull sperm...
May 21, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779814/should-omega-3-fatty-acids-be-used-for-adjuvant-treatment-of-cancer-cachexia
#13
REVIEW
Daryna Sergiyivna Lavriv, Pedro Miguel Neves, Paula Ravasco
OBJECTIVES: Cancer cachexia is characterised by a progressive loss of muscle, resulting in functional impairment and shorter survival. Therefore, omega-3 has been studied for its role as an anti-cachectic therapy. This systematic review identified studies published on use of omega-3 in cancer cachexia in order to examine the potential benefit. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature using PubMed and B-on databases was conducted to identify clinical trials published between 2000 and 2015, to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFAs on nutritional features and Quality of Life in cancer cachexia...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779801/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Renata Ramalho, Ana Colaço Pereira, Filipa Vicente, Paula Pereira
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered the most common behavioural disorder in school-age children. ADHD is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterised by a variety of symptoms, including concentration problems, excessive motor activity and impulsivity which interferes with execution of simple school tasks. Diagnosis has been essentially subjective, since no specific laboratory tests are available. However, ADHD remains overdiagnosed, probably due to social pressures for children to be successful in school from an early age, which leads parents to seek medical support...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779504/association-of-dietary-patterns-of-american-adults-with-bone-mineral-density-and-fracture
#15
Mohsen Mazidi, Andre Pascal Kengne, Hassan Vatanparast
OBJECTIVE: In a representative sample of US adults, we investigated the associations of nutrient patterns (NP) with bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: US community-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). SUBJECTS: Participants with measured data on dietary intake and BMD from 2005 to 2010 were included. Principal components analysis was used to identify NP...
May 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779501/marine-n-3-pufa-heart-rate-variability-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-patients-on-chronic-dialysis-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Jesper M Rantanen, Erik B Schmidt, Sam Riahi, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Jeppe H Christensen
Marine n-3 PUFA may improve autonomic dysfunction by an increase in heart rate variability (HRV) and may reduce the risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Only a few smaller studies have examined such effects in patients on chronic dialysis, who often have autonomic dysfunction and a high risk of sudden cardiac death, which accounts for almost 30 % of all deaths. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between the plasma phospholipid content of n-3 PUFA and 24-h HRV or ventricular arrhythmias in patients on chronic dialysis...
May 21, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779121/a-comprehensive-comparable-study-of-the-physiological-properties-of-four-microalgal-species-under-different-light-wavelength-conditions
#17
Yu Zhong, Peng Jin, Jay J Cheng
Microalgae treated with blue light have potential for production of human nutrition supplement and biofuel due to their higher biomass productivity and favorable fatty acid composition. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Scenedesmus obliquus are representative green microalgae which are widely reported for algal production. In this study, we provide a systematic investigation of the biomass productivity, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence and fatty acid content of the four green microalgae...
May 19, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777864/effectiveness-on-maternal-and-offspring-metabolic-control-of-a-home-based-dietary-counseling-intervention-and-dha-supplementation-in-obese-overweight-pregnant-women-might-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study-protocol
#18
María Luisa Garmendia, Camila Corvalán, Paola Casanello, B Marcela Araya, Marcela Flores, Alfredo Bravo, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Pablo Olmos, Ricardo Uauy
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions are the primary prevention strategy for gestational diabetes (GDM) in obese/overweight women; however, these interventions have shown limited effectiveness. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake has shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, lipid fractions and inflammatory factors in women who already have GDM. Combining PUFAs supplementation with a lifestyle intervention could achieve lower increase of glucose levels by improving insulin sensitivity...
May 16, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777706/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-via-the-ppar-%C3%AE-cpt-1%C3%AE-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-parenteral-nutrition
#19
Feng Tian, Jiwei Wang, Haifeng Sun, Jianbo Yang, Peng Wang, Songlin Wan, Xuejin Gao, Li Zhang, Jieshou Li, Xinying Wang
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the basic therapies for patients with intestinal failure; however, hepatic steatosis associated with PN limits the long-term use of PN. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been used to improve clinical outcomes of patients receiving PN; however, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs ameliorate hepatic steatosis remain unclear. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, namely, enteral nutrition (EN), n-3 PUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775616/amelioration-of-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-skin
#20
Hye-Won Yum, Seong Hoon Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in some fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and increase host immunoresponsiveness. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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