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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930765/encouraging-reflexivity-in-a-residency-leadership-development-program-expanding-outside-the-competency-approach
#1
Justin T Clapp, Emily K B Gordon, Dimitry J Baranov, Beulah Trey, Felice Y Tilin, Lee A Fleisher
PROBLEM: While leadership development is increasingly a goal of academic medicine, it is typically framed as competency acquisition, which can limit its focus to a circumscribed set of social behaviors. This orientation may also reinforce the cultural characteristics of academic medicine that can make effective leadership difficult, rather than training leaders capable of examining and changing this culture. Expanding leadership development so it promotes social reflexivity presents a way to bolster some of the weaknesses of the competency paradigm...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928097/tooth-colour-and-whiteness-a-review
#2
Andrew Joiner, Wen Luo
OBJECTIVES: To review current knowledge concerning the application of colour science on tooth colour and whiteness description, measurement, distribution and its psychological impact. DATA SOURCES: "Scopus" databases were searched electronically with the principal keywords tooth, teeth, colour, white, whiteness. Language was restricted to English and original studies and reviews were included. Conference papers and abstracts were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The appearance and colour of teeth is a common concern for patients across many populations and is associated with an increased desire for treatments that improve dental aesthetics, including tooth whitening...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925955/investing-in-the-early-childhood-mental-health-workforce-development-enhancing-professionals-competencies-to-support-emotion-and-behavior-regulation-in-young-children
#3
Shulamit N Ritblatt, Audrey Hokoda, Charles Van Liew
This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0-5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3-4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups...
September 19, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924334/from-the-cradle-to-the-grave-the-effect-of-adverse-caregiving-environments-on-attachment-and-relationships-throughout-the-lifespan
#4
Colleen Doyle, Dante Cicchetti
This paper reviews research examining the effects of adverse early caregiving on relationships throughout the lifespan. Central attachment constructs are summarized and integrated into a review of research on the long-term effects of institutional rearing and child maltreatment. Findings are interpreted within the organizational perspective on development, which conceptualizes attachment as a stage-salient task of infancy that influences the reorganization of adaptive/maladaptive functioning around subsequent stage-salient tasks...
June 2017: Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923521/why-do-people-with-mental-distress-have-poor-social-outcomes-four-lessons-from-the-capabilities-approach
#5
Richard Brunner
Macro level data indicate that people experiencing mental distress experience poor health, social and economic outcomes. The sociology of mental health has a series of dominant competing explanations of the mechanisms at personal, social and structural levels that generate these poor outcomes. This article explains the limitations of these approaches and takes up the challenge of Hopper (2007) who in this journal proposed the capabilities approach as a means of normatively reconceptualising the experiences of people with mental distress, with a renewed focus on agency, equality and genuine opportunity...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922818/-if-i-ever-have-to-go-to-prison-i-hope-it-s-a-russian-prison-british-labour-social-democracy-and-soviet-communism-1919-25
#6
Max Hodgson
Through the inter-war period, the USSR became an example of 'socialism in action' that the British labour movement could both look towards and define itself against. British visitors both criticized and acclaimed aspects of the new Soviet state between 1919 and 1925, but a consistently exceptional finding was the Soviet prison. Analysing the visits and reports of British guests to Soviet prisons, the aims of this article are threefold. Using new material from the Russian archives, it demonstrates the development of an intense admiration for, and often a desire to replicate, the Soviet penal system on the part of Labour members, future Communists, and even Liberals who visited Soviet Russia...
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922000/humblebragging-a-distinct-and-ineffective-self-presentation-strategy
#7
Ovul Sezer, Francesca Gino, Michael I Norton
Self-presentation is a fundamental aspect of social life, with myriad critical outcomes dependent on others' impressions. We identify and offer the first empirical investigation of a prevalent, yet understudied, self-presentation strategy: humblebragging. Across 9 studies, including a week-long diary study and a field experiment, we identify humblebragging-bragging masked by a complaint or humility-as a common, conceptually distinct, and ineffective form of self-presentation. We first document the ubiquity of humblebragging across several domains, from everyday life to social media...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916010/competencies-and-training-guidelines-for-behavioral-health-providers-in-pediatric-primary-care
#8
REVIEW
Wanjiku F M Njoroge, Ariel A Williamson, Jennifer A Mautone, Paul M Robins, Tami D Benton
This article focuses on the cross-discipline training competencies needed for preparing behavioral health providers to implement integrated primary care services. After a review of current competencies in the disciplines of child and adolescent psychiatry, psychology, and social work, cross-cutting competencies for integrated training purposes are identified. These competencies are comprehensive and broad and can be modified for use in varied settings and training programs. An existing and successful integrated care training model, currently implemented at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, is described...
October 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915143/evaluating-cultural-competency-concepts-using-program-theory-driven-evaluation-framework
#9
Nancy Peer
Research has shown that there is no consistent method of teaching cultural competence or incorporating it into nursing curricula. Thus, nursing programs are at risk for misinterpretation or not meeting required program outcomes or accreditation standards. Although considered social research, program theory-driven evaluation has been cited as an acceptable evaluation method for nursing programs. This research looks at program inputs and program outputs to establish congruency with accreditation standards and to ensure validity and reliability of future research on cultural competency levels of nursing graduates...
September 14, 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914495/acculturation-based-family-conflict-a-validation-of-asian-american-family-conflict-scale-among-chinese-americans
#10
Shiyou Wu, Xiafei Wang, Qi Wu, Fuhua Zhai, Qin Gao
Acculturation-based family conflicts can influence parent-child relationships and children's development among immigrant families. The Asian American Family Conflict Scale (AAFCS) was developed to measure conflicting practices and values between parents and children in the context of acculturation. Given that considerable cultural and institutional changes have taken place in original countries for the Chinese immigrant population, it is important to investigate whether the factor structure of the AAFCS is appropriate for measuring the attitudes and practices of acculturation among the current Chinese immigrant population...
