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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516866/invasive-serotype-35b-pneumococci-including-an-expanding-serotype-switch-lineage-united-states-2015-2016
#1
Sopio Chochua, Benjamin J Metcalf, Zhongya Li, Hollis Walker, Theresa Tran, Lesley McGee, Bernard Beall
We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 199 nonvaccine serotype 35B pneumococcal strains that caused invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the United States during 2015-2016 and related these findings to previous serotype 35B IPD data obtained by Active Bacterial Core surveillance. Penicillin-nonsusceptible 35B IPD increased during post-pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine years (2001-2009) and increased further after implementation of pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine in 2010. This increase was caused primarily by the 35B/sequence type (ST) 558 lineage...
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516842/serotype-distribution-antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-pilus-islets-in-pneumococci-following-the-use-of-conjugate-vaccines
#2
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2010 and, in 2013, the PCV7 was replaced with the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13). This study was conducted to investigate serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of pilus islets in pneumococcal isolates from inpatients in a Japanese tertiary hospital. METHODOLOGY: From April 2011 to February 2016, 151 isolates [95 (18 children, 77 adults) and 56 (19 children, 37 adults) in the PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively] were collected...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516066/the-alpha-tocopherol-form-of-vitamin-e-boosts-elastase-activity-of-human-pmns-and-their-ability-to-kill-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#3
Elsa N Bou Ghanem, James N Lee, Basma H Joma, Simin N Meydani, John M Leong, Alexander Panda
Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515075/pigr-and-pecam-1-bind-to-pneumococcal-adhesins-rrga-and-pspc-mediating-bacterial-brain-invasion
#4
Federico Iovino, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende, Merche Valls Seron, Peter Mellroth, Sandra Muschiol, Jan Bergstrand, Jerker Widengren, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis, a life-threating disease with a high case fatality rate despite treatment with antibiotics. Pneumococci cause meningitis by invading the blood and penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy of brain biopsies from patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis, we observe that pneumococci colocalize with the two BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511165/susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-fluoroquinolones-and-macrolides-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#5
Yaroslav O Mykhalko, Tetyana V Duhovych, Pavlo P Kish
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcal species are known as the most common cause of bacterial upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Once bacterial infection is diagnosed it demands empirical antibiotic prescription. On the other hand antimicrobial resistance is a global burden in today's medicine. For that reason, knowing of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in population is an important background for successful treatment of bacterial caused URTI. The aim of this study was to analyze S...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489454/acquisition-and-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-facilitated-during-rhinovirus-infection-in-families-with-children
#6
Sinikka Karppinen, Johanna Teräsjärvi, Kari Auranen, Linnea Schuez-Havupalo, Lotta Siira, Qiushui He, Matti Waris, Ville Peltola
RATIONALE: Laboratory and clinical evidence suggests synergy between rhinoviruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections. However, it is unclear whether rhinoviruses promote pneumococcal acquisition and transmission. OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of rhinovirus infection on acquisition and transmission of pneumococci within families with children. METHODS: We investigated 29 families with at least two children...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487056/polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-protein-carriers-as-a-neglected-valency-potential-and-limitations
#7
REVIEW
Michael Bröker, Francesco Berti, Joerg Schneider, Ivo Vojtek
The development of vaccines against polysaccharide-encapsulated pathogens (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococci, meningococci) is challenging because polysaccharides do not elicit a strong and long-lasting immune response (i.e. T-cell independent). This can be overcome by conjugating the polysaccharide to a protein carrier (e.g. tetanus toxoid, cross-reacting material 197 [CRM]), which vastly improves the immune response and induces memory to the polysaccharide (T-cell dependent). Although it is well documented that protein carriers additionally induce an immune response against themselves, this potential "additional valency" has so far not been recognized...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480250/an-uncommon-site-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-leading-to-recurrent-pneumococcal-disease
#8
Parham Sendi, Eva Maria Moser Schaub, Konstantinos Nirgianakis, Lucy J Hathaway, Pascal Bittel, David Goldblatt, Sven Streit
This report describes a case of relapsing pneumococcal peritonitis. The postulated source of infection was vaginal colonization and secondary adherence of pneumococci to an intrauterine contraceptive device. After immunization with a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, her antibody levels were observed. She remained infection free at the 2-year follow-up investigation.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467237/effect-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-carriage-by-respiratory-pathogens-among-greenlandic-children
