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Pneumococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147057/lessons-learnt-during-20-years-of-the-swedish-strategic-programme-against-antibiotic-resistance
#1
Sigvard Mölstad, Sonja Löfmark, Karin Carlin, Mats Erntell, Olov Aspevall, Lars Blad, Håkan Hanberger, Katarina Hedin, Jenny Hellman, Christer Norman, Gunilla Skoog, Cecilia Stålsby-Lundborg, Karin Tegmark Wisell, Christina Åhrén, Otto Cars
Increasing use of antibiotics and rising levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics are a challenge to global health and development. Successful initiatives for containing the problem need to be communicated and disseminated. In Sweden, a rapid spread of resistant pneumococci in the southern part of the country triggered the formation of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance, also known as Strama, in 1995. The creation of the programme was an important starting point for long-term coordinated efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance in the country...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131872/genetic-diversity-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-in-invasive-pneumococcal-isolates-from-korean-children-1991-2016
#2
Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is an important virulence factor of pneumococci and has been investigated as a primary component of a capsular serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine. Thus, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of PspA to explore its potential as a vaccine candidate. Among the 190 invasive pneumococcal isolates collected from Korean children between 1991 and 2016, two (1.1%) isolates were found to have no pspA by multiple polymerase chain reactions. The full length pspA genes from 185 pneumococcal isolates were sequenced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130395/pneumococcal-whole-cell-and-protein-based-vaccines-changing-the-paradigm
#3
Michael E Pichichero
Epidemiologic evaluations of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and pneumococcal disease suggest that newer serotypes in future formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are needed and there may need to be continued reformulations because there are many new emerging serotypes expressed by pneumococci. Areas covered: Mechanisms of protection by next-generation whole-cell vaccine (WCV) and/or multi-component pneumococcal purified protein vaccines (PPVs) in development for prevention of pneumococcal infections...
December 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111412/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-in-the-south-of-tunisia-a-five-year-study-2012-2016-of-pediatric-and-adult-populations
#4
Sonia Ktari, Ikram Jmal, Manel Mroua, Sonda Maalej, Nour El Houda Ben Ayed, Basma Mnif, Faouzia Rhimi, Adnene Hammami
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected in the South of Tunisia over a 5-year period in different age groups and assess their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. METHODS: A total of 305 non duplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from January 2012 to December 2016 at University Hospital of Sfax,Tunisia. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates was determined using the disk diffusion or E-test assays...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093131/exploring-the-role-of-competition-induced-by-non-vaccine-serotypes-for-herd-protection-following-pneumococcal-vaccination
#5
G L Masala, M Lipsitch, C Bottomley, S Flasche
The competitive pressure from non-vaccine serotypes may have helped pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to limit vaccine-type (VT) serotype prevalence. We aimed to investigate if, consequently, the indirect protection of vaccines targeting most pneumococcal serotypes could fall short of the profound effects of current formulations. We compared three previously described pneumococcal models harmonized to simulate 20 serotypes with a combined pre-vaccination prevalence in children younger than 5-years-old of 40%...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089928/antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-effects-of-human-amniotic-chorionic-membrane-extract-on-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#6
Mukesh K Yadav, Yoon Y Go, Shin Hye Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Background:Streptococcus pneumoniae colonize the human nasopharynx in the form of biofilms. The biofilms act as bacterial reservoirs and planktonic bacteria from these biofilms can migrate to other sterile anatomical sites to cause pneumonia, otitis media (OM), bacteremia and meningitis. Human amniotic membrane contains numerous growth factors and antimicrobial activity; however, these have not been studied in detail. In this study, we prepared amniotic membrane extract and chorionic membrane extract (AME/CME) and evaluated their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061707/cell-invasion-and-pyruvate-oxidase-derived-h2o2-are-critical-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-mediated-cardiomyocyte-killing
#7
Terry Brissac, Anukul T Shenoy, LaDonna A Patterson, Carlos J Orihuela
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn, the pneumococcus) is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is now recognized to be a direct contributor to adverse acute cardiac events. During invasive pneumococcal disease, Spn can gain access to the myocardium, kill cardiomyocytes, and form bacteria-filled "microlesions" causing considerable acute and long-lasting cardiac damage. While the molecular mechanisms responsible for bacterial translocation into the heart have been elucidated, the initial interactions of heart-invaded Spn with cardiomyocytes remain unclear...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058583/il-17-signalling-restructures-the-nasal-microbiome-and-drives-dynamic-changes-following-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization
#8
Neil D Ritchie, Umer Z Ijaz, Tom J Evans
BACKGROUND: The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx prior to causing disease, necessitating successful competition with the resident microflora. Cytokines of the IL-17 family are important in host defence against this pathogen but their effect on the nasopharyngeal microbiome is unknown. Here we analyse the influence of IL-17 on the composition and interactions of the nasopharyngeal microbiome before and after pneumococcal colonization. RESULTS: Using a murine model and 16S rRNA profiling, we found that a lack of IL-17 signalling led to profound alterations in the nasal but not lung microbiome characterized by decreased diversity and richness, increases in Proteobacteria and reduction in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria...
