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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740782/a-population-based-exploration-of-the-social-implications-associated-with-cleft-lip-and-or-palate
#1
Adam D Glener, Alexander C Allori, Ronnie L Shammas, Anna R Carlson, Irene J Pien, Arthur S Aylsworth, Robert Meyer, Luiz Pimenta, Ronald Strauss, Stephanie Watkins, Jeffrey R Marcus
BACKGROUND: Clefts of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) carry a social stigma that often causes psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to consider the association of cleft phenotype and age with self-reported aspects of psychosocial stress. METHODS: Children with nonsyndromic CL/P and unaffected children born between 1997 and 2003 were identified through the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program and North Carolina birth records, respectively. The psychosocial concerns of children with CL/P were assessed via a 29-question subset of a larger survey...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739748/application-of-localization-and-needle-placement-guided-by-mammographic-ultrasound-and-fiberoptic-ductoscopy-for-resection-of-non-palpable-breast-lesions
#2
Zhu Yuan, Xiang Qu, Zhong-Tao Zhang, Wen G Jiang
AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of localization needles under mammographic, ultrasound or fiberoptic ductoscopy guidance for non-palpable breast lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients undergoing needle localization and biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions under mammographic, ultrasound or fiberoptic ductoscopy guidance from June 2013 to December 2014 in Beijing Friendship Hospital were included in the study. The preoperative imaging assessment, application of localization needles, surgical operation and pathological examination were recorded and analyzed retrospectively...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735273/relationship-between-trying-an-electronic-cigarette-and-subsequent-cigarette-experimentation-in-scottish-adolescents-a-cohort-study
#3
Catherine Best, Farhana Haseen, Dorothy Currie, Gozde Ozakinci, Anne Marie MacKintosh, Martine Stead, Douglas Eadie, Andy MacGregor, Jamie Pearce, Amanda Amos, John Frank, Sally Haw
BACKGROUND: This study examines whether young never smokers in Scotland, UK, who have tried an e-cigarette are more likely than those who have not, to try a cigarette during the following year. METHODS: Prospective cohort survey conducted in four high schools in Scotland, UK during February/March 2015 (n=3807) with follow-up 1 year later. All pupils (age 11-18) were surveyed. Response rates were high in both years (87% in 2015) and 2680/3807 (70.4%) of the original cohort completed the follow-up survey...
July 22, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727730/do-mz-twins-have-discordant-experiences-of-friendship-a-qualitative-hypothesis-generating-mz-twin-differences-study
#4
Kathryn Asbury, Nicola Moran, Robert Plomin
Using a qualitative monozygotic (MZ) twin differences design we explored whether adolescent MZ twins report discordant peer relationships and, if so, whether they perceive them as causes, consequences or correlates of discordant behaviour. We gathered free-response questionnaire data from 497 families and conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 97 of them. Within this dataset n = 112 families (23% of the sample) described discordant peer relationships. Six categories of discordance were identified (peer victimisation, peer rejection, fewer friends, different friends, different attitudes to friendship and dependence on co-twin)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725102/the-influence-of-social-relationship-on-food-tolerance-in-wolves-and-dogs
#5
Rachel Dale, Friederike Range, Laura Stott, Kurt Kotrschal, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
ABSTRACT: Food sharing is relatively widespread across the animal kingdom, but research into the socio-ecological factors affecting this activity has predominantly focused on primates. These studies do suggest though that food tolerance is linked to the social relationship with potential partners. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the social factors which influence food tolerance in two canids: wolves and dogs. We presented wolves and dogs with two paradigms: dyadic tolerance tests and group carcass feedings...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721675/callous-unemotional-traits-are-uniquely-associated-with-poorer-peer-functioning-in-school-aged-children
#6
Sarah M Haas, Stephen P Becker, Jeffery N Epstein, Paul J Frick
This study examines externalizing symptoms (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct problems, and callous-unemotional [CU] traits) in relation to domains of peer functioning (social competence, loneliness, and close friendship quality), with a specific focus on the role of CU traits. One hundred twenty-four elementary students (grades 3-6; 45% boys) completed multiple measures of peer functioning, and teachers completed measures of externalizing symptoms and social competence. After controlling for demographic variables and other externalizing symptoms, CU traits were significantly associated with poorer peer functioning across all variables except for demands of exclusivity in close friendships...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717155/neighbor-neighbor-correlations-explain-measurement-bias-in-networks
