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Arlene S Chung, Jon Smart, Michael Zdradzinski, Sarah Roth, Alecia Gende, Kylie Conroy, Nicole Battaglioli
Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus of attention for the medical education community. Methods: As part of the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit in Las Vegas, Nevada, resident participants from 31 programs collaborated in the Educator Toolkit workgroup. Over a seven-month period leading up to the summit, this workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online resident community, to perform a literature review and draft curricular plans on three core wellness topics...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nicole Krämer, Sabrina Sobieraj, Dan Feng, Elisabeth Trubina, Stacy Marsella
Bullying is a pressing societal problem. As such, it is important to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in bullying and of resilience factors which might protect victims. Moreover, it is necessary to provide tools that can train potential victims to strengthen their resilience. To facilitate both of these goals, the current study tests a recently developed virtual environment that puts participants in the role of a victim who is being oppressed by a superior. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment ( N = 81), we measured the effects of gender of the oppressor and gender of the participant on psychophysiological reactions, subjective experiences and willingness to report the event...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
M de Freitas Ferreira, C L de Moraes, J U Braga, M E Reichenheim, G V da Veiga
OBJECTIVE: To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors...
March 17, 2018: Public Health
Mercilene Machisa, Simukai Shamu
BACKGROUND: Over the years, researchers have relied on data from women victims to understand the profile on male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV studies with male participants in the general population are still emerging in Africa. The contribution of mental ill health to IPV perpetration in the general population that has been documented elsewhere is emergent. Notwithstanding, research with male perpetrators is essential to informing effective prevention programmes and interventions...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rui Zhen, Lijuan Quan, Xiao Zhou
This study examined the co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. A sample of 187 victims completed self-report questionnaires after a major flood disaster. Results indicated four classes: low symptoms group (49.7%), mild comorbid symptoms group (24.1%), serious comorbid symptoms group (3.2%), and medium comorbid symptoms group (23.0%). Male victims were less likely and older victims were more likely to belong to the medium comorbid symptoms group; victims with more serious trauma exposure and those using more maladaptive cognition emotional regulation strategies were more likely to belong to both the mild and medium comorbid symptoms groups...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yu-Jun Zheng, Xiao-Han Zhou, Wei-Guo Sheng, Yu Xue, Sheng-Yong Chen
Recently telecom fraud has become a serious problem especially in developing countries such as China. At present, it can be very difficult to coordinate different agencies to prevent fraud completely. In this paper we study how to detect large transfers that are sent from victims deceived by fraudsters at the receiving bank. We propose a new generative adversarial network (GAN) based model to calculate for each large transfer a probability that it is fraudulent, such that the bank can take appropriate measures to prevent potential fraudsters to take the money if the probability exceeds a threshold...
March 5, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Tamara L Sheldon, Chandini Sankaran
Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia lost nearly 25 percent of its forests, largely due to intentional burning to clear land for cultivation of palm oil and timber plantations.1 The neighboring "victim countries" experienced severe deteriorations in air quality as a result of these fires. For example, Singapore experienced record air pollution levels in June of 2013 and again in September of 2015 as a result of the Indonesian forest fires.2 This air pollution is associated with increased incidences of upper respiratory tract infections, acute conjunctivitis, lung disease, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and pneumonia, among other ailments...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Tanja Čugura, Jakob Boh, Tomaž Zupanc, Peter Pregelj, Alja Videtič Paska
Dysregulations in serotonin neurotransmission can be a strong contributing factor in suicide and impulsive-aggressive personality traits. Victims of suicide form a heterogeneous group in terms of planning, lethality and number of used methods. In this study, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B genes on the Slovenian population, which has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Genotyping was performed on 77 victims of complex suicide, 406 victims of simple suicide and 289 controls...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Simon J Mitchell, Michael H Bennett, Phillip Bryson, Frank K Butler, David J Doolette, James R Holm, Jacek Kot, Pierre Lafère
Guidelines for the pre-hospital management of decompression illness (DCI) had not been formally revised since the 2004 Divers Alert Network/Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society workshop held in Sydney, entitled "Management of mild or marginal decompression illness in remote locations". A contemporary review was initiated by the Diver's Alert Network and undertaken by a multinational committee with members from Australasia, the USA and Europe. The process began with literature reviews by designated committee members on: the diagnosis of DCI; first aid strategies for DCI; remote triage of possible DCI victims by diving medicine experts; evacuation of DCI victims; effect of delay to recompression in DCI; pitfalls in management when DCI victims present at hospitals without diving medicine expertise and in-water recompression...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Maryam Parvareh, Asrin Karimi, Satar Rezaei, Abraha Woldemichael, Sairan Nili, Bijan Nouri, Nader Esmail Nasab
Background: Road traffic accidents are commonly encountered incidents that can cause high-intensity injuries to the victims and have direct impacts on the members of the society. Iran has one of the highest incident rates of road traffic accidents. The objective of this study was to model the patterns of road traffic accidents leading to injury in Kurdistan province, Iran. Methods: A time-series analysis was conducted to characterize and predict the frequency of road traffic accidents that lead to injury in Kurdistan province...
