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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#1
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911168/effectiveness-of-communication-specific-coping-intervention-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-results
#2
Jacinta M Douglas, Lucy Knox, Carren De Maio, Helen Bridge, Melanie Drummond, Joanne Whiteoak
People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) describe everyday interactions as a long-term challenge frequently associated with ongoing stress. Communication-specific Coping Intervention (CommCope-I) is a new treatment developed to target coping in the context of communication breakdown. The intervention incorporates principles of cognitive behavioural therapy, self-coaching and context-sensitive social communication therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of CommCope-I in a group of adults with severe TBI and ongoing functional communication difficulties...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910886/sequential-information-in-a-great-ape-utterance
#3
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Christoph D Dahl
Birdsong is a prime example of acoustically sophisticated vocal behaviour, but its complexity has evolved mainly through sexual selection to attract mates and repel sexual rivals. In contrast, non-human primate calls often mediate complex social interactions, but are generally regarded as acoustically simple. Here, we examine arguably the most complex call in great ape vocal communication, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) 'pant hoot'. This signal consists of four acoustically distinct phases: introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909563/what-does-a-clinically-scientific-professional-society-stand-for
#4
EDITORIAL
J Gerris, W Ombelet
Originated as a mainly social group of befriended colleagues, the VVOG has evolved over the past 55 years to become a truly professional society facing successfully such diverse challenges as organizing scientific congresses, postgraduate training, ethical debates, hands-on training courses, social events, interactions with national and international sister societies but also with the industry, insurers, the government, politicians and patient organisations.
June 27, 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#5
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909047/exercise-in-patients-on-dialysis-a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Fabio Manfredini, Francesca Mallamaci, Graziella D'Arrigo, Rossella Baggetta, Davide Bolignano, Claudia Torino, Nicola Lamberti, Silvio Bertoli, Daniele Ciurlino, Lisa Rocca-Rey, Antonio Barillà, Yuri Battaglia, Renato Mario Rapanà, Alessandro Zuccalà, Graziella Bonanno, Pasquale Fatuzzo, Francesco Rapisarda, Stefania Rastelli, Fabrizio Fabrizi, Piergiorgio Messa, Luciano De Paola, Luigi Lombardi, Adamasco Cupisti, Giorgio Fuiano, Gaetano Lucisano, Chiara Summaria, Michele Felisatti, Enrico Pozzato, Anna Maria Malagoni, Pietro Castellino, Filippo Aucella, Samar Abd ElHafeez, Pasquale Fabio Provenzano, Giovanni Tripepi, Luigi Catizone, Carmine Zoccali
Previous studies have suggested the benefits of physical exercise for patients on dialysis. We conducted the Exercise Introduction to Enhance Performance in Dialysis trial, a 6-month randomized, multicenter trial to test whether a simple, personalized walking exercise program at home, managed by dialysis staff, improves functional status in adult patients on dialysis. The main study outcomes included change in physical performance at 6 months, assessed by the 6-minute walking test and the five times sit-to-stand test, and in quality of life, assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909020/the-design-and-transformation-of-biofundamentals-a-nonsurvey-introductory-evolutionary-and-molecular-biology-course
#7
Michael W Klymkowsky, Jeremy D Rentsch, Emina Begovic, Melanie M Cooper
Many introductory biology courses amount to superficial surveys of disconnected topics. Often, foundational observations and the concepts derived from them and students' ability to use these ideas appropriately are overlooked, leading to unrealistic expectations and unrecognized learning obstacles. The result can be a focus on memorization at the expense of the development of a meaningful framework within which to consider biological phenomena. About a decade ago, we began a reconsideration of what an introductory course should present to students and the skills they need to master...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908591/an-fmri-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-future-imagination-and-cognitive-flexibility
#8
R P Roberts, K Wiebels, R L Sumner, V van Mulukom, C L Grady, D L Schacter, D R Addis
While future imagination is largely considered to be a cognitive process grounded in default mode network activity, studies have shown that future imagination recruits regions in both default mode and frontoparietal control networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that the ability to imagine the future is associated with cognitive flexibility, and that tasks requiring cognitive flexibility result in increased coupling of the default mode network with frontoparietal control and salience networks. In the current study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the association between cognitive flexibility and future imagination in two ways...
