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Osteoclastogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089586/natural-uranium-impairs-the-differentiation-and-the-resorbing-function-of-osteoclasts
#1
Tatiana Gritsaenko, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Thomas Lorivel, Véronique Breuil, Georges F Carle, Sabine Santucci-Darmanin
BACKGROUND: Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide ubiquitously present in the environment. The skeleton is the main site of uranium long-term accumulation. While it has been shown that natural uranium is able to perturb bone metabolism through its chemical toxicity, its impact on bone resorption by osteoclasts has been poorly explored. Here, we examined for the first time in vitro effects of natural uranium on osteoclasts. METHODS: The effects of uranium on the RAW 264...
January 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088671/melatonin-attenuates-titanium-particle-induced-osteolysis-via-activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#2
Zichuan Ping, Xuanyang Hu, Liangliang Wang, Jiawei Shi, Yunxia Tao, Xiexing Wu, Zhenyang Hou, Xiaobin Guo, Wen Zhang, Huilin Yang, Yaozeng Xu, Zhirong Wang, Dechun Geng
: Wear debris-induced inhibition of bone regeneration and extensive bone resorption were common features in peri-prosthetic osteolysis (PPO). Here, we investigated the effect of melatonin on titanium particle-stimulated osteolysis in a murine calvariae model and mouse-mesenchymal-stem cells (mMSCs) culture system. Melatonin inhibited titanium particle-induced osteolysis and increased bone formation at osteolytic sites, confirmed by radiological and histomorphometric data. Furthermore, osteoclast numbers decreased dramatically in the low- and high-melatonin administration mice, as respectively, compared with the untreated animals...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081469/anti-osteoporotic-effects-of-an-antidepressant-tianeptine-on-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Osama A Alkhamees, Abdulaziz S Al-Roujayee, Hatem M Abuohashish, Mohammed M Ahmed
In the current investigation, the potential alleviating effects of tianeptine against bone loss induced in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was determined. Two weeks following a bilateral ovariectomy operation, tianeptine treatment (12.5 and 25mg/kg/twice/d) was initiated and continued for twenty-eight consecutive days. Changes in serum and urinary bone turnover biomarkers and osteoclastogenesis-inducing factors were estimated. The femoral bone mineral content was estimated using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry...
January 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076372/bad-to-the-bone-on-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-microbial-biofilm-ability-to-directly-destroy-colonized-bone-surfaces-without-participation-of-host-immunity-or-osteoclastogenesis
#4
Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Ewa Karuga-Kuzniewska, Danuta Smutnicka, Iwona Bil-Lula, Marzenna Bartoszewicz, Susan Mahabady, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh
Bone infections are a significant public health burden associated with morbidity and mortality in patients. Microbial biofilm pathogens are the causative agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Research on the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has focused on indirect bone destruction by host immune cells and cytokines secondary to microbial insult. Direct bone resorption by biofilm pathogens has not yet been seriously considered. In this study, common osteomyelitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus mutans) were grown as biofilms in multiple in vitro and ex vivo experiments to analyze quantitative and qualitative aspects of bone destruction during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075460/roles-of-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressor-genes-in-osteoclastogenesis-review
#5
Akari Minami, Mako Ogino, Noriko Nakano, Mayuko Ichimura, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai, Yasuko Kitagishi, Satoru Matsuda
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that poses a tremendous burden to health care. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) have been a major focus of this research field. RANKL signaling not only activates a variety of downstream signaling pathways required for osteoclast development, but crosstalk with other signaling pathways also adjusts bone homeostasis both in normal physiology and in bone disease. Consequently, novel drugs specifically targeting RANK-RANKL and their signaling pathways in osteoclasts are expected to revolutionize the treatment of various bone diseases such as osteoporosis...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074479/gdf8-inhibits-bone-formation-and-promotes-bone-resorption-in-mice
#6
Yu-Si Chen, Qi Guo, Li-Juan Guo, Ting Liu, Xian-Ping Wu, Zhang-Yuan Lin, Hong-Bo He, Tie-Jian Jiang
Growth Differentiation Factor 8 (GDF8), also called myostatin, is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β super-family. As a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, GDF8 is also associated with bone metabolism. However, the function of GDF8 in bone metabolism is not fully understood. Our study aimed to investigate the role of GDF8 in bone metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that GDF8 had a negative regulatory effect on primary mouse osteoblasts, and promoted receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068481/micrornas-and-periodontal-homeostasis
#7
X Luan, X Zhou, J Trombetta-eSilva, M Francis, A K Gaharwar, P Atsawasuwan, T G H Diekwisch
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs that control gene expression in all aspects of eukaryotic life, primarily through RNA silencing mechanisms. The purpose of the present review is to introduce key miRNAs involved in periodontal homeostasis, summarize the mechanisms by which they affect downstream genes and tissues, and provide an introduction into the therapeutic potential of periodontal miRNAs. In general, miRNAs function synergistically to fine-tune the regulation of biological processes and to remove expression noise rather than by causing drastic changes in expression levels...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067799/excavatolide-b-attenuates-rheumatoid-arthritis-through-the-inhibition-of-osteoclastogenesis
#8
Yen-You Lin, Yen-Hsuan Jean, Hsin-Pai Lee, Sung-Chun Lin, Chieh-Yu Pan, Wu-Fu Chen, Shu-Fen Wu, Jui-Hsin Su, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Jyh-Horng Sheu, Ping-Jyun Sung, Zhi-Hong Wen
Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells of macrophage/monocyte lineage, and cell differentiation with the upregulation of osteoclast-related proteins is believed to play a major role in the destruction of the joints in the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), can be overexpressed in RA and lead to osteoclastogenesis. In a previous study, we found that cultured-type soft coral-derived excavatolide B (Exc-B) exhibited anti-inflammatory properties...