September 15, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914223/educator-readiness-to-improve-gerontological-curricula-in-health-and-social-service-education
#11
Lynn McCleary, Veronique Boscart, Peter Donahue, Kelsey Harvey
This study investigated the state of gerontology content in health and social service education programs in Ontario, and readiness indicators for change among administrators and faculty. We conducted a survey of teaching faculty (n = 100) and deans or directors (n = 56) of 89 education programs, which revealed mixed evidence on readiness for change. Most respondents thought their programs were adequate but needed enhancement. However, they were unaware of published gerontological competencies with which to evaluate their curricula...
September 15, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913886/what-s-parenting-got-to-do-with-it-emotional-autonomy-and-brain-and-behavioral-responses-to-emotional-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
Hilary A Marusak, Moriah E Thomason, Kelsey Sala-Hamrick, Laura Crespo, Christine A Rabinak
Healthy parenting may be protective against the development of emotional psychopathology, particularly for children reared in stressful environments. Little is known, however, about the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying this association, particularly during childhood and adolescence, when emotional disorders frequently emerge. Here, we demonstrate that psychological control, a parenting strategy known to limit socioemotional development in children, is associated with altered brain and behavioral responses to emotional conflict in 27 at-risk (urban, lower income) youth, ages 9-16...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913676/the-cost-of-being-cool-how-adolescent-pseudomature-behavior-maps-onto-adult-adjustment
#13
Leslie Gordon Simons, Tara E Sutton, Sarah Shannon, Mark T Berg, Frederick X Gibbons
During adolescence, one's status among peers is a major concern. Such status is often largely a function of popularity and establishing oneself as "cool." While there are conventional avenues to achieving status among adolescents, engaging in adult-like, or pseudomature, behaviors such as substance use or sexual activity is a frequent occurrence. Although past research has examined the consequences of adolescent delinquency, what remains unclear is the long-term fate of adolescents who are both popular and antisocial...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913663/effects-of-a-program-to-promote-high-quality-parenting-by-divorced-and-separated-fathers
#14
Irwin Sandler, Heather Gunn, Gina Mazza, Jenn-Yun Tein, Sharlene Wolchik, Cady Berkel, Sarah Jones, Michele Porter
This paper reports on the effects on parenting and on children's mental health problems and competencies from a randomized trial of a parenting program for divorced and separated fathers. The program, New Beginnings Program-Dads (NBP-Dads), includes ten group sessions (plus two phone sessions) which promote parenting skills to increase positive interactions with children, improve father-child communication, use of effective discipline strategies, and skills to protect children from exposure to interparental conflict...
September 15, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913329/structured-transition-protocol-for-children-with-cystinosis
#15
Rupesh Raina, Joseph Wang, Vinod Krishnappa
The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912648/a-motivational-model-of-physical-education-and-links-to-enjoyment-knowledge-performance-total-physical-activity-and-body-mass-index
#16
Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt
The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE) including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI) were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls) in North-East Finland...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910315/for-how-many-days-and-what-types-of-group-activities-should-older-japanese-adults-be-involved-in-to-maintain-health-a-4-year-longitudinal-study
#17
Kumiko Nonaka, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hiroshi Murayama, Masami Hasebe, Takashi Koike, Erika Kobayashi, Yoshinori Fujiwara
OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that frequent participation in social groups contributes to the well-being of older people. The primary aim of this study was to identify the number of days older adults should participate in the activities of social groups to maintain their health for 4 years. This study also aimed to examine whether the effective frequency differs by the type of social group activity. METHOD: We examined a prospective cohort of 1,320 community-dwelling older adults over 65 years of age, who responded to both a baseline and a follow-up mail survey, in a suburban city of Tokyo, Japan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905158/referrals-to-mental-health-services-exploring-the-referral-process-in-genetic-counseling
#18
Mitchell Cunningham, Mary Morreale, Angela Trepanier
Genetic counselors (GCs) are trained to identify and attend to distress; however, GCs may have patients with distress better managed by mental health professionals (MHPs). To understand the GCs' role in mental health care, we explored patient cues prompting GCs to refer to MHPs and where GCs thought their expertise in managing patient distress ended. We recruited GCs who have referred a patient for mental health services within the last year to participate in an interview study. A twelve-question interview guide explored GC demographics, reasons for referrals to MHPs, the obstacles to referrals, and perceived differences in counseling competencies between GCs and MHPs...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903634/the-dynamics-of-compensation-when-ingroup-favoritism-paves-the-way-for-outgroup-praise
#19
Vincent Yzerbyt, Laurent Cambon
Compensation research suggests that when people evaluate their own and another group, the search for positive differentiation fuels the emergence of compensatory ratings on the two fundamental dimensions of social perception, competence and warmth. In two experiments, we tested whether obstacles to positive differentiation on the preferred dimension disrupted compensation. Both experiments showed that high-status (low-status) group members grant the outgroup a higher standing on warmth (competence) when positive differentiation can be achieved on the orthogonal dimension, competence (warmth)...
May 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901868/calculable-people-standardising-assessment-guidelines-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-1980s-britain
#20
Duncan Wilson
This article shows how funding research on Alzheimer's disease became a priority for the British Medical Research Council (MRC) in the late 1970s and 1980s, thanks to work that isolated new pathological and biochemical markers and showed that the disease affected a significant proportion of the elderly population. In contrast to histories that focus on the emergence of new and competing theories of disease causation in this period, I argue that concerns over the use of different assessment methods ensured the MRC's immediate priority was standardising the ways in which researchers identified and recorded symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in potential research subjects...
October 2017: Medical History
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