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social interactions

Tiffany Field
The increasing prevalence of postnatal anxiety highlights the need for summarizing the recent research on this condition to inform screening and intervention efforts. This narrative review of the literature was derived from a search on PubMed and PsycINFO for papers published since 2010. The demographic risk factors for postnatal anxiety include being a young mother, having more education and being employed. Childbirth risk factors include being primiparous in one sample and multiparous in another, caesarean delivery, fear of the birth and of death during delivery, lack of control during labor, low self-confidence for the delivery and the delivery staff, and premature delivery...
March 12, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Shiri Lev-Ari
We learn language from our social environment, but the more sources we have, the less informative each source is, and therefore, the less weight we ascribe its input. According to this principle, people with larger social networks should give less weight to new incoming information, and should therefore be less susceptible to the influence of new speakers. This paper tests this prediction, and shows that speakers with smaller social networks indeed have more malleable linguistic representations. In particular, they are more likely to adjust their lexical boundary following exposure to a new speaker...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Tarisai Chiyaka, Phillis Mushati, Bernadette Hensen, Sungai Chabata, James R Hargreaves, Sian Floyd, Isolde J Birdthistle, Frances M Cowan, Joanna R Busza
Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews...
2018: PloS One
Alfonso González-Briones, Javier Prieto, Fernando De La Prieta, Enrique Herrera-Viedma, Juan M Corchado
At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Jeffrey E Stokes
OBJECTIVES: Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is associated with poorer peer functioning, no study has examined SCT in relation to student-teacher relationship quality. The current study examined whether SCT, as rated by both teachers and children, was uniquely associated with poorer student-teacher relationship quality above and beyond child demographics and other mental health symptoms (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder [ODD/CD], anxiety/depression)...
March 15, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Amy E Leedale, Stuart P Sharp, Michelle Simeoni, Elva J H Robinson, Ben J Hatchwell
In animal societies, characteristic demographic and dispersal patterns may lead to genetic structuring of populations, generating the potential for kin selection to operate. However, even in genetically structured populations, social interactions may still require kin discrimination for cooperative behaviour to be directed towards relatives. Here, we use molecular genetics and long-term field data to investigate genetic structure in an adult population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus, a cooperative breeder in which helping occurs within extended kin networks, and relate this to patterns of helping with respect to kinship...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Dave F Kleinschmidt, Kodi Weatherholtz, T Florian Jaeger
Social and linguistic perceptions are linked. On one hand, talker identity affects speech perception. On the other hand, speech itself provides information about a talker's identity. Here, we propose that the same probabilistic knowledge might underlie both socially conditioned linguistic inferences and linguistically conditioned social inferences. Our computational-level approach-the ideal adapter-starts from the idea that listeners use probabilistic knowledge of covariation between social, linguistic, and acoustic cues in order to infer the most likely explanation of the speech signals they hear...
March 15, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Rebecca Jürgens, Julia Fischer, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional expressions provide strong signals in social interactions and can function as emotion inducers in a perceiver. Although speech provides one of the most important channels for human communication, its physiological correlates, such as activations of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) while listening to spoken utterances, have received far less attention than in other domains of emotion processing. Our study aimed at filling this gap by investigating autonomic activation in response to spoken utterances that were embedded into larger semantic contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lasse T Bergmann, Larissa Schlicht, Carmen Meixner, Peter König, Gordon Pipa, Susanne Boshammer, Achim Stephan
Autonomous vehicles, though having enormous potential, face a number of challenges. As a computer system interacting with society on a large scale and human beings in particular, they will encounter situations, which require moral assessment. What will count as right behavior in such situations depends on which factors are considered to be both morally justified and socially acceptable. In an empirical study we investigated what factors people recognize as relevant in driving situations. The study put subjects in several "dilemma" situations, which were designed to isolate different and potentially relevant factors...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Giulia Orioli, Maria Laura Filippetti, Walter Gerbino, Danica Dragovic, Teresa Farroni
The ability to discriminate the trajectories of moving objects is highly adaptive and fundamental for physical and social interactions. Therefore, we could reasonably expect sensitivity to different trajectories already at birth, as a precursor of later communicative and defensive abilities. To investigate this possibility, we measured newborns' looking behavior to evaluate their ability to discriminate between visual stimuli depicting motion along different trajectories happening within the space surrounding their body...
