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Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Osei Kuffour Afreh, George Khumalo Kuma, Godfred Owusu-Okyere, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Archibald Kwame Worwui, Catherine Okoi, Madikay Senghore, Jacob Kweku Otu, Chinelo Ebruke, Richard Bannerman, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, David Opare, Gemma Kay, Timothy Letsa, Owen Kaluwa, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Victor Bampoe, Syed M A Zaman, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jason M Mwenda, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of pneumococcal meningitis among non-infant children and adults occurred in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana between December 2015 and April 2016 despite the recent nationwide implementation of a vaccination programme for infants with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients with suspected meningitis in the Brong-Ahafo region. CSF specimens were subjected to Gram staining, culture and rapid antigen testing...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Małgorzata Gajewska, Katarzyna Lewtak, Jacques Scheres, Piotr Albrecht, Paweł Goryński
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the hospitalization trends in children aged 0-6 suffering from bacterial pneumonia in the years 2007-2011 in Poland. METHODS: The data pertained to the hospitalized patients diagnosed with the diseases registered as J13-J15 according to ICD-10. RESULTS: In the years 2007-2011, the hospitalization rate increased from 16.3/10,000 to 44.1/10,000 for boys and from 13.8/10,000 to 33.0/10,000 for girls. The most frequently hospitalized children were between 1 and 2 years of age (90...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Anne L Wyllie, Lidewij W Rümke, Kayleigh Arp, Astrid A T M Bosch, Jacob P Bruin, Nynke Y Rots, Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński
Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults is rarely detected by the gold standard culture method. With molecular tests of high sensitivity now available, we analysed upper respiratory tract samples collected during autumn/winter 2012/2013 from parents of PCV7-vaccinated infants and from childless adults, directly comparing culture and qPCR-based S. pneumoniae detection. As compared to the gold standard of testing nasopharyngeal swabs, qPCR-based analysis of oral samples significantly improved detection of pneumococcal carriage (5% versus 20%, p < 0...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anneke Steens, Natacha Milhano, Ingeborg S Aaberge, Didrik F Vestrheim
BACKGROUND: As a standard method for pneumococcal carriage studies, the World Health Organization recommends nasopharyngeal swabs be transported and stored at cool temperatures in a medium containing skim-milk, tryptone, glucose and glycerol (STGG). An enrichment broth used for transport at room temperature in three carriage studies performed in Norway may have a higher sensitivity than STGG. We therefore compared the media in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro component, three strains (serotype 4, 19F and 3) were suspended in STGG and enrichment broth...
2016: PeerJ
Daniel Straume, Gro Anita Stamsås, Kari Helene Berg, Zhian Salehian, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein
The oval shape of pneumococci results from a combination of septal and lateral peptidoglycan synthesis. The septal cross-wall is synthesized by the divisome, while the elongasome drives cell elongation by inserting new peptidoglycan into the lateral cell wall. Each of these molecular machines contains penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which catalyze the final stages of peptidoglycan synthesis, plus a number of accessory proteins. Much effort has been made to identify these accessory proteins and determine their function...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Rieza Aprianto, Jelle Slager, Siger Holsappel, Jan-Willem Veening
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the main etiological agent of pneumonia. Pneumococcal infection is initiated by bacterial adherence to lung epithelial cells. The exact transcriptional changes occurring in both host and microbe during infection are unknown. Here, we developed a time-resolved infection model of human lung alveolar epithelial cells by S. pneumoniae and assess the resulting transcriptome changes in both organisms simultaneously by using dual RNA-seq...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology
Chrispin Chaguza, Cheryl P Andam, Simon R Harris, Jennifer E Cornick, Marie Yang, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Arox W Kamng'ona, Julian Parkhill, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, Aras Kadioglu, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley, William P Hanage
: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence...
