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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346791/social-and-behavioural-determinants-of-the-difference-in-survival-among-older-adults-in-japan-and-england
#1
Jun Aida, Noriko Cable, Paola Zaninotto, Toru Tsuboya, Georgios Tsakos, Yusuke Matsuyama, Kanade Ito, Ken Osaka, Katsunori Kondo, Michael G Marmot, Richard G Watt
BACKGROUND: A rapidly ageing population presents major challenges to health and social care services. Cross-country comparative studies on survival among older adults are limited. In addition, Japan, the country with the longest life expectancy, is rarely included in these cross-country comparisons. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relative contributions of social and behavioural factors on the differences in survival among older people in Japan and England. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES; n = 13,176) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 5,551) to analyse all-cause mortality up to 9...
January 18, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342262/preliminary-study-of-1940-nm-thulium-laser-usage-in-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-for-achalasia
#2
J Liu, Y Jiao, Y Niu, L Yu, M Ji, S Zhang
Esophageal achalasia is a type of motility disorder characterized by incomplete relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and absence of esophageal peristalsis. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new treatment option for achalasia that is less invasive, more effective, and safe as compared to surgery. High-frequency electrotome is commonly used in POEM, but takes longer time to make the tunnel in the esophagus and causes many complications. The thulium laser decreases the risk of bleeding and perforation in endoscopy but has not been reported in digestive diseases, especially in POEM...
January 9, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320506/thinking-of-me-self-focus-reduces-sharing-and-helping-in-seven-to-eight-year-olds
#3
Sandra Weltzien, Lauren E Marsh, Bruce Hood
By 7-to 8-years of age, most children readily adhere to prosocial norms aimed at benefiting others through giving up time and effort (helping) or resources (sharing). Two studies explored whether sharing and helping by 7-to 8-year olds (N = 180) could be influenced by priming children's attention on themselves or their friends through a semi-structured interview. Results revealed that self-priming led to reductions in both sharing and helping compared to friendship-priming or a control condition. These findings are considered as indicative of the fragile state of prosocial behaviours at this age that can be easily shifted towards more selfish biases by simple priming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318629/tony-nevin-the-embrace-of-translational-work-by-a-basic-scientist
#4
F Charles Mace
Here I summarize John A. "Tony" Nevin's evolution as a translational author. All of his publications were classified by title and content as being primarily experimental analysis of behavior or translational. Translational works were subtyped as interpretative, descriptive research, or experimental research. During the first 20 years of his publication career, Tony published exclusively experimental analysis of behavior work. In 1982, he began a series of interpretative translational analyses on topics of significant social importance...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315939/the-quality-of-life-of-children-with-severe-developmental-disabilities
#5
B L Ncube, A Perry, J A Weiss
BACKGROUND: Research examining the quality of life (QoL) of children with severe developmental disabilities (SDD) is limited. The present study examines parent perceptions of child QoL in children with SDD compared with typically developing (TD) children and then examines predictors of QoL for the SDD group. METHOD: Parents of 246 children with SDD (aged 4 to 19 years) and 210 TD children (aged 4 to 18 years) responded to an online survey. QoL was measured using a composite variable composed of the child's happiness, achievement of potential and friendship quality...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313739/deterrence-s-element-of-sanction-certainty-friendships-vicarious-experiences-and-underage-alcohol-use
#6
Thomas J Mowen, John H Boman
BACKGROUND: Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309251/women-interact-more-comfortably-and-intimately-with-gay-men-but-not-straight-men-after-learning-their-sexual-orientation
#7
Eric M Russell, William Ickes, Vivian P Ta
Research suggests that the development of close, opposite-sex friendships is frequently impeded by men's often one-sided sexual attraction to women. But what if this element were removed? The current research tested the hypothesis that women engage in more comfortable and intimate interactions with a gay (but not a straight) man immediately after discovering his sexual orientation. In two studies, female participants engaged in imagined or actual initial interactions with either a straight man or a gay man...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302554/sexual-behavior-of-adolescent-students-in-chandigarh-and-their-perceptions-regarding-family-life-education
#8
Dinesh Kumar, Naveen Krishan Goel, Ravleen Kaur Bakshi, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Abhik K Ghosh
Background: With rapidly changing lifestyle and exposure to the Internet and mass media, lifestyle and sexual behavior of adolescent students are also changing rapidly. Objectives: To investigate the sexual behavior of adolescent students and to study misconceptions prevailing among them. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1022 adolescent students aged 14-19 years as a part of an Indian Council of Medical Research sponsored survey. Sexual behavior explored by interview method...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302104/a-clinical-trial-investigating-the-impact-of-in-feed-flavophospholipol-on-salmonella-shedding-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-pigs
#9
Saranya Nair, Abdolvahab Farzan, Terri L O'Sullivan, Robert M Friendship
A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20)...
January 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297720/exploring-patient-experiences-of-participating-in-a-group-exercise-class-for-the-management-of-nonspecific-shoulder-pain-a-qualitative-study
#10
Eva Barrett, Amy Hayes, Mags Kelleher, Carmela Conroy, Katie Robinson, Kieran O'Sullivan, Karen McCreesh
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence has demonstrated that group-based physiotherapy interventions for musculoskeletal pain can have similar clinical outcomes compared to one-to-one treatment. This study qualitatively explored the experiences of individuals who participated in a physiotherapist-led group exercise class for people with nonspecific shoulder pain (NSSP). METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 23 people with NSSP, who had recently participated in a 6-week structured exercise class...