January 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067429/lnk-deficiency-leads-to-tpo-mediated-osteoclastogenesis-and-increased-bone-mass-phenotype
#9
David J Olivos, Marta Alvarez, Ying-Hua Cheng, R Adam Hooker, Wendy A Ciovacco, Monique Bethel, Haley McGough, Christopher Yim, Brahmananda R Chitteti, Pierre P Eleniste, Mark C Horowitz, Edward F Srour, Angela Bruzzaniti, Robyn K Fuchs, Melissa A Kacena
The Lnk adapter protein negatively regulates the signaling of thrombopoietin (TPO), the main megakaryocyte (MK) growth factor. Lnk-deficient (-/-) mice have increased TPO signaling and increased MK number. Interestingly, several mouse models exist in which increased MK number leads to a high bone mass phenotype. Here we report the bone phenotype of these mice. MicroCT and static histomorphometric analyses at 20 weeks showed the distal femur of Lnk(-/-) mice to have significantly higher bone volume fraction and trabecular number compared to wild-type (WT) mice...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059444/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-osteoclastogenesis-through-jnk-signaling-dependent-induction-of-semaphorin3d-expression-in-estrogen-deficiency-induced-osteoporosis
#10
Chenglin Sang, Jiefeng Zhang, Yongxian Zhang, Fangjing Chen, Xuecheng Cao, Lei Guo
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced osteoclast formation have been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of estrogen deficiency-mediated bone loss, but the exact mechanisms by which TNF-α enhanced osteoclast differentiation were not fully elucidated. The class III semaphorins members were critical to regulate bone homeostasis. Here, we identified a novel mechanism whereby TNF-α increasing Semaphorin3D expression contributes to estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis. In this study, we found that Semaphorin3D expression was upregulated by TNF-α during the process of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059080/scaling-of-titanium-implants-entrains-inflammation-induced-osteolysis
#11
Michal Eger, Nir Sterer, Tamar Liron, David Kohavi, Yankel Gabet
With millions of new dental and orthopedic implants inserted annually, periprosthetic osteolysis becomes a major concern. In dentistry, peri-implantitis management includes cleaning using ultrasonic scaling. We examined whether ultrasonic scaling releases titanium particles and induces inflammation and osteolysis. Titanium discs with machined, sandblasted/acid-etched and sandblasted surfaces were subjected to ultrasonic scaling and we physically and chemically characterized the released particles. These particles induced a severe inflammatory response in macrophages and stimulated osteoclastogenesis...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057743/il21r-expressing-cd14-cd16-monocytes-expand-in-multiple-myeloma-patients-leading-to-increased-osteoclasts
#12
Marina Bolzoni, Domenica Ronchetti, Paola Storti, Gaetano Donofrio, Valentina Marchica, Federica Costa, Luca Agnelli, Denise Toscani, Rosanna Vescovini, Katia Todoerti, Sabrina Bonomini, Gabriella Sammarelli, Andrea Vecchi, Daniela Guasco, Fabrizio Accardi, Benedetta Dalla Palma, Barbara Gamberi, Carlo Ferrari, Antonino Neri, Franco Aversa, Nicola Giuliani
Bone marrow monocytes are primarily committed to osteoclast formation. It is, however, unknown whether potential primary alterations are specifically present in bone marrow monocytes of multiple myeloma patients, smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance. Herein, we analyzed the immunophenotypic and transcriptional profiles of bone marrow CD14+ monocytes in a cohort of patients with different types of monoclonal gammopathies to identify alterations involved in myeloma-enhanced osteoclastogenesis...
