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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350542/preliminary-investigation-of-social-interactions-and-feeding-behavior-in-captive-group-housed-tasmanian-devils-sarcophilus-harrisii
#1
Candice J A Skelton, Hayley J Stannard
As the number of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) in captivity increases, an understanding of captive social dynamics and behavior is becoming increasingly important. In the wild, devils are solitary, although sometimes, they congregate to feed on a large carcass. However, it is common to house devils in groups as a form of social enrichment. This study investigated how behavior at feeding time of captive Tasmanian devils varied in groups of different sizes. Observations were made of individually housed devils and devils in groups of two, three, five, and six, when presented with a carcass on which to feed...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349882/short-communication-persistent-socio-economic-inequality-in-frequent-headache-among-danish-adolescents-from-1991-to-2014
#2
B E Holstein, A Andersen, A M Denbaek, A Johansen, S I Michelsen, P Due
BACKGROUND: The association between socio-economic status (SES) and headache among adolescents is an understudied issue, and no study has examined whether such an association changes over time. The aim was to examine trends in socio-economic inequality in frequent headache among 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark from 1991 to 2014, using occupational social class (OSC) as indicator of SES. METHODS: The study applies data from the Danish part of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349856/self-responsibility-rationing-and-treatment-decision-making-managing-moral-narratives-alongside-fiscal-reality-in-the-obesity-surgery-clinic
#3
Amanda Owen-Smith, Joanna Coast, Jenny L Donovan
BACKGROUND: Addressing the prevalence of severe obesity and its concomitant morbidities is widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing global health priorities. Nevertheless, a paucity of effective interventions and universal pressure on health-care budgets means that access to obesity treatments is often limited. Although health-care rationing can be conceived as a socially constructed process, little is known about how decisions emerge within the context of face-to-face doctor-patient interactions...
January 19, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349505/embracing-your-emotions-affective-state-impacts-lateralisation-of-human-embraces
#4
Julian Packheiser, Noemi Rook, Zeynep Dursun, Janne Mesenhöller, Alrescha Wenglorz, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Humans are highly social animals that show a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviours to communicate social intent. One of the most frequently used non-verbal social behaviours is embracing, commonly used as an expression of love and affection. However, it can also occur in a large variety of social situations entailing negative (fear or sadness) or neutral emotionality (formal greetings). Embracing is also experienced from birth onwards in mother-infant interactions and is thus accompanying human social interaction across the whole lifespan...
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349278/machine-learning-approaches-to-the-social-determinants-of-health-in-the-health-and-retirement-study
#5
Benjamin Seligman, Shripad Tuljapurkar, David Rehkopf
Background: Social and economic factors are important predictors of health and of recognized importance for health systems. However, machine learning, used elsewhere in the biomedical literature, has not been extensively applied to study relationships between society and health. We investigate how machine learning may add to our understanding of social determinants of health using data from the Health and Retirement Study. Methods: A linear regression of age and gender, and a parsimonious theory-based regression additionally incorporating income, wealth, and education, were used to predict systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and telomere length...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349241/simultaneous-evaluation-of-physical-and-social-environmental-correlates-of-physical-activity-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Alexia Sawyer, Marcella Ucci, Russell Jones, Lee Smith, Abi Fisher
Background: Ecological models of physical activity posit that social and physical environmental features exert independent and interactive influences on physical activity, but previous research has focussed on independent influences. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the literature investigating how features of neighbourhood physical and social environments are associated with physical activity when both levels of influence are simultaneously considered, and to assess progress in the exploration of interactive effects of social and physical environmental correlates on physical activity...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#7
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348039/face-processing-measures-of-social-cognition-a%C3%A2-dimensional-approach-to-developmental-psychopathology
#8
Raquel E Gur, Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Social cognition impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders impact functioning. Face processing is the most extensively studied aspect of social cognition, commonly indexing this construct in neuropsychiatric disorders compared with typically developing youths. Applying social cognition measures as a Research Domain Criteria concept in the clinical arena requires establishing cutoffs for intervention and identifying vulnerability for psychopathology across disorders. This can be accomplished by comparing extreme performers across multiple clinical symptom features...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347904/social-skills-training-and-play-group-intervention-for-children-with-oppositional-defiant-disorders-conduct-disorder-mediating-mechanisms-in-a-head-to-head-comparison
#9
Josepha Katzmann, Anja Goertz-Dorten, Christopher Hautmann, Manfred Doepfner
OBJECTIVE: Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347723/hierarchical-benchmark-graphs-for-testing-community-detection-algorithms
#10
Zhao Yang, Juan I Perotti, Claudio J Tessone