October 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054233/managing-a-mycotic-thoracoabdominal-aneurysm-the-importance-of-molecular-diagnostics
#9
Christopher D Bayliss, Karen L Booth, Robin Williams, John H Dark, Kate F Gould
Pneumococcal mycotic aneurysms are rare and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Early intravenous antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment. Pneumococci frequently autolyze in blood cultures, making microbiological diagnosis challenging. We present the case of a man in his mid 70s with multiple thoracoabdominal mycotic aneurysms. Surgery was performed to a threatening saccular aortic arch aneurysm. Samples were sent for microbiological analysis and all were culture negative...
November 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021534/quorum-sensing-integrates-environmental-cues-cell-density-and-cell-history-to-control-bacterial-competence
#10
Stefany Moreno-Gámez, Robin A Sorg, Arnau Domenech, Morten Kjos, Franz J Weissing, G Sander van Doorn, Jan-Willem Veening
Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes competent for genetic transformation when exposed to an autoinducer peptide known as competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). This peptide was originally described as a quorum-sensing signal, enabling individual cells to regulate competence in response to population density. However, recent studies suggest that CSP may instead serve as a probe for sensing environmental cues, such as antibiotic stress or environmental diffusion. Here, we show that competence induction can be simultaneously influenced by cell density, external pH, antibiotic-induced stress, and cell history...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020230/effect-of-maternally-derived-anti-protein-and-anti-capsular-igg-antibodies-on-the-rate-of-acquisition-of-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-pneumococcus-in-newborns
#11
John Ojal, David Goldblatt, Caroline Tigoi, J Anthony G Scott
Background: In developing countries, introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has not eliminated circulation of vaccine serotypes. Vaccinating pregnant mothers to increase antibody concentrations in their newborn infants may reduce the acquisition of pneumococcal carriage and subsequent risk of disease. We explored the efficacy of passive immunity, attributable to anti-protein and anti-capsular pneumococcal antibodies, against acquisition of carriage. Methods: We examined the rate of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci in the first 90 days of life associated with varying anti-capsular and anti-protein antibody concentrations in infant cord/maternal venous blood in Kilifi, Kenya...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020218/pan-serotype-reduction-in-progression-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-otitis-media-after-rollout-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines
#12
Joseph A Lewnard, Noga Givon-Lavi, Daniel M Weinberger, Marc Lipsitch, Ron Dagan
Background: Reductions in otitis media (OM) burden following rollout of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have exceeded predictions of vaccine impact. In settings with active surveillance, reductions in OM caused by vaccine-targeted pneumococcal serotypes have co-occurred with reductions in OM caused by other pathogens carried in the upper-respiratory tract of children. To understand these changes, we investigated the progression of vaccine-targeted and non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes from carriage to OM before and after vaccine rollout...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983694/incomplete-vaccination-coverage-in-european-children-with-end-stage-kidney-disease-prior-to-renal-transplantation
#13
Britta Höcker, Martin Aguilar, Paul Schnitzler, Lars Pape, Luca Dello Strologo, Nicholas J A Webb, Martin Bald, Gurkan Genc, Heiko Billing, Jens König, Anja Büscher, Markus J Kemper, Stephen D Marks, Martin Pohl, Marianne Wigger, Rezan Topaloglu, Susanne Rieger, Kai Krupka, Thomas Bruckner, Alexander Fichtner, Burkhard Tönshoff
BACKGROUND: Because infections constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric renal allograft recipients, avoidance of preventable systemic infections by vaccination before transplantation is of utmost importance. However, data on the completeness of vaccinations and factors associated with incomplete vaccination coverage are scarce. METHODS: Within the framework of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative (CERTAIN), we therefore performed a multi-centre, multi-national, retrospective study investigating the vaccination coverage before transplantation of 254 European children with end-stage renal disease (mean age 10...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982625/the-scope-for-pneumococcal-vaccines-that-do-not-prevent-transmission
#14
Stefan Flasche
The pneumococcal vaccine pipeline holds candidates developed with the aim to prevent the majority if not all pneumococcal disease. Herd protection is a critical component of the overall impact of current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and is a prerequisite for disease elimination through an infant vaccination programme. We assessed the scope of a hypothetical pneumococcal vaccine candidate (HPVC) with high clinical efficacy against all pneumococci but that fails to induce such indirect protection. We found that, despite a lack of impact on unvaccinated individuals, HPVC use in infancy may offer similar or superior impact among young children if compared to current PCVs...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968866/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-associated-with-pneumococci-in-children-an-elusive-mystery-now-explained