January 5, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052488/lymphatic-endothelial-cells-produce-m-csf-causing-massive-bone-loss-in-mice
#13
Wensheng Wang, Hua Wang, Xichao Zhou, Xing Li, Sun Wen, Michael Dellinger, Brendan F Boyce, Lianping Xing
Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare bone disorder characterized by aggressive osteolysis associated with lymphatic vessel invasion within bone marrow cavities. The etiology of GSD is not known and there is no effective therapy or animal model for the disease. Here, we investigated if lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) affect osteoclasts (OCs) to cause a GSD osteolytic phenotype in mice. We examined the effect of a mouse LEC line on osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures. LECs significantly increased RANKL-mediated OC formation and bone resorption...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044198/meloxicam-medication-reduces-orthodontically-induced-dental-root-resorption-and-tooth-movement-velocity-a-combined-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study-of-dental-periodontal-cells-and-tissue
#14
Christian Kirschneck, Matthias Meier, Kathrin Bauer, Peter Proff, Jochen Fanghänel
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are used to alleviate pain sensations during orthodontic therapy but are also assumed to interfere with associated pseudo-inflammatory reactions. In particular, the effects of partially selective COX-2 inhibition over the constitutively expressed COX-1 (11:1) on periodontal cells and tissue, as induced by the NSAID meloxicam, remain unclear. We investigate possible adverse side-effects and potentially useful beneficial effects during orthodontic therapy and examine underlying cellular and tissue reactions...
January 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035539/brucine-inhibits-bone-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-cells-by-suppressing-jagged1-notch1-signaling-pathways
#15
Ke-Fei Hu, Xiang-Ying Kong, Mi-Cun Zhong, Hong-Ye Wan, Na Lin, Xiao-Hua Pei
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of brucine on the invasion, migration and bone resorption of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. METHODS: The osteoclastogenesis model was builded by co-culturing human breast tumor MDA-MB-231 and mouse RAW264.7 macrophages cells. RANKL (50 ng/mL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (50 ng/mL) were added to this system, followed by treatment with brucine (0.02, 0.04 and 0...
December 29, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035412/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-inhibits-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-induced-osteoclast-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
Jong Min Baek, Sung-Jun Ahn, Yoon-Hee Cheon, Myeung Su Lee, Jaemin Oh, Ju-Young Kim
The adipokine nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also known as pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor or the insulin-mimetic hormone visfatin, has a crucial role in the conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide during biosynthesis of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Previous reports have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of Nampt on osteoclast formation from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD14+ monocytes. However, the effects of Nampt on bone marrow macrophage (BMM)‑derived osteoclastogenesis and its precise role in the process remain unclear...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032455/in-silico-design-and-bioevaluation-of-selective-benzotriazepine-brd4-inhibitors-with-potent-antiosteoclastogenic-activity
#17
Vishwa Deepak, Binglin Wang, Dwayne Koot, Abe Kasonga, Xiao Xing Stander, Magdalena Coetzee, Andre Stander
The bromodomain (BRD) and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family binds to acetylated histones on lysine residues and act as epigenetic readers. Recently, the role of this protein family in bone loss has been gaining attention. Earlier studies have reported that benzotriazepine (Bzt) derivatives could be effective inhibitors of BET proteins. In this study by using in silico tools we designed three Bzt analogs (W49, W51, and W52). By docking, molecular simulations and chemiluminescent alpha screen binding assay we show that the studied analogs were selective at inhibiting BRD4 when compared to BRD2...
December 29, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029186/adipokine-chemerin-bridges-metabolic-dyslipidemia-and-alveolar-bone-loss-in-mice
#18
Erivan S Ramos-Junior, Gisele A Leite, Cecilia C Carmo-Silva, Thaise M Taira, Karla B Neves, David F Colón, Lea Ab da Silva, Sergio L Salvador, Rita C Tostes, Fernando Q Cunha, Sandra Y Fukada
Chemerin is an adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and metabolic functions of mature adipocytes mainly through the activation of chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Elevated levels of chemerin have been found in individuals with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. This adipokine was identified as an inflammatory and metabolic syndrome marker. Considering that the association between metabolic syndrome and bone health remains unclear, the present study aimed to clarify the role of chemerin in the pathophysiology of bone loss induced by dyslipidemia, particularly modulating osteoclastogenesis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008946/htra2-suppresses-autoimmune-arthritis-and-regulates-activation-of-stat3
#19
Seung Hoon Lee, Young-Mee Moon, Hyeon-Beom Seo, Se-Young Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Junyeong Yi, Min-Kyung Nam, Jun-Ki Min, Sung-Hwan Park, Hyangshuk Rhim, Mi-La Cho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that is related to the induction of T helper (Th)17 cells, which secrete interleukin-17, and activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. The expression of high-temperature requirement protein A (HtrA) 2, a serine protease involved in apoptosis, was decreased in RA patients nonresponsive to drug treatment of RA. The aim of this study was to determine whether overexpression of HtrA2 has a therapeutic effect on RA. Th17 differentiation, osteoclastogenesis, and lymphocyte activation are increased in motor neuron degeneration (mnd)2 mice, which lack HtrA2 activity because of a missense mutation (Ser276Cys) in the protease domain of HtrA2...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002602/effect-of-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-ovariectomy-induced-osteoporosis-in-mice
#20
J Huo, X Sun
Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a common type of osteoporosis in women, has become a serious public health issue. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), possessing various pharmacological activities, are the active ingredients of Radix Astragali. It can be advantageous in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the present study, we evaluated the potential therapeutic effects of APS on postmenopausal osteoporosis by using a mice model induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Forty-eight female 6-week-old outbred ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups (N = 8): Sham group, OVX group, 17 β-estradiