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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776921/determining-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-coverage-required-for-indirect-protection-against-vaccine-type-pneumococcal-carriage-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Jocelyn Chan, Cattram D Nguyen, Jana Y R Lai, Eileen M Dunne, Ross Andrews, Christopher C Blyth, Siddhartha Datta, Kim Fox, Rebecca Ford, Jason Hinds, Sophie La Vincente, Deborah Lehmann, Ruth Lim, Tuya Mungun, Paul N Newton, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Willam S Pomat, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Claire von Mollendorf, David A B Dance, Catherine Satzke, Kim Muholland, Fiona M Russell
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent disease through both direct protection of vaccinated individuals and indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and transmission of vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci. While the indirect effects of PCV vaccination are well described, the PCV coverage required to achieve the indirect effects is unknown. We will investigate the relationship between PCV coverage and VT carriage among undervaccinated children using hospital-based NP pneumococcal carriage surveillance at three sites in Asia and the Pacific...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764945/a-mechanism-of-unidirectional-transformation-leading-to-antibiotic-resistance-occurs-within-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-biofilm-consortia
#2
Santiago M Lattar, Xueqing Wu, Jennifer Brophy, Fuminori Sakai, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Streptococcus pneumoniae acquires genes for resistance to antibiotics such as streptomycin (Str) or trimethoprim (Tmp) by recombination via transformation of DNA released by other pneumococci and closely related species. Using naturally transformable pneumococci, including strain D39 serotype 2 (S2) and TIGR4 (S4), we studied whether pneumococcal nasopharyngeal transformation was symmetrical, asymmetrical, or unidirectional. Incubation of S2Tet and S4Str in a bioreactor simulating the human nasopharynx led to the generation of SpnTet/Str recombinants...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744087/-streptococcus-pneumoniae-as-a-cause-of-lactational-mastitis-a-case-report
#3
Sara Vester Hald, Henrik Carl Schønheyder
Pneumococci are predominant in respiratory tract infections but may have unusual presentations such as lactational mastitis. We report a 29-year-old breastfeeding woman with pneumococcal mastitis confirmed by positive blood culture and culture of milk. Previously, a few similar cases have been reported, but none was associated with bacteremia.
May 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720274/aerobic-bacteria-associated-with-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-in-angola
#4
Fabian Uddén, Matuba Filipe, Åke Reimer, Maria Paul, Erika Matuschek, John Thegerström, Sven Hammerschmidt, Tuula Pelkonen, Kristian Riesbeck
BACKGROUND: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important cause of hearing loss in children and constitutes a serious health problem globally with a strong association to resource-limited living conditions. Topical antibiotics combined with aural toilet is the first-hand treatment for CSOM but antimicrobial resistance and limited availability to antibiotics are obstacles in some areas. The goal of this study was to define aerobic pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola with the overall aim to provide a background for local treatment recommendations...
May 3, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701809/receptor-blockade-a-novel-approach-to-protect-the-brain-from-pneumococcal-invasion
#5
Federico Iovino, Sigrun Thorsdottir, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Background: Pneumococci are the major cause of bacterial meningitis globally. To cause meningitis pneumococci interact with the 2 endothelial receptors, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invade the brain. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with bioluminescent pneumococci, and treated with ceftriaxone (1 hour postinfection) and anti-pIgR and PECAM-1 antibodies (1 or 5 hours postinfection), then monitored for 5 and 10 days...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676868/-how-i-treat-%C3%A2-an-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#6
V Heinrichs, J Frère
Acute otitis media (AOM) is very common in early childhood (inferior to 2 years). As a spontaneous recovery occurs in superior to 80 % of cases, antibiotics use should not be systematic. The aim of this review is to discuss AOM diagnostic criteria based on the latest recommendations, aiming a wiser use of antibiotics. Antibiotics use in a child with AOM should take into account the age, the severity of the disease, uni- or bilateral otitis, the presence or absence of otorrhea, and the presence of possible risk factors...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662129/intracellular-replication-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-inside-splenic-macrophages-serves-as-a-reservoir-for-septicaemia
#7
Giuseppe Ercoli, Vitor E Fernandes, Wen Y Chung, Joseph J Wanford, Sarah Thomson, Christopher D Bayliss, Kornelis Straatman, Paul R Crocker, Ashley Dennison, Luisa Martinez-Pomares, Peter W Andrew, E Richard Moxon, Marco R Oggioni
Bacterial septicaemia is a major cause of mortality, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. In experimental pneumococcal murine intravenous infection, an initial reduction of bacteria in the blood is followed hours later by a fatal septicaemia. These events represent a population bottleneck driven by efficient clearance of pneumococci by splenic macrophages and neutrophils, but as we show in this study, accompanied by occasional intracellular replication of bacteria that are taken up by a subset of CD169+ splenic macrophages...
