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Shock and neonate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691444/adaptive-response-of-neonatal-sepsis-derived-group-b-streptococcus-to-bilirubin
#1
Richard Hansen, Sophie Gibson, Eduardo De Paiva Alves, Mark Goddard, Andrew MacLaren, Anne Marie Karcher, Susan Berry, Elaina S R Collie-Duguid, Emad El-Omar, Mike Munro, Georgina L Hold
Hyperbilirubinemia is so common in newborns as to be termed physiological. The most common bacteria involved in early-onset neonatal sepsis are Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly called Group B Streptococcus (GBS). Whilst previous studies show bilirubin has antioxidant properties and is beneficial in endotoxic shock, little thought has been given to whether bilirubin might have antibacterial properties. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic and proteomic assessment of GBS cultured in the presence/absence of bilirubin...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684189/correlation-between-perfusion-index-and-crib-score-in-sick-neonates-admitted-to-a-tertiary-center
#2
Jisha Mathew, Chandrakala Bada Shekarappa, Suman Padubidri Nanyam Rao
Objective: The study was to determine the correlation of Perfusion Index (PI) and Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) score, in assessing the severity of illness in sick neonates. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). All eligible neonates, both term and preterm, admitted to the high-dependency unit of the NICU were included, after parental consent. Relevant details of history and examination were collected with a structured proforma...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682452/extending-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-sengers-syndrome-congenital-lactic-acidosis-with-synthetic-liver-dysfunction
#3
David B Beck, Kristina Cusmano-Ozog, Nickie Andescavage, Eyby Leon
Sengers syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease characterized by lactic acidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and bilateral cataracts. We present here a case of neonatal demise, within the first day of life, who initially presented with severe lactic acidosis, with evidence of both chorioamnionitis and cardiogenic shock. Initial metabolic labs demonstrated a severe lactic acidosis prompting genetic testing which revealed a homozygous pathogenic variant for Sengers syndrome in AGK, c.979A >  T; p...
April 13, 2018: Translational Science of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657735/necrotizing-enterocolitis-associated-with-clostridium-butyricum-in-a-japanese-man
#4
Yukio Sato, Dai Kujirai, Katsura Emoto, Toshiaki Yagami, Taketo Yamada, Manabu Izumi, Masaki Ano, Kenichi Kase, Kenji Kobayashi
Case: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) caused by Clostridium butyricum is common in neonates; however, a case of NEC in adults has not been previously reported. An 84-year-old Japanese man developed C. butyricum -related NEC during hospitalization for treatment of stab wounds to the left side of the neck and lower abdomen, without organ damage, and concomitant pneumonia. Outcome: The patient developed acute onset of emesis accompanied by shock during his admission; partial resection of the small intestine was carried out due to necrosis...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649938/preoperative-physiology-imaging-and-management-of-interrupted-aortic-arch
#5
Kevin Friedman
Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare form of critical neonatal heart disease in which there is lack of continuity between the ascending aorta and the descending thoracic aorta. In the absence of prenatal diagnosis, patients with IAA present in shock when the patent ductus arteriosus closes. Diagnosis can generally be made by echocardiography, and initiation of prostaglandin E1 infusion allows for adequate lower body perfusion prior to surgical repair. Full neonatal repair can be achieved with good outcomes in most cases...
April 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625344/response-of-antioxidant-enzymes-to-cd-and-pb-exposure-in-water-flea-daphnia-magna-differential-metal-and-age-specific-patterns
#6
Haeyeon Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Pyoung-Joong Kim, Eun-Ji Won, Young-Mi Lee
To investigate oxidative stress responses to cadmium and lead, the freshwater water flea Daphnia magna was exposed to Cd and Pb for 48 h. Following treatment with sub-lethal concentrations, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as modulation of multiple biomarker, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) contents, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, antioxidant enzyme - coding genes (three GST isoforms, glutaredoxin [GRx], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and thioredoxin [TRx]), and stress-response proteins (heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70] and Hsp90) were examined...
April 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600241/a-standardized-needs-assessment-tool-to-inform-the-curriculum-development-process-for-pediatric-resuscitation-simulation-based-education-in-resource-limited-settings
#7
Nicole Shilkofski, Amanda Crichlow, Julie Rice, Leslie Cope, Ye Myint Kyaw, Thazin Mon, Sarah Kiguli, Julianna Jung
Introduction: Under five mortality rates (UFMR) remain high for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the developing world. Education for practitioners in these environments is a key factor to improve outcomes that will address United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 10 (good health and well being and reduced inequalities). In order to appropriately contextualize a curriculum using simulation, it is necessary to first conduct a needs assessment of the target learner population...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576768/effect-of-endotoxemia-in-suckling-rats-on-pancreatic-integrity-and-exocrine-function-in-adults-a-review-report
#8
REVIEW
Jolanta Jaworek, Barbara Tudek, Paweł Kowalczyk, Michalina Kot, Joanna Szklarczyk, Anna Leja-Szpak, Piotr Pierzchalski, Joanna Bonior, Artur Dembiński, Piotr Ceranowicz, Zygmunt Warzecha, Katarzyna Nawrot-Porąbka, Krzysztof Gil
Background . Endotoxin (LPS), the component of Gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for sepsis and neonatal mortality, but low concentrations of LPS produced tissue protection in experimental studies. The effects of LPS applied to the suckling rats on the pancreas of adult animals have not been previously explored. We present the impact of neonatal endotoxemia on the pancreatic exocrine function and on the acute pancreatitis which has been investigated in the adult animals. Endotoxemia was induced in suckling rats by intraperitoneal application of LPS from Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhi ...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570587/invasive-gastrointestinal-mucormycosis-a-master-masquerader
#9
Shalu Gupta, Muralidharan Jayashree, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Kushaljit S Sodhi, Ravi Prakash Kanojia, Suvradeep Mitra
We report three previously well children of post neonatal age who developed fatal form of gastrointestinal mucormycosis following systemic inflammatory response syndrome, shock and metabolic acidosis. Abdominal distension and peritonitis were secondary complications. The study highlights the importance of clinical suspicion of gastrointestinal mucormycosis when the triad of shock requiring vasoactive drugs, metabolic acidosis and abdominal distension is present.
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568083/identification-of-highly-effective-target-genes-for-rnai-mediated-control-of-emerald-ash-borer-agrilus-planipennis
#10
Thais B Rodrigues, Jian J Duan, Subba R Palli, Lynne K Rieske
Recent study has shown that RNA interference (RNAi) is efficient in emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and that ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting specific genes causes gene silencing and mortality in neonates. Here, we report on the identification of highly effective target genes for RNAi-mediated control of EAB. We screened 13 candidate genes in neonate larvae and selected the most effective target genes for further investigation, including their effect on EAB adults and on a non-target organism, Tribolium castaneum...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566368/the-trend-of-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-in-the-development-of-septic-myocardial-depression-a-lipopolysaccharide-induced-rat-septic-shock-model
#11
Ni Yang, Xiao-Lu Shi, Bing-Lun Zhang, Jian Rong, Tie-Ning Zhang, Wei Xu, Chun-Feng Liu
Septic shock with low cardiac output is very common in children. However, the mechanism underlying myocardial depression is unclear. The role of β3-AR in the development of myocardial depression in sepsis is unknown. In the present study, we generated an adolescent rat model of hypodynamic septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Neonatal cardiomyocytes were also treated with LPS to mimic myocardial depression in sepsis, which was confirmed via an in vivo left ventricular hemodynamic study, and measurements of contractility and the Ca2+ transient in isolated adolescent and neonatal cardiomyocytes...