September 27, 2016: MBio
María E Toledo, Maria F Casanova, Nivaldo Linares-Pérez, Dagmar García-Rivera, Gilda Toraño Peraza, Indira Barcos Pina, Martha Montes de Oca, Laura M Rodriguez-Noda, Mayelín Mirabal, Beatriz Paredes, Dunia M Chávez Amaro, Darielys Santana Mederos, Yury Valdés-Balbín, Vicente Verez-Bencomo
BACKGROUND: A new vaccine candidate against pneumococcus is being developed in Cuba, and it is a priority of the national health system. There is limited information on nasopharyngeal colonization burden, though it is essential for monitoring the impact of the vaccine. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization in 2-18 month old toddlers, identify circulating serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and its association with selected risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 in Cienfuegos municipality...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Menglan Zhou, Qiwen Yang, Timothy Kudinha, Li Zhang, Meng Xiao, Fanrong Kong, Yupei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu
There are challenges in viridans group streptococci (VGS) identification especially for the mitis group. Few studies have investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS system in VGS identification. Using 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequencing as a gold standard, the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS instruments in the identification of 181 VGS clinical isolates was studied. The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS IVD systems correctly identified 88.4% and 98.9% of the 181 isolates, respectively. The Vitek MS RUO system was the least reliable, only correctly identifying 38...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kruthika Sundaram, Mohd Akhlakur Rahman, Srabani Mitra, Daren L Knoell, Shireen A Woodiga, Samantha J King, Mark D Wewers
Pneumococcal lung infections represent a major cause of death worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NFKBIZ gene, encoding the transcription factor IκBζ, are associated with increased susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease. We hence analyzed how IκBζ might regulate inflammatory responses to pneumococcal infection. We first demonstrate that IκBζ is expressed in human blood monocytes but not in bronchial epithelial cells, in response to wild type pneumococcal strain D39. D39 transiently induced IκBζ in a dose dependent manner, with subsequent induction of downstream molecules involved in host defense...
2016: PloS One
Mathias W Pletz, Julia Uebele, Karen Götz, Stefan Hagel, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multidrug resistance of bacterial pathogens has confronted physicians around the world with the threat of inefficacy of the antibiotic regime, which is particularly important for patients with sepsis. Antibiotic resistance has revived search for alternative nonantibiotic strategies. Among them, prophylaxis by vaccination is an appealing concept. RECENT FINDINGS: This review provides a compact overview on available vaccines against community-acquired pathogens such as pneumococci (in synergy with influenza) and meningococci and provides an overview on the ongoing developments of vaccines targeting typical nosocomial pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Acintetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
E Mitsi, A M Roche, J Reiné, T Zangari, J T Owugha, S H Pennington, J F Gritzfeld, A D Wright, A M Collins, S van Selm, M I de Jonge, S B Gordon, J N Weiser, D M Ferreira
The ability of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to decrease transmission by blocking the acquisition of colonization has been attributed to herd immunity. We describe the role of mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in mediating protection from carriage, translating our findings from a murine model to humans. We used a flow cytometric assay to quantify antibody-mediated agglutination demonstrating that hyperimmune sera generated against an unencapsulated mutant was poorly agglutinating...