#7
Xin-Zeng Wu, Allon G Percus, Kristina Lerman
In numerous physical models on networks, dynamics are based on interactions that exclusively involve properties of a node's nearest neighbors. However, a node's local view of its neighbors may systematically bias perceptions of network connectivity or the prevalence of certain traits. We investigate the strong friendship paradox, which occurs when the majority of a node's neighbors have more neighbors than does the node itself. We develop a model to predict the magnitude of the paradox, showing that it is enhanced by negative correlations between degrees of neighboring nodes...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716486/the-impact-of-a-peer-support-group-for-children-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-uganda
#8
Amy Scheel, Andrea Beaton, Emmy Okello, Chris T Longenecker, Isaac Omara Otim, Peter Lwabi, Craig Sable, Allison R Webel, Twalib Aliku
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a peer-support group on knowledge, quality of life, and social support for children with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). METHODS: Children diagnosed with RHD and receiving 4-weekly injectable penicillin were invited to participate in a monthly support group for 6 months. Pre- and post-intervention assessments included a baseline RHD knowledge assessment, a measure of health related quality of life (HRQOL) (PedsQLTM4.0), and a measure of social support (Hawthorne Friendship Scale)...
July 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715296/a-self-determination-theory-based-self-myofascial-release-program-in-older-adults-with-myofascial-trigger-points-in-the-neck-and-back-a-pilot-study
#9
Minyoung Lee, Minhee Kim, Sejun Oh, Yoon-Jin Choi, Dongshin Lee, Sang Heon Lee, BumChul Yoon
PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness and adherence to a self-determination theory (SDT)-based self-myofascial release (SMR) program in older adults with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and to investigate the factors that influence participant behavioral change while conducting the program in a home setting. METHODS: An explanatory mixed-method design was used to evaluate a 12-week SDT-based SMR program, including a 4-week group-based education and practice (EP) phase and an 8-week home-based self-management (SM) phase...
July 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711863/drivers-social-work-relationships-as-antecedents-of-unsafe-driving-a-social-network-perspective
#10
Renana Arizon Peretz, Gil Luria
In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving...
July 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710598/reflections-for-clinical-pastoral-education-students-in-psychiatric-settings
#11
Nathan Carlin
This article focuses on Donald Capps's books on mental illness. In doing so I highlight three key insights from Capps that I have applied in my own ministry with persons with mental illness in various psychiatric hospitals. These insights, together with my own experience as a chaplain, lead to three practical lessons for clinical pastoral education students in psychiatric settings. I provide some context for my interest in mental illness and my friendship with Capps, as well as some background regarding how Capps's writings on mental illness fit with certain broader themes in his own work as a pastoral theologian...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708961/hamilton-and-hardy-mentoring-and-friendship-in-the-service-of-occupational-health
#12
Marianne Sullivan
This article explores the mentoring relationship between Alice Hamilton and Harriet Hardy, two female physician-researchers who had a tremendous impact on the development of the field of occupational health in the United States during the 20th century. The article relies on letters the women wrote to each other. Hamilton, the elder, supported and furthered Hardy's career by asking her to coauthor the second edition of a seminal occupational health text. After beginning this intellectual collaboration, Hamilton remained a mentor to Hardy, and a decades-long friendship ensued...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708452/from-rakhi-to-romance-negotiating-acceptable-relationships-in-co-educational-secondary-schools-in-new-delhi-india
#13
Padmini Iyer
Based on a multi-method study conducted with middle-class young people (aged 15-17) in three secondary schools in New Delhi, India, this paper focuses on heterosocial dynamics within school peer cultures as an important site of learning about gender and sexuality. Findings indicate that young people negotiate and adapt rakhi (brother-sister) relationships to form less strictly platonic heterosocial friendships, which leave open the possibility of romance. Students' preferences for certain heterosocial relationships are considered within the context of wider cultural narratives...
