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Rebecca L Monk, Adam W Qureshi, Adam McNeill, Marianne Erskine-Shaw, Derek Heim
Aim: To implement a modified bogus taste test (BTT) and to examine the interactive effects of environmental and social contexts on levels of 'alcohol' consumption. Method: University students (Study 1 n = 38, Study 2 n = 80), recruited via opportunity sampling, completed a modified BTT under the pretence of assessing garnish preference for gin and tonic. All participants were tested alone or as part of an existing friendship group. In Study 1 participants were in a laboratory setting but were exposed to different contextual cues (alcohol-related or neutral) by way of posters displayed on the walls...
November 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Madeleine Chapman, Jesper Dammeyer
The degree to which individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) experience communication difficulties has implications for social participation and identity development. However, few studies have examined the relationship between cochlear implantation, identity, and social participation. Using data from a Danish national survey of deaf adults, the authors examined the significance of having (or not having) a CI in regard to identity (categorized as deaf, hearing, bicultural, and marginal) and various related factors concerning social participation and experiences of being deaf...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
William E Pelham, Thomas J Dishion
Driving under the influence (DUI) is dangerous and costly, yet there are few prospective studies on modifiable risk and protective processes that would inform prevention. Middle adolescence, when most individuals are first learning to drive and first using alcohol, may be a particularly salient period for family and friendship influences on DUI risk. In the present study, youth's family and friendship environments were observed and measured at age 16 in a diverse community sample (n=999), and then court records were used to document arrest for DUI through the age of 32years...
October 13, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
W Quin Yow, Xiaoqian Li
Experiences living in a community where people share more than one language may affect children's strategies to selective learning. Language mixing may be one type of speakers' characteristics that bilingual children, but not monolingual children, use to evaluate speakers. A total of 120 English-speaking monolingual (n = 40) and English-Mandarin bilingual (n = 80) 4- and 5-year-olds heard a pair of speakers each tell a story either with or without language mixing and indicated their preferences for either speaker in friendship, explicit judgment, and novel label endorsement...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Noga Guggenheim, Orit Taubman-Ben-Ari
Reckless driving among young people, especially young men, is a major cause of injury and fatalities the world over. Like other aspects of this age group, young drivers' driving behaviors and norms are influenced by the accepted social discourse of their peers. Yet despite extensive existing knowledge on young drivers, very few studies have dealt specifically with their characteristic friendship relations. This lacuna in the literature may reflect the absence of specific research tools for examining driving with friends...
November 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lisa Bashore, Gina K Alexander, D Lynn Jackson, Paige Mauch
Photovoice is a practical method to allow at-risk youth to express the environmental influences in their lives at school, at home, and in their community. This project emerged from an interprofessional collaboration between social work and nursing that focused on school health. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing the mental and emotional health using photographs by students in a largely Hispanic middle school. Ten students were recruited and consented but only eight completed the project. The SHOWeD method was used to assist the students to formally reflect upon their photographs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Lin Jinming, Zhang Yongbiao, Qinglin Peng, Hanbo Yang, Jingli Shi, Mingliang Gu, Wenming Zhao, Guochun Wang
Genetic variation in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis (DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HLA class II with DM in China. 224 DM patients and 300 healthy controls were randomly enrolled at China-Japan Friendship Hospital. High resolution typing of HLA-DRB1 alleles was performed by sequencing based typing (SBT). The HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles were determined by PCR sequence-specific primers (SSP). The frequencies of HLA-DRB1*09:01 (28...
November 6, 2017: HLA
Karen P Kochel, Catherine L Bagwell, Gary W Ladd, Karen D Rudolph
This study's purpose was to evaluate whether two aspects of positive peer relations-having a friend and being well-liked-mitigate prospective transactions between depressive symptoms and peer victimization. Participants were early adolescents in fifth and sixth grades (N = 483; 50% girls; Mage in 5(th) grade spring = 11.10 years; SD = .40) and late adolescents in ninth and tenth grades (N = 444; 52% girls; Mage in 9(th) grade spring = 14.70 years; SD = .62). Data were collected in the spring annually. Depressive symptoms were assessed via parent-, teacher-, and self-reports (late adolescence only) and peer victimization by self-, peer-, and teacher-reports...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
Harrison G Hines, Cynthia J Avila, Tanya M Rudakevych, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
OBJECTIVES: Shifts in the healthcare environment have introduced challenges to the long-term continuity of the doctor-patient relationship. This study examines whether certain demographic or religious characteristics of physicians are associated with maintaining long-term relationships (LTRs) and/or friendships with their patients and describes physicians' opinions regarding the influence of such patient relationships on health outcomes. METHODS: In 2011, survey responses were obtained from 1289 US physicians from various specialties...