January 3, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294662/perpetration-of-adolescent-dating-relationship-abuse-the-role-of-conditional-tolerance-for-violence-and-friendship-factors
#11
Elizabeth A Mumford, Bruce G Taylor, Peggy C Giordano
Research has pointed to the salience of friendships in predicting abuse in adolescent dating relationships. The current study investigates the perpetration of physical and sexual dating abuse as predicted by individual conditional tolerance for dating abuse within the context of friendship behaviors and group characteristics. Using two waves of the National Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV; N = 511 daters aged 12-18 years), we investigated the effects of baseline individual tolerance for hitting dating partners and friendship factors on perpetration of physical and sexual adolescent dating abuse (ADA) approximately 1 year later...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286275/the-2017-seventh-world-congress-of-pediatric-cardiology-cardiac-surgery-week-in-review-congenital-cardiac-anaesthesia
#12
Mark Twite, Wanda Miller-Hance
The seventh meeting of the World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery was an opportunity for healthcare professionals from around the world to meet and discuss current issues affecting patients with acquired and CHD. A dedicated anaesthesia track facilitated the exchange of ideas and fostered many new friendships. This review highlights the congenital cardiac anaesthesia track and the involvement of the Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society in the congress.
December 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285883/associations-between-friendship-characteristics-and-hiv-and-hsv-2-status-amongst-young-south-african-women-in-hptn-068
#13
Elizabeth Fearon, Richard D Wiggins, Audrey E Pettifor, Catherine MacPhail, Kathleen Kahn, Amanda Selin, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Sinéad Delany-Moretlwe, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Oliver Laeyendecker, James R Hargreaves
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of HIV among young women in South Africa remains extremely high. Adolescent peer groups have been found to be an important influence on a range of health behaviours. The characteristics of young women's friendships might influence their sexual health and HIV risk via connections to sexual partners, norms around sexual initiation and condom use, or provision of social support. We investigated associations between young women's friendships and their Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV infection status in rural South Africa...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282260/chronic-non-bacterial-osteitis-from-the-patient-perspective-a-health-services-research-through-data-collected-from-patient-conferences
#14
Colen Cooper Gore Silier, Justina Greschik, Susanne Gesell, Veit Grote, Annette F Jansson
OBJECTIVE: Although chronic non-bacterial osteitis (CNO) is an ever-increasingly recognised illness in the paediatric community and the adult healthcare community, a study to assess diagnosing, treatment and the psychosocial aspect of CNO from a large population pool was not available. We aimed to investigate CNO from the patient perspective. DESIGN: Health services research, patient survey. SETTING: Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Pediatric Rheumatology Department CNO Conferences held in June 2013 and June 2015...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273112/the-anatomy-of-friendship
#15
REVIEW
R I M Dunbar
Friendship is the single most important factor influencing our health, well-being, and happiness. Creating and maintaining friendships is, however, extremely costly, in terms of both the time that has to be invested and the cognitive mechanisms that underpin them. Nonetheless, personal social networks exhibit many constancies, notably in their size and their hierarchical structuring. Understanding the processes that give rise to these patterns and their evolutionary origins requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines social and neuropsychology as well as evolutionary biology...
January 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261223/family-networks-and-health-among-m%C3%A3-tis-aged-45-or-older
#16
Pamela L Ramage-Morin, Evelyne Bougie
BACKGROUND: Social networks are important for promoting and maintaining health and well-being. Social networks, including family and friendship ties, are sources of emotional, practical and other support that enhance social participation and help combat isolation and loneliness. Aboriginal seniors have been identified as a population at risk of social isolation. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, a national survey of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis, and Inuit...
December 20, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250752/the-dynamic-relationship-between-unhealthy-weight-control-and-adolescent-friendships-a-social-network-approach
#17
Melissa Simone, Emily Long, Ginger Lockhart
Although adolescence marks a vulnerable stage for peer influence on health behavior, little is known about the longitudinal and dynamic relationship between adolescent friendship and weight control. The current study aims to explain these dynamic processes among a sample of 1156 American adolescents in grades 9-11 (48.6% girls, 23.4% European American, 25.2% African American) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Stochastic actor-oriented models were fit to examine changes in friendship networks and unhealthy weight control across two waves...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249842/mapping-the-growing-discipline-of-dissemination-and-implementation-science-in-health
#18
Wynne E Norton, Alina Lungeanu, David A Chambers, Noshir Contractor
Background: The field of dissemination and implementation (D&I) research in health has grown considerably in the past decade. Despite the potential for advancing the science, limited research has focused on mapping the field. Methods: We administered an online survey to individuals in the D&I field to assess participants' demographics and expertise, as well as engagement with journals and conferences, publications, and grants. A combined roster-nomination method was used to collect data on participants' advice networks and collaboration networks; participants' motivations for choosing collaborators was also assessed...
September 2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249281/psychosocial-resilience-and-vulnerability-in-western-australian-aboriginal-youth
#19
Katrina D Hopkins, Catherine L Taylor, Stephen R Zubrick
Resilience is defined as a dynamic and contextually embedded process of positive development despite exposure to significant adversity. The Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population experience significant disadvantage and adversity relative to the non-Aboriginal population, with disproportionate and increasing rates of Aboriginal children in out-of-home care and substantiated child maltreatment seven times the rates for non-Aboriginal children. Despite decades of resilience research there remains a gap in our understanding of the extent to which specific mechanisms and processes support resilient outcomes...
December 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241679/origins-and-predictors-of-friendships-in-6-to-8-year-old-children-born-at-neonatal-risk
#20
Katharina M Heuser, Julia Jaekel, Dieter Wolke
OBJECTIVE: To test effects of gestational age (GA), early social experiences, and child characteristics on children's friendships and perceived peer acceptance. STUDY DESIGN: As part of the prospective Bavarian Longitudinal Study (1147 children, 25-41 weeks GA), children's friendships (eg, number of friends, frequency of meeting friends) and perceived peer acceptance were assessed before school entry (6 years of age) and in second grade (8 years of age) using child and parent reports...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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