July 14, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705356/preference-effects-on-friendship-choice-evidence-from-an-online-field-experiment
#14
Siyu Yu, Yu Xie
Observed friendship choices are constrained by social structures and thus problematic indicators for underlying personal preferences. In this paper, we report on a study demonstrating the causal effects of preference in friendship choice based on an online field experiment. Specifically, we tested two important forces that govern friendship choices: preference for shared group identity (operationalized as the desire to befriend others sharing the same place-of-origin identity) and preference for high status (operationalized as the desire to befriend others from high-status institutions)...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699121/friendship-dynamics-of-adolescent-aggression-prosocial-behavior-and-social-status-the-moderating-role-of-gender
#15
Huiyoung Shin
Interactions with friends are a salient part of adolescents' experience at school. Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends influence adolescents' behaviors and beliefs. The current study investigated early adolescents' selection of friends and friends' influence with regard to physical aggression, prosocial behavior, and popularity and social preference (i.e., likeability) among fifth and sixth graders (N = 736, 52% girls at wave1, N = 677, 52% girls at wave 2) in elementary schools in South Korea...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694690/social-participation-and-perceived-depression-among-elderly-population-in-south-africa
#16
Gang Hao, Ghose Bishwajit, Shangfeng Tang, Changping Nie, Lu Ji, Rui Huang
There is a growing consensus regarding the influence of various psychosocial factors such as degree of social participation on health and disease outcomes, quality of life, and general well-being. Older individuals with diminished motor and physical functionality suffer a heightened risk of social exclusion and loneliness. Previous studies have demonstrated the association between social exclusion and loneliness with mental health among the older population. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether or not difficulty in social participation has any relationship with perceived depression among older individuals in South Africa...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693718/partners-in-recovery-program-evaluation-changes-in-unmet-needs-and-recovery
#17
Nicola Hancock, Justin Newton Scanlan, James A Gillespie, Jennifer Smith-Merry, Ivy Yen
Objective Partners in Recovery (PIR) is an Australian government initiative designed to provide support and service linkage for individuals with complex needs living with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to examine whether consumers engaged in PIR programs in two large regions of Sydney experienced: (1) a reduction in unmet needs (either via self- or staff report); and (2) progress in their self-reported mental health recovery.Methods Unmet needs were measured using the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Scale and recovery was measured using the Recovery Assessment Scale - Domains and Stages...
July 11, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693367/a-comparison-of-the-college-experience-for-students-with-and-without-disabilities
#18
Anthony J Plotner, Cynthia May
Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have joined the ranks of college students in pursuit of personal independence, community integration, and employment. To achieve these aims, there is a need for a strong understanding of the college experience for students with IDD, including identification of the academic, social, and personal challenges they face as well as the supports that are available to address those challenges. This research provides preliminary insights into the college experience for students with IDD by comparing the perceptions, attitudes, and activities of students with IDD to those of students without disabilities and students with mild learning disabilities (MLD)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688456/the-social-organization-of-homo-ergaster-inferences-from-anti-predator-responses-in-extant-primates
#19
Erik P Willems, Carel P van Schaik
Patterns of primate socioecology have been used to suggest that the first truly savanna-dwelling hominin, Homo ergaster, lived in sizeable groups. Here, we revisit these estimates and infer additional features of the social organization of these early hominins based on anti-predator responses observed across the primate taxon. We first show that the effect of habitat on primate group size, composition, and sexual dimorphism is negligible after controlling for substrate use and phylogeny: terrestrial species live in larger groups with more and bigger males than arboreal taxa...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685177/eye-movements-when-looking-at-potential-friends-and-romantic-partners
#20
Omri Gillath, Angela J Bahns, Hayley A Burghart
Eye movements of 105 heterosexual undergraduate students (36 males) were monitored while viewing photographs of men and women identified as a potential mate or a potential friend. Results showed that people looked at the head and chest more when assessing potential mates and looked at the legs and feet more when assessing potential friends. Single people looked at the photographs longer and more frequently than coupled people, especially when evaluating potential mates. In addition, eye gaze was a valid indicator of relationship interest...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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