August 31, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Tatiana C A Pinto, Fabíola C O Kegele, Cícero A G Dias, Rosana R Barros, José M Peralta, Vânia L C Merquior, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Sopio Chochua, Paulina Hawkins, Lesley McGee, Lucia M Teixeira
Antimicrobial resistant pneumococcal strains have been detected worldwide since the 1960's. In Brazil, the first penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) were reported in the 1980's, and their emergence and dissemination have been mainly attributed to serogroup 9 and serotype 14 strains, especially those highly related to recognized international clones. In the present study, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed on 315 pneumococcal isolates belonging to serogroup 9 (n=99) or serotype 14 (n=216), recovered from patients or asymptomatic carriers between 1988 and 2011 in Brazil, in order to trace changes in antimicrobial resistance and genotypes prior to the full introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the country...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Shaper Mirza, William H Benjamin, Patricia A Coan, Shen-An Hwang, Anne-Kathryn Winslett, Janet Yother, Susan K Hollingshead, Kohtaro Fujihashi, David E Briles
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is the only pneumococcal surface protein known to strongly bind lactoferrin on the bacterial surface. In the absence of PspA Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes more susceptible to killing by human apolactoferrin (apo-hLf), the iron-free form of lactoferrin. In the present study we examined diverse strains of S. pneumoniae that differed by 2 logs in their susceptibility to apo-hLf. Among these strains, the amount of apo-hLf that bound to cell surface PspA correlated directly with the resistance of the strain to killing by apo-hLf...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Young June Choe, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyunju Lee, Chi Eun Oh, Eun Young Cho, Jae Hong Choi, Hyun Mi Kang, In Ae Yoon, Hyun Joo Jung, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess the serotype distribution and antibiotic nonsusceptibility of pneumococcal carriage isolates from children in Korea following the introduction of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: From April to June 2014, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children who were attending daycare centers in Korea. The collection was conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization Pneumococcal Carriage Working Group standards...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
Kin Ki Jim, JooYeon Engelen-Lee, Astrid M van der Sar, Wilbert Bitter, Matthijs C Brouwer, Arie van der Ende, Jan-Willem Veening, Diederik van de Beek, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of bacterial meningitis, an infection where unfavourable outcome is driven by bacterial and host-derived toxins. In this study, we developed and characterized a pneumococcal meningitis model in zebrafish embryos that allows for real-time investigation of early host-microbe interaction. METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were infected in the caudal vein or hindbrain ventricle with green fluorescent wild-type S...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Joseph A Lewnard, Amit Huppert, Noga Givon-Lavi, Melinda M Pettigrew, Gili Regev-Yochay, Ron Dagan, Daniel M Weinberger
BACKGROUND:  Co-infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are frequently implicated in complex otitis media. Whereas upper respiratory-tract carriage precedes disease for both pathogens, interactions between species in co-colonized hosts are poorly understood. We compared colonization densities and the diversity and fitness of pneumococcal serotypes in single-species and mixed-species colonization. METHODS:  We analyzed nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal NTHi carriage in 13,541 samples collected over 6,909 study visits by 769 children 2-30 months old in a PCV7 dosing trial...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Corey Fyfe, Trudy H Grossman, Kathy Kerstein, Joyce Sutcliffe
Macrolide resistance mechanisms can be target-based with a change in a 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) residue or a mutation in ribosomal protein L4 or L22 affecting the ribosome's interaction with the antibiotic. Alternatively, mono- or dimethylation of A2058 in domain V of the 23S rRNA by an acquired rRNA methyltransferase, the product of an erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) gene, can interfere with antibiotic binding. Acquired genes encoding efflux pumps, most predominantly mef(A) + msr(D) in pneumococci/streptococci and msr(A/B) in staphylococci, also mediate resistance...
October 3, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Juliana Caierão, Fernando Hayashi Sant'Anna, Paulina Hawkins, Gabriela Rosa Cunha, Mariana Mott, Diego Rodrigues Falci, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo, Lesley McGee, Cícero Dias
BACKGROUND: Although serogroup 20 is not part of any conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, its serotype 20A, but not 20B, belongs to the polysaccharide 23-valent formula. Little is known about its clinical, laboratorial and epidemiological characteristics. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial genotypes (by PFGE and MLST), clinical characteristics of patients (from review of medical records) and antimicrobial susceptibility of serogroup 20 isolates which were recovered from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from 2007 to 2012...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Blas Blázquez, Alba Fresco-Taboada, Manuel Iglesias-Bexiga, Margarita Menéndez, Pedro García
The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is pushing the need of alternative treatments. In this context, phage therapy is already a reality to successfully fight certain multiresistant bacteria. Among different phage gene products, murein hydrolases responsible of phage progeny liberation (also called lysins or endolysins) are weapons that target specific peptidoglycan bonds, leading to lysis and death of susceptible bacteria when added from the outside. In the pneumococcal system, all but one phage murein hydrolases reported to date share a choline-binding domain that recognizes cell walls containing choline residues in the (lipo)teichoic acids...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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