#15
Kristian Riesbeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968817/streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-patients-with-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-binds-human-plasminogen-via-the-surface-protein-pspc-and-uses-plasmin-to-damage-human-endothelial-cells
#16
Christian Meinel, Giuseppina Spartà, Hans-Martin Dahse, Franziska Hörhold, Rainer König, Martin Westermann, Sina M Coldewey, Zoltán Cseresnyés, Marc Thilo Figge, Sven Hammerschmidt, Christine Skerka, Peter F Zipfel
Pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is caused by infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because endothelial cell damage is a hallmark of HUS, we studied how HUS-inducing pneumococci derived from infant HUS patients during the acute phase disrupt the endothelial layer. HUS pneumococci efficiently bound human plasminogen. These clinical isolates of HUS pneumococci efficiently bound human plasminogen via the bacterial surface proteins Tuf and PspC. When activated to plasmin at the bacterial surface, the active protease degraded fibrinogen and cleaved C3b...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964304/the-effect-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-incidence-and-microbiology-associated-with-complicated-acute-otitis-media
#17
B B Laursen, C S Danstrup, S Hoffmann, N Nørskov-Lauritsen, A L B Christensen, T Ovesen
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of complicated acute otitis media (cAOM) as well as the associated microbiology before and after introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV-7 and -13), respectively. CAOM comprises "heavy" AOM (AOM demanding hospitalization), mastodismus (M) and acute mastoiditis (AM). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of the incidence and microbiology associated with cAOM during the non-PCV era, the PCV-7 and 13 eras, respectively...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932816/a-quorum-sensing-system-that-regulates-streptococcus-pneumoniae-biofilm-formation-and-surface-polysaccharide-production
#18
Roger Junges, Gabriela Salvadori, Sudhanshu Shekhar, Heidi A Åmdal, Jimstan N Periselneris, Tsute Chen, Jeremy S Brown, Fernanda C Petersen
Despite vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae kills more than a million people yearly. Thus, understanding how pneumococci transition from commensals to pathogens is particularly relevant. Quorum sensing regulates collective behaviors and thus represents a potential driver of commensal-to-pathogen transitions. Rgg/small hydrophobic peptide (SHP) quorum-sensing systems are widespread in streptococci, yet they remain largely uncharacterized in S. pneumoniae. Using directional transcriptome sequencing, we show that the S...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931649/sequencing-of-the-variable-region-of-rpsb-to-discriminate-between-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-other-streptococcal-species
#19
Anne L Wyllie, Yvonne Pannekoek, Sandra Bovenkerk, Jody van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Bart Ferwerda, Diederik van de Beek, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński, Arie van der Ende
The vast majority of streptococci colonizing the human upper respiratory tract are commensals, only sporadically implicated in disease. Of these, the most pathogenic is Mitis group member, Streptococcus pneumoniae Phenotypic and genetic similarities between streptococci can cause difficulties in species identification. Using ribosomal S2-gene sequences extracted from whole-genome sequences published from 501 streptococci, we developed a method to identify streptococcal species. We validated this method on non-pneumococcal isolates cultured from cases of severe streptococcal disease (n = 101) and from carriage (n = 103), and on non-typeable pneumococci from asymptomatic individuals (n = 17) and on whole-genome sequences of 1157 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis in the Netherlands...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928078/a-nationwide-study-on-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-antibiotic-use-and-ventilation-tube-insertion-in-denmark-2000-2014
#20
Michael Frantz Howitz, Zitta Barrella Harboe, Helene Ingels, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Bjarki Ditlev Djurhuus
Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccines (PCV) in national immunization programs have been successful in reducing the number of invasive and lower respiratory pneumococcal infections. The impact of the vaccines on upper respiratory infections caused by pneumococci is less clear although these account for most pneumococcal infections. In this study, we used likely proxies for respiratory infections in children, such as antibiotic use and ventilation tube insertions (VTI), to estimate the impact of the vaccine on a national level...
September 16, 2017: Vaccine
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