#9
Johan Emdal Navne, Anders Koch, Hans-Christian Slotved, Mikael Andersson, Mads Melbye, Karin Ladefoged, Malene Børresen
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Greenland introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar 13®- PCV-13) in the childhood immunisation program. The authors aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV-13 on nasopharyngeal carriage of bacteria frequently associated with respiratory infections in children. METHOD: In 2013 a cross-sectional population-based study of nasopharyngeal carriage was conducted among Greenlandic children aged 0-6 years and results were compared with an equivalent study from 2011...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431817/pneumococcal-carriage-among-children-after-four-years-of-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-brazil-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-serotype-6c
#10
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408270/transcriptional-organization-of-pneumococcal-psrp-secy2a2-and-impact-of-gtfa-and-gtfb-deletion-on-psrp-associated-virulence-properties
#11
Anel Lizcano, Ramya Akula Suresh Babu, Anukul T Shenoy, Alison Maren Saville, Nikhil Kumar, Adonis D'Mello, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Ryan P Gilley, Jesus Segovia, Timothy J Mitchell, Hervé Tettelin, Carlos J Orihuela
Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a glycoprotein that mediates Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to lung cells and promotes biofilm formation. Herein, we investigated the transcriptional organization of psrP-secY2A2, the 37-kbp pathogenicity island encoding PsrP and its accessory genes. PCR amplification of cDNA and RNA-seq analysis found psrP-secY2A2 to be minimally composed of three operons: psrP-glyA, glyB, and glyC-asp5. Transcription of all three operons was greatest during biofilm growth and immunoblot analyses confirmed increased PsrP production by biofilm pneumococci...
April 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399692/the-interrelationship-between-phagocytosis-autophagy-and-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-following-infection-of-human-neutrophils-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Ihsan Ullah, Neil D Ritchie, Tom J Evans
Neutrophils play an important role in the innate immune response to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus. Pneumococci are phagocytosed by neutrophils and undergo killing after ingestion. Other cellular processes may also be induced, including autophagy and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which may play a role in bacterial eradication. We set out to determine how these different processes interacted following pneumococcal infection of neutrophils, and the role of the major pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin in these various pathways...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397940/phenotypic-and-molecular-study-of-pneumococci-causing-respiratory-tract-infections-a-3-year-prospective-cohort
#13
Amani M Alnimr, Maha Farhat
To study serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactams and macrolides in pneumococci causing respiratory diseases after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a hospital-based and a cross-sectional prospective surveillance study conducted at King Fahad Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, Kingdom  of Saudi Arabia, in which respiratory pneumococcal isolates collected between 2012 and 2014 were serotyped by multiplex sequential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Pneumotest-Latex...
April 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368460/the-capacity-of-pneumococci-to-activate-macrophage-nf-kb-determines-necroptosis-and-pneumonia-severity
#14
Fadie T Coleman, Matthew T Blahna, Hirofumi Kamata, Kazuko Yamamoto, Mary C Zabinski, Igor Kramnik, Andrew A Wilson, Darrell N Kotton, Lee J Quinton, Matthew R Jones, Stephen I Pelton, Joseph P Mizgerd
During pneumococcal pneumonia, antibacterial defense requires the orchestrated expression of innate immunity mediators, initiated by alveolar macrophages and dependent on transcription driven by Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB). Such immune pressure may select for pneumococci which avoid or subvert macrophage NF-kB activation. Analyzing pneumococci collected from children in Massachusetts, we find that the activation of macrophage NF-kB by S. pneumoniae is highly diverse, with a preponderance of low NF-kB activators that associate particularly with complicated pneumonia...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318472/antimicrobial-resistance-penicillin-binding-protein-sequences-and-pilus-islet-carriage-in-relation-to-clonal-evolution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-in-russia-2002-2013
#15
N Mayanskiy, T Savinova, N Alyabieva, O Ponomarenko, E Brzhozovskaya, A Lazareva, L Katosova, R Kozlov
Clonal changes of serotype 19A pneumococci have been appreciated in conjunction with growing prevalence of this serotype after implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). In the present study, we characterized serotype 19A pneumococci collected in Russia within a decade preceding the implementation of PCV vaccination and described their clonal evolution. We retrospectively analyzed non-invasive serotype 19A isolates collected in 2002-2013. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, determination of macrolide resistance genotype, molecular detection of pilus islet (PI) carriage, sequencing of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes...