March 22, 2018: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545441/total-midgut-duplication-a-ticking-time-bomb
#12
Vikram Khanna, Kashish Khanna, Maddur Srinivas
A day-old neonate presented with bowel obstruction and an abdominal mass. Exploratory laparotomy revealed complete tubular midgut duplication from duodeno-jejunal junction up to terminal ileum which was communicating with the ileum distally. At the proximal end, another 5×5 cm duplication cyst was identified and excised. Postoperatively, complaints were relieved. During follow-up, 99m-Tc-pertechnetate-SPECT scan showed ectopic gastric mucosa in lower abdomen and in the right hemithorax. CECT-chest showed a 3×3 cm foregut duplication cyst, but there were no respiratory symptoms...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531855/short-term-hypoxia-improves-early-cardiac-progenitor-cell-function-in-vitro
#13
Ivan Hernandez, Jonathan M Baio, Eric Tsay, Aida F Martinez, Tania I Fuentes, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh W Hasaniya, Mary Kearns-Jonker
The use of cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) to repair damaged myocardium has been the focus of intense research. Previous reports have shown that pretreatments, including hypoxia, improve cell function. However, the age-dependent effects of short-term hypoxia on CPCs, and the role of signaling in these effects, are unknown. Cloned neonatal and adult CPCs expressing Isl1, c-Kit, KDR, PDGFRA, and CXCR4, were preconditioned using hypoxia (1% O2 for six hours). Intracellular signaling pathway changes were modeled using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), while qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting were used to measure pathway activation...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526382/neonatal-nonpolio-enterovirus-and-parechovirus-infections
#14
REVIEW
Nada Harik, Roberta L DeBiasi
Nonpolio enteroviruses and parechoviruses are frequent causes of neonatal infection. Clinical manifestations of infection range from asymptomatic infection to mild infection without sequelae to septic shock with muiltiorgan failure. Neonates with clinically apparent infection typically have mothers and/or other contacts with recent symptoms consistent with a viral illness. Severe neonatal infection with nonpolio enterovirus or parechovirus cannot be differentiated clinically from serious bacterial infection...
March 8, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479447/severe-bilateral-adrenal-hemorrhages-in-a-newborn-complicated-by-persistent-adrenal-insufficiency
#15
Nicholas R Zessis, Jennifer L Nicholas, Stephen I Stone
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency based on characteristic electrolyte changes and a low cortisol (4...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470360/oral-supplementation-with-bovine-colostrum-prevents-septic-shock-and-brain-barrier-disruption-during-bloodstream-infection-in-preterm-newborn-pigs
#16
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466901/modified-isth-pregnancy-specific-dic-score-in-parturients-with-liver-rupture-population-based-case-series
#17
Ranit Hizkiyahu, Anat Rabinovich, Jecko Thachil, Eyal Sheiner, Gad Shaked, Gilbert Sebbag, Eli Maymon, Offer Erez
OBJECTIVES: Liver rupture and hematoma are rare life-threatening complications of pregnancy. The aims of the current study are to: (1) characterize in a population-based study all cases of liver hematoma and/or rupture; and (2) validate the utility of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) modified pregnancy specific disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score in those cases. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with liver subcapsular hematoma or rupture between the years 1996 and 2012 was conducted...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462352/inhibition-of-corticosterone-synthesis-and-its-effect-on-acute-phase-proteins-heat-shock-protein-70-and-interleukin-6-in-broiler-chickens-subjected-to-feed-restriction
#18
P Najafi, I Zulkifli, A F Soleimani
The aim of the current study was to elucidate whether inhibition of corticosterone (CORT) synthesis could modify stress response to feed deprivation and its possible interactions with feed restriction in the neonatal period in broiler chickens. Equal numbers of broiler chicks were subjected to either 60% feed restriction (60FR) or ad libitum (AL) on d 4, 5, and 6. On day 7, blood CORT, acute phase proteins (APP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and brain heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression were determined...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442498/proteostasis-and-the-regulation-of-intra-and-extracellular-protein-aggregation-by-atp-independent-molecular-chaperones-lens-%C3%AE-crystallins-and-milk-caseins
#19
John A Carver, Heath Ecroyd, Roger J W Truscott, David C Thorn, Carl Holt
Molecular chaperone proteins perform a diversity of roles inside and outside the cell. One of the most important is the stabilization of misfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation, a process that is potentially detrimental to cell viability. Diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and cataract are characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates. In vivo, many proteins are metastable and therefore under mild destabilizing conditions have an inherent tendency to misfold, aggregate, and hence lose functionality...
February 14, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428154/neonatal-infection-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-registry-based-cohort-study
#20
Anne-Sophie Smilga, Jarred Garfinkle, Pamela Ng, John Andersen, David Buckley, Darcy Fehlings, Adam Kirton, Ellen Wood, Esias van Rensburg, Michael Shevell, Maryam Oskoui
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the association between neonatal infection and outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Canadian CP Registry. Neonatal infection was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: (1) septicemia, (2) septic shock, or (3) administration of antibiotics for ≥10 days. Phenotypic profiles of children with cerebral palsy with and without an antecedent neonatal infection were compared...
December 13, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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