March 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Balaraju Battu, V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Narayanan Srinivasan
Conditional cooperation declines over time if heterogeneous ideal conditional agents are involved in repeated interactions. With strict assumptions of rationality and a population consisting of ideal conditional agents who strictly follow a decision rule, cooperation is not expected. However, cooperation is commonly observed in human societies. Hence, we propose a novel evolutionary agent-based model where agents rely on social information. Each agent interacts only once either as a donor or as a receiver. In our model, the population consists of either non-ideal or ideal heterogeneous conditional agents...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Logan S James, Jennifer B Dai, Jon T Sakata
Many important behaviours are socially learned. For example, the acoustic structure of courtship songs in songbirds is learned by listening to and interacting with conspecifics during a sensitive period in development. Signallers modify the spectral and temporal structures of their vocalizations depending on the social context, but the degree to which this modulation requires imitative social learning remains unknown. We found that male zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ) that were not exposed to context-dependent song modulations throughout development significantly modulated their song in ways that were typical of socially reared birds...
March 2018: Biology Letters
G David Batty, George B Ploubidis, Alissa Goodman, David Bann
BACKGROUND: Although early life education for improved long-term health and the amelioration of socioeconomically generated inequalities in chronic disease is advocated in influential policy statements, the evidence base is very modest. AIMS: To address this dearth of evidence using data from a representative UK national birth cohort study. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised men and women in the 1958 birth cohort study with prospectively gathered data on attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years who had gone on to participate in social survey at 42 years (n=11 374), or a biomedical survey at 44/5 years of age (n=9210), or had data on vital status from 18 to 55 years (n=17 657)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Frédéric N Brière, Gabrielle Yale-Soulière, Daniela Gonzalez-Sicilia, Marie-Josée Harbec, Julien Morizot, Michel Janosz, Linda S Pagani
BACKGROUND: Engaging in sport has been suggested to be mitigate against psychological distress. Using a prospective-longitudinal design, we examine whether sport participation is associated with reduced psychological difficulties in adolescents and whether associations differ by sport and personal characteristics. METHODS: 17 550 adolescents from grade 7 to 10 (mean age=14.4 years old) self-reported on sport participation, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms and loneliness in Spring 2007 and 1 year later...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lisabeth V Scalzi, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Emily Mascuilli, Nancy Olsen
BACKGROUND: Self-management skills, including medication management, are vital to the health of adolescents and young adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and preliminary effects of an online educational program in a cohort of adolescent and young adults with SLE with and without a social media (SM) experience. METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with SLE participated weekly for 8 sessions on a web-based educational program about SLE created specifically for this project...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Katharine Bailey, Nancie Im-Bolter
Epilepsy is the number one neurological disorder in children in western society. Childhood epilepsy is highly comorbid with psychopathology. Although neurological and biological factors may partially explain the increased risk of psychopathology in children with epilepsy, social contextual factors are also important to understanding development of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. The current paper examines the development of children with epilepsy utilizing Bronfenbrenner's micro-, meso-, exo-, and macrosystem social contexts...
March 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Kamylla Santos da Cunha, Selma Regina de Andrade, Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann
OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of the university management performed by nurses managers of the nursing undergraduate course of a public university. METHOD: this is a qualitative research, based on the grounded theory. Data collection took place between May and September 2016, with open interviews, in the scenario of a federal public university. The technique of constant comparative analysis of the data was followed, obtaining a theoretical sample with 19 nurses, in two sample groups...
March 8, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Stephanie M Topp, Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura K Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe
BACKGROUND: Failure to keep people living with HIV engaged in life-long care and treatment has serious implications for individual and population-level health. Nested within a four-province study of HIV care and treatment outcomes, we explored the dynamic role of social and service-related factors influencing retention in HIV care in Zambia. METHODS: From a stratified random sample of 31 facilities, eight clinics were selected, one urban and one rural from each province...
2018: PloS One
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