November 2017: Southern Medical Journal
Sabine Trepte, Philipp K Masur, Michael Scharkow
In the present study, we investigated long-term effects of self-disclosure on social support in face-to-face and instant messenger (IM) communication between mutual friends. Using a representative sample of 583 German IM users, we explored whether self-disclosure and positive experiences with regard to social support would dynamically interact in the form of a reinforcing spiral across three measurement occasions. If mutual friends self-disclose today, will they receive more social support 6 months later? In turn, will this affect their willingness to self-disclose another 6 months later? We further analyzed spill-over effects from face-to-face to IM communication and vice versa...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Naomi Ruth Aguiar, Candice M Mottweilier, Marjorie Taylor, Philip A Fisher
This study was designed to provide some preliminary information about the imaginary companions created by children who have lived in foster care, including prevalence rates and qualitative descriptions of the imaginary companions. We were also interested in how descriptions of the imaginary companions created by children who had lived in foster care compare to those of other children. Children with a history of foster care (n =21) and children from a low socioeconomic status community sample (n =39) were interviewed about imaginary companions...
June 2017: Imagination, Cognition and Personality
Luella Fu, Megan A Jacobs, Jody Brookover, Thomas W Valente, Nathan K Cobb, Amanda L Graham
BACKGROUND: Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. OBJECTIVES: These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook...
2017: PloS One
Chong Su, Yue Gao, Yuxiao Xie, Yong Xue, Lijun Ge, Hongguang Li
Traditional dysphagia prescreening diagnostic methods require doctors specialists to give patients a total score based on a water swallow test scale. This method is limited by the high dimensionality of the diagnostic elements in the water swallow test scale with heavy workload (Towards each patient, the scale requires the doctors give score for 18 diagnostic elements respectively) as well as the difficulties of extracting and using the diagnostic scale data's non-linear features and hidden expertise information (Even with the scale scores, specific diagnostic conclusions are still given by expert doctors under the expertise)...
November 2, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
Hannah Bradby, Kristin Liabo, Anne Ingold, Helen Roberts
Young unaccompanied asylum seekers have been portrayed as vulnerable, resilient or both. Those granted residency in Europe are offered support by health and social care systems, but once they leave the care system to make independent lives, what part can these services play? Our review of research with migrants who have been in care in Sweden and the United Kingdom found evidence of unmet need, but little research describing their own views of services. The limited published evidence, supplemented by interviews with care leavers in a UK inner city, suggests that in defining health needs, young people emphasise housing, education, employment and friendship over clinical or preventative services...
October 1, 2017: Health (London)
John Maltby, Liz Day, Sophie S Hall, Sally Chivers
Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
Jamie L Abaied, Sarah B Stanger
This study applied a short-term longitudinal design to examine whether socialization of coping, observed in real time, predicted social adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and social problems) in middle childhood. Further, this study explored whether socialization of coping contributed to children's social adjustment independent of other aspects of parenting (i.e., positive involvement, autonomy support). Parents' (primarily mothers') coping suggestions were observed while children completed a challenging star-tracing task, and children and parents reported on children's social adjustment at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up...
October 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
John H Boman, Thomas J Mowen
Individuals have been found to "project" their own substance use onto perceptions of their friends' substance use. This study explores whether companionship and conflict relate to incorrect perceptions of a friend's heavy alcohol and marijuana use after controlling for the behavior of the respondent and friend. Mixed models demonstrate that having higher levels of companionship, but not conflict, with a friend result in significantly higher perceptual levels of the friend's heavy alcohol and marijuana use. While beneficial for the friendship, higher levels of companionship may result in a person overestimating the heavy alcohol and marijuana use of a friend...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Shelly B Borden, Colby L Parks
Ralph Waters, the founder of the anesthesiology department and residency program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and John Lundy, the chair at the Mayo Clinic beginning in 1924, collaborated to expand regional anesthetic techniques and knowledge not only at their institutions, but also at institutions around the country through correspondence, meetings, and hosting of other anesthesiologists. The Ralph Waters Collection at the University of Wisconsin Archives was searched for information on Waters' and Lundy's involvement in regional anesthesia...
October 23, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Patrick T Davies, Meredith J Martin, E Mark Cummings
Although social difficulties have been identified as sequelae of children's experiences with interparental conflict and insecurity, little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying their vulnerability to social problems. Guided by emotional security theory, this study tested the hypothesis that children's emotional insecurity mediates associations between interparental conflict and their social difficulties by undermining their affiliative goals in best friendships. Participants included 235 families with the first of 5 measurement occasions over a 10-year period occurring when children were in kindergarten (mean age = 6 years)...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Psychology
S Hagerman, Z Woolard, K Anderson, B W Tatler, F R Moore
There has been little work to determine whether attractiveness ratings of faces correspond to sexual or more general attraction. We tested whether a measure of women's physiological arousal (pupil diameter change) was correlated with ratings of men's facial attractiveness. In Study 1, women rated the faces of men for whom we also measured salivary testosterone. They rated each face for attractiveness, and for desirability for friendship and long- and short-term romantic relationships. Pupil diameter change was not related to subjective ratings of attractiveness, but was positively correlated with the men's testosterone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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