November 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908088/acoustically-diverse-vocalization-repertoire-in-the-himalayan-leaf-nosed-bat-a-widely-distributed-hipposideros-species
#9
Aiqing Lin, Tinglei Jiang, Jiang Feng, Jagmeet S Kanwal
Insectivorous bats vocalize to both communicate with conspecifics and to echolocate. The communicative vocalizations or "calls" of bats either consist of or are constructed from discrete acoustic units, termed "syllables." This study examined syllable diversity in the Himalayan leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros armiger, a species that is widely distributed across Southeast Asia. This social species' vocalizations were hypothesized to consist of a wide variety of syllables facilitating its social interactions. To test this hypothesis, multiple acoustic parameters were measured from recorded vocalizations to map the acoustic boundaries of syllables...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907161/barriers-and-facilitators-to-safe-food-handling-among-consumers-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-qualitative-research-studies
#10
Ian Young, Lisa Waddell
Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907061/tracking-the-evolution-of-infrastructure-systems-and-mass-responses-using-publically-available-data
#11
Xiangyang Guan, Cynthia Chen, Dan Work
Networks can evolve even on a short-term basis. This phenomenon is well understood by network scientists, but receive little attention in empirical literature involving real-world networks. On one hand, this is due to the deceitfully fixed topology of some networks such as many physical infrastructures, whose evolution is often deemed unlikely to occur in short term; on the other hand, the lack of data prohibits scientists from studying subjects such as social networks that seem likely to evolve on a short-term basis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907020/comparing-facebook-users-and-facebook-non-users-relationship-between-personality-traits-and-mental-health-variables-an-exploratory-study
#12
Julia Brailovskaia, Jürgen Margraf
Over one billion people use Facebook as a platform for social interaction and self-presentation making it one of the most popular online sites. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in various personality traits and mental health variables between Facebook users and people who do not use this platform. The data of 945 participants (790 Facebook users, 155 Facebook non-users) were collected. Results indicate that Facebook users score significantly higher on narcissism, self-esteem and extraversion than Facebook non-users...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#13
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906527/behavioral-epigenetics
#14
David S Moore
Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906518/functional-development-of-the-brain-s-face-processing-system
#15
REVIEW
Frank Haist, Gizelle Anzures
In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906026/plasma-hiv-1-rna-viral-load-rebound-among-people-who-inject-drugs-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-art-in-a-canadian-setting-an-ethno-epidemiological-study
#16
Will Small, M J Milloy, Ryan McNeil, Lisa Maher, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV often experience sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment outcomes, including HIV plasma viral load (PVL) rebound. While previous studies have identified risk factors for PVL rebound among PWID, no study has examined the perspectives of PWID who have experienced PVL rebound episodes. We conducted an ethno-epidemiological study to investigate the circumstances surrounding the emergence of rebound episodes among PWID in Vancouver, BC, Canada...
July 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905958/choosing-an-epidemiological-model-structure-for-the-economic-evaluation-of-non-communicable-disease-public-health-interventions
#17
Adam D M Briggs, Jane Wolstenholme, Tony Blakely, Peter Scarborough
Non-communicable diseases are the leading global causes of mortality and morbidity. Growing pressures on health services and on social care have led to increasing calls for a greater emphasis to be placed on prevention. In order for decisionmakers to make informed judgements about how to best spend finite public health resources, they must be able to quantify the anticipated costs, benefits, and opportunity costs of each prevention option available. This review presents a taxonomy of epidemiological model structures and applies it to the economic evaluation of public health interventions for non-communicable diseases...
May 4, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905082/facial-identity-and-emotional-expression-as-predictors-during-economic-decisions
#18
Sonia Alguacil, Eduardo Madrid, Antonio M Espín, María Ruz
Two sources of information most relevant to guide social decision making are the cooperative tendencies associated with different people and their facial emotional displays. This electrophysiological experiment aimed to study how the use of personal identity and emotional expressions as cues impacts different stages of face processing and their potential isolated or interactive processing. Participants played a modified trust game with 8 different alleged partners, and in separate blocks either the identity or the emotions carried information regarding potential trial outcomes (win or loss)...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905081/parasympathetic-cardio-regulation-during-social-interactions-in-individuals-with-obesity-the-influence-of-negative-body-image
#19
Anne Schrimpf, Jana Kube, Jane Neumann, Annette Horstmann, Arno Villringer, Michael Gaebler
Individuals with obesity in Western societies often face weight-related stigmatization and social exclusion. Recurrent exposure to prejudice and negative social feedback alters one's behavior in future social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate autonomic nervous system and affective responses to social interactions in individuals with obesity. Women and men with (n = 56) and without (n = 56) obesity participated in episodes of social inclusion and social exclusion using a virtual ball-tossing game...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904806/dominance-relationships-in-a-family-pack-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos-the-influence-of-competition-for-food-age-and-sex
#20
Simona Cafazzo, Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
BACKGROUND: Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs...
2016: PeerJ
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