Hierarchical organization is an important, prevalent characteristic of complex systems; to understand their organization, the study of the underlying (generally complex) networks that describe the interactions between their constituents plays a central role. Numerous previous works have shown that many real-world networks in social, biologic, and technical systems present hierarchical organization, often in the form of a hierarchy of community structures. Many artificial benchmark graphs have been proposed to test different community detection methods, but no benchmark has been developed to thoroughly test the detection of hierarchical community structures...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347205/inferring-network-structure-from-cascades
#11
Sushrut Ghonge, Dervis Can Vural
Many physical, biological, and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we offer three topological methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for several different cascade models...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347166/solution-to-urn-models-of-pairwise-interaction-with-application-to-social-physical-and-biological-sciences
#12
William Pickering, Chjan Lim
We investigate a family of urn models that correspond to one-dimensional random walks with quadratic transition probabilities that have highly diverse applications. Well-known instances of these two-urn models are the Ehrenfest model of molecular diffusion, the voter model of social influence, and the Moran model of population genetics. We also provide a generating function method for diagonalizing the corresponding transition matrix that is valid if and only if the underlying mean density satisfies a linear differential equation and express the eigenvector components as terms of ordinary hypergeometric functions...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347009/evolutionary-stability-concepts-in-a-stochastic-environment
#13
Xiu-Deng Zheng, Cong Li, Sabin Lessard, Yi Tao
Over the past 30 years, evolutionary game theory and the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy have been not only extensively developed and successfully applied to explain the evolution of animal behaviors, but also widely used in economics and social sciences. Nonetheless, the stochastic dynamical properties of evolutionary games in randomly fluctuating environments are still unclear. In this study, we investigate conditions for stochastic local stability of fixation states and constant interior equilibria in a two-phenotype model with random payoffs following pairwise interactions...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346084/effects-of-the-road-environment-on-the-development-of-driver-sleepiness-in-young-male-drivers
#14
Christer Ahlström, Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment...
January 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344974/utilizing-selected-social-determinants-and-behaviors-to-predict-obesity-in-military-personnel
#15
Gordon F West, Diana D Jeffery
OBJECTIVE: Like the general population, the military is experiencing an increase in the number of obese personnel. This study aimed to identify predictors of obesity by assessing social determinants of health and behaviors in relation to Body Mass Index (BMI), and to use these variables to build a model to predict obesity in Active Duty Military Personnel (ADMP). Predicting obesity would allow early intervention of at risk personnel, potentially reducing the number of ADMP who are separated from the service for failing to meet weight standards...
January 18, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344943/an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-joint-contribution-of-hpa-axis-activation-and-motivation-to-early-adolescent-depressive-symptoms
#16
Karen D Rudolph, Wendy Troop-Gordon, Haina H Modi, Douglas A Granger
This study examines the interactive contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and approach-avoidance motivation systems to longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms across the adolescent transition. In the summer prior to, or fall of, 4th grade, 132 youth (68 girls; 64 boys; M age = 9.46 years) participated in a social challenge task and reported on their depressive symptoms. In the winter of 6th grade, youth completed a semi-structured interview of depression and a self-report measure of approach-avoidance motivations...
January 18, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344761/construct-validity-of-the-autism-impact-measure-aim
#17
Micah O Mazurek, Coleen Carlson, Mary Baker-Ericzén, Eric Butter, Megan Norris, Stephen Kanne
The Autism Impact Measure (AIM) was designed to track incremental change in frequency and impact of core ASD symptoms. The current study examined the structural and convergent validity of the AIM in a large sample of children with ASD. The results of a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a final model with five theoretically and empirically meaningful subdomains: Repetitive Behavior, Atypical Behavior, Communication, Social Reciprocity, and Peer Interaction. The final model showed very good fit both overall and for each of the five factors, indicating excellent structural validity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343932/effects-of-multimodal-mandala-yoga-on-social-and-emotional-skills-for-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-exploratory-study
#18
Lyn Gorbett Litchke, Ting Liu, Stephanie Castro
Context: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. Aims: The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Subjects and Methods: Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks...
January 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343739/qualitative-systematic-review-of-barriers-and-facilitators-to-self-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-views-of-patients-and-healthcare-professionals
#19
REVIEW
Siân Russell, Oladapo J Ogunbayo, James J Newham, Karen Heslop-Marshall, Paul Netts, Barbara Hanratty, Fiona Beyer, Eileen Kaner
Self-management interventions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can improve quality of life, reduce hospital admissions, and improve symptoms. However, many factors impede engagement for patients and practitioners. Qualitative research, with its focus on subjective experience, can provide invaluable insights into such factors. Therefore, a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative evidence on COPD self-management from the perspective of patients, carers, and practitioners was conducted. Following a systematic search and screening, 31 studies were appraised and data extracted for analysis...
January 17, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343594/strong-social-relationships-are-associated-with-decreased-longevity-in-a-facultatively-social-mammal
#20
Daniel T Blumstein, Dana M Williams, Alexandra N Lim, Svenja Kroeger, Julien G A Martin
Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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