March 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278175/pneumococcal-infection-of-respiratory-cells-exposed-to-welding-fumes-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-hif-1-alpha
#16
Jonathan Grigg, Lisa Miyashita, Reetika Suri
Welders are more susceptible to pneumococcal pneumonia. The mechanisms are yet unclear. Pneumococci co-opt the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) to infect respiratory epithelial cells. We previously reported that exposure of respiratory cells to welding fumes (WF), upregulates PAFR-dependent pneumococcal infection. The signaling pathway for this response is unknown, however, in intestinal cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF 1α) is reported to mediate PAFR-dependent infection. We sought to assess whether oxidative stress plays a role in susceptibility to pneumococcal infection via the platelet activating factor receptor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265264/role-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-proteins-in-evasion-of-complement-mediated-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Greiciely O Andre, Thiago R Converso, Walter R Politano, Lucio F C Ferraz, Marcelo L Ribeiro, Luciana C C Leite, Michelle Darrieux
The complement system plays a central role in immune defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In order to evade complement attack, pneumococci have evolved a number of mechanisms that limit complement mediated opsonization and subsequent phagocytosis. This review focuses on the strategies employed by pneumococci to circumvent complement mediated immunity, both in vitro and in vivo. At last, since many of the proteins involved in interactions with complement components are vaccine candidates in different stages of validation, we explore the use of these antigens alone or in combination, as potential vaccine approaches that aim at elimination or drastic reduction in the ability of this bacterium to evade complement...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264558/a-natural-lipotrisaccharide-and-its-derivatives-selectively-lyse-streptococcus-pneumoniae-via-interaction-with-cell-membrane
#18
Bo Liu, Xue Liu, Jing-Ren Zhang, Gang Liu
A natural lipotrisaccharide (NP000778, 1a), a new triglycosidic tri-O-substituted glycolipid isolated from the Morinda citrifolia plant, and its chemical derivatives were identified to be active against major Gram-positive pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae. Additional evidence indicated that 1a and its synthetic derivatives exerted their bactericidal activities against S. pneumoniae by selectively targeting the bacterial membrane, leading to the rapid lysis of the pneumococci. Efficient synthesis of 1a and its derivatives was performed using an application of the intramolecular aglycon delivery (IAD) reaction to establish its structure-activity relationships (SARs)...
March 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252438/-sensitivity-study-of-antimicrobial-pneumococci-in-central-kazakhstan
#19
I Belyaev, A Belyaev
To determine the epidemiological pattern of antibiotic resistance strains of S. Pneumoniae studied the sensitivity of nasopharyngeal isolates of pneumococci isolated from healthy children attending sports clubs Karaganda region. The frequency of allocation of pneumococci was 35.57%. In accordance with the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration resistant pneumococci was: penicillin - 5.41%, erythromycin - 8.1%, clindamycin - 4.05%, amoxicillin-6.76%, tetracycline 28.38%. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in the studied children is not a significant problem...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251028/empyema-due-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-9v-in-a-child-immunized-with-13-valent-conjugated-pneumococcal-vaccine
#20
Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Fatih Karagözlü, Ayper Somer, Nezahat Gürler, Nuran Salman
BACKGROUND: Clinical vaccine failure is the occurence of the specific vaccine-preventable disease in an appropriately and fully vaccinated person after enough time has elapsed for protection against the antigens of the vaccine to develop. Fully immunized cases with pneumoccal vaccine may sometimes develop a complicated pneumonia with empyema caused by a vaccine serotype. CASE REPORT: A 2 year-old male patient was admitted with the complaints of fever. On the basis of findings and laboratory results, the patient was diagnosed as having empyema...
January 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
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