April 16, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649601/adjuvant-non-bacteriolytic-and-anti-inflammatory-combination-therapy-in-pneumococcal-meningitis-an-investigation-in-a-mouse-model
#8
M Klein, C Höhne, B Angele, T Högen, H W Pfister, H Tüfekci, U Koedel
OBJECTIVES: Therapy with antibiotics, dexamethasone, and supportive intensive care has improved the prognosis of pneumococcal meningitis, but mortality remains high. Here, we investigated an adjunctive combination therapy of the non-bacteriolytic antibiotic daptomycin plus several anti-inflammatory agents to identify the currently most promising adjunctive combination therapy for pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected by injection of pneumococci into the cisterna magna...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617440/the-impact-of-serotype-specific-vaccination-on-phylodynamic-parameters-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-the-pneumococcal-pan-genome
#9
Taj Azarian, Lindsay R Grant, Brian J Arnold, Laura L Hammitt, Raymond Reid, Mathuram Santosham, Robert Weatherholtz, Novalene Goklish, Claudette M Thompson, Stephen D Bentley, Katherine L O'Brien, William P Hanage, Marc Lipsitch
In the United States, the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) largely eliminated vaccine serotypes (VT); non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) subsequently increased in carriage and disease. Vaccination also disrupts the composition of the pneumococcal pangenome, which includes mobile genetic elements and polymorphic non-capsular antigens important for virulence, transmission, and pneumococcal ecology. Antigenic proteins are of interest for future vaccines; yet, little is known about how the they are affected by PCV use...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610253/deconstructing-progression-from-pneumococcal-colonization-to-disease
#10
Stephen I Pelton
Despite advances in treatment and prevention, the pneumococcus continues as a dominant cause of severe pneumonia and sepsis, of otitis media, sinusitis and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Lewnard and colleagues use a unique data set of nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid samples to provide further insight into the progression of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization to disease. They report the comparative rate of progression from colonization to otitis media by serotype, providing insight as to how conjugate vaccines that do not reduce the overall presence of pneumococci in the nasopharynx dramatically impact the incidence of acute and complex otitis media...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599457/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-colonization-and-invasion
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey N Weiser, Daniela M Ferreira, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae has a complex relationship with its obligate human host. On the one hand, the pneumococci are highly adapted commensals, and their main reservoir on the mucosal surface of the upper airways of carriers enables transmission. On the other hand, they can cause severe disease when bacterial and host factors allow them to invade essentially sterile sites, such as the middle ear spaces, lungs, bloodstream and meninges. Transmission, colonization and invasion depend on the remarkable ability of S...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582580/molecular-mechanisms-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-targeted-autophagy-via-pneumolysin-golgi-resident-rab41-and-nedd4-1-mediated-k63-linked-ubiquitination
#12
Michinaga Ogawa, Ryuta Matsuda, Naoki Takada, Mikado Tomokiyo, Shouji Yamamoto, Sayaka Shizukusihi, Toshiyuki Yamaji, Yuko Yoshikawa, Mitsutaka Yoshida, Isei Tanida, Masato Koike, Miyo Murai, Hidetoshi Morita, Haruko Takeyama, Akihide Ryo, Jun-Lin Guan, Masahiro Yamamoto, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Toru Yanagawa, Mitsunori Fukuda, Hiroshi Kawabe, Makoto Ohnishi
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia and can penetrate epithelial barriers to enter the bloodstream and brain. We investigated intracellular fates of S. pneumoniae and found that the pathogen is entrapped by selective autophagy in pneumolysin- and ubiquitin-p62-LC3 cargo-dependent manners. Importantly, following induction of autophagy, Rab41 was relocated from the Golgi apparatus to S. pneumoniae-containing autophagic vesicles (PcAV), which were only formed in the presence of Rab41-positive intact Golgi apparatuses...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552541/atypical-pneumococcal-isolate-from-blood
#13
Jayashree Veerasamy, Jayalakshmi Jayarajan
Pneumonia with bacteremia accounts for the majority (70%) of cases of invasive pneumococcal diseases. Laboratory characterization of pneumococci is routinely done by sensitivity to optochin. We identified an atypical presentation of optochin-resistant pneumococci in blood isolate of a patient with sepsis. Polymerase chain reaction for autolysin (lytA) and pneumolysin (ply) was positive in the bile soluble isolate. Gene sequencing revealed synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism type of functional mutation in lytA gene...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533176/characterisation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-invasive-disease-in-adults-following-the-introduction-of-pcv10-in-brazil
#14
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524198/molecular-characterization-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-pakistan
#15
Faidad Khan, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Hamid Bashir, Saad Tahir, Ahmad Usman Zafar
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal diseases in the world, but unfortunately studies in this demanding research area are limited in the region. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is the next generation pneumococcal vaccine candidate as the protein locates on the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface. Its gene, pspA, might be encoded by all pneumococci, and the protein has proven immunogenicity. The molecular characterization of PspA, pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility are important for regional diversity studies...