2018: Burns and Trauma
Tonia C Poteat, Mannat Malik, Chris Beyrer
Transgender people experience a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and incarceration. Discrimination, victimization, poverty, and poor mental health drive vulnerability to HIV and related infections, as well as risk of arrest, detention, and incarceration. In this paper, we systematically review published data on HIV, sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis among incarcerated transgender people; describe potential structural determinants of HIV risk and transmission; identify gaps in the literature; and make recommendations for research and interventions to address this neglected population...
March 15, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
Adam Cameron, Mete Erdogan, Sara Lanteigne, Alexandra Hetherington, Robert S Green
BACKGROUND: Although trauma patients represent a large pool of potential organ donors (PODs), the donor conversion rates (DCRs) in this population are unclear. Our primary objective was to synthesize published evidence on DCRs in trauma patients. As a secondary objective, we investigated factors that affect organ donation (OD) in the trauma population. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) and grey literature for articles on OD in trauma patients (PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017070388)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress" by Christopher R. DeCou, Trevor T. Cole, Shannon M. Lynch, Maria M. Wong and Kathleen C. Matthews ( Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy , 2017[Mar], Vol 9[2], 166-172). In the article, there was an error in the coding of missing values thus effecting the abstract, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. The frequency counts for sexual assault victimization, reactions to social disclosure, and assault-related shame were calculated incorrectly due to an error in the coding of missing values, and have been corrected in the description of participants and in the results and discussion sections...
March 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Allison R Fleming, Mary Edwin, Jeffrey A Hayes, Benjamin D Locke, Allison J Lockard
Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Hanne Heszlein-Lossius, Yahya Al-Borno, Samar Shaqoura, Nashwa Skaik, Lasse Melvær Giil, Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: During four separate Israeli military attacks on Gaza (2006, 2009, 2012, and 2014), about 4000 Palestinians were killed and more than 17 000 injured (412 killed and 1264 injured in 2006; 1383 killed and more than 5300 injured in 2009; 130 killed and 1399 injured in 2012; and 2251 killed and 11 231 injured in 2014). An unknown number of people had traumatic amputations of one or more extremities. Use of unmanned Israeli drones for surveillance and armed attacks on Gaza was evident, but exact figures on numbers of drone strikes on Gaza are not available...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jessica L Combs, Elizabeth N Riley, Sarah J Peterson, Carol E Jordan, Gregory T Smith
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to sexual assault results in ongoing harms for women. After an assault, some women engage in higher levels of externalizing behaviors, such as problem drinking, and others experience higher levels of internalizing dysfunction, such as symptoms of anxiety and depression. We sought to understand the role of premorbid factors on the different post-assault experiences of women. METHOD: We studied 1,929 women prospectively during a period of high risk for sexual assault (the first year of college): women were assessed in July before arriving at college and in April near the end of the school year...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Robin Room, Norman Giesbrecht, Thomas K Greenfield
The emergent and growing body of research on alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), or secondhand effects of drinking, has important implications for prevention, intervention, and policy. Those victimized by other drinkers tend to favor effective alcohol policies more than their nonvictimized peers, but often a community's impulse will be to combat AHTO by targeting and stigmatizing individual heavy drinkers, rather than taking a public health approach to reducing harm. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges in selecting ways of reducing AHTO...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
K C Ringsberg, E Olander, P Tillgren, N Thualagant, A Trollvik
BACKGROUND: Health literacy is an essential social determinant for promoting and maintaining the health of a population. AIM: From a health promotion perspective, explore health literacy issues, concerns and future challenges among Nordic practitioners and researchers. METHODS: Data were collected in a workshop at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, and in a literature review, with articles from five databases. The search included title and abstract with the search terms health literacy* and health literacy as a MeSH term and all the Nordic countries...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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