March 9, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498560/a-novel-pspa-protein-vaccine-intranasal-delivered-by-bacterium-like-particles-provides-broad-protection-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-mice
#16
Dandan Wang, Jingcai Lu, Jinfei Yu, Hongjia Hou, Kees Leenhouts, Maarten L Van Roosmalen, Tiejun Gu, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen accounting for a large number of pneumococcal disease in worldwide. Due to the mucosal immune pathway induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses, the potential strategy to prevent pneumococcal disease may be to develop a mucosal vaccine. METHOD: In this study, we developed an intranasal pneumococcal protein vaccine based on a bacterium-like particle (BLP) delivery system. PspA is expressed and exposed on the surface of all pneumococcal strains, which confers the potential to induce immune responses to protect against pneumococcal infection...
May 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496408/proteomic-response-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-iron-limitation
#17
Juliane Hoyer, Jürgen Bartel, Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Manfred Rohde, Claudia Hirschfeld, Nathalie Heß, Thomas Sura, Sandra Maaß, Sven Hammerschmidt, Dörte Becher
Iron is an essential trace element and involved in various key metabolic pathways in bacterial lifestyle. Within the human host, iron is extremely limited. Hence, the ability of bacteria to acquire iron from the environment is critical for a successful infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a human pathobiont colonizing symptomless the human respiratory tract, but can also cause various local and invasive infections. To survive and proliferate pneumococci have therefore to adapt their metabolism and virulence factor repertoire to different host compartments...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487737/recent-approaches-in-whole-cell-pneumococcal-vaccine-development-a-review-study
#18
REVIEW
Mona Mohammadzadeh, Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi
Despite the availability of relatively effective vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes widespread morbidity and mortality. Current vaccines contain free polysaccharides or protein-polysaccharide conjugates, but do not induce protection against serotypes that are not included in the vaccines. Therefore, developing alternative vaccines is of high priority and importance. Several investigators have identified protective antigens common to pneumococci of many or all serotypes. Malley et al. in their study, have recommended unencapsulated whole cells, as an alternative vaccine, a number of such antigens unoccluded by capsule were presented in a native configuration in 2001...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483167/stress-suppressor-screening-leads-to-detecting-regulation-of-cyclic-di-amp-homeostasis-by-a-trk-family-effector-protein-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#19
Tiffany M Zarrella, Dennis W Metzger, Guangchun Bai
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a newly discovered bacterial second messenger. However, regulation of c-di-AMP homeostasis is poorly understood. In Streptococcus pneumoniae , a sole diadenylate cyclase, CdaA, produces c-di-AMP and two phosphodiesterases, Pde1 and Pde2, cleave the signaling di-nucleotide. To expand our knowledge of the pneumococcal c-di-AMP signaling network, we performed whole genome sequencing of Δ pde1 Δ pde2 heat shock suppressors. In addition to surviving heat shock, these suppressor mutants restored general stress resistance and improved growth in rich medium...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479548/incidence-etiology-and-outcomes-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-population-based-study
#20
Agnar Bjarnason, Johan Westin, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Karl G Kristinsson, Arthur Löve, Olafur Baldursson, Magnus Gottfredsson
Background: The microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often unclear in clinical practice, and previous studies have produced variable results. Population-based studies examining etiology and incidence are lacking. This study examined the incidence and etiology of CAP requiring hospitalization in a population-based cohort as well as risk factors and outcomes for specific etiologies. Methods: Consecutive admissions due to CAP in Reykjavik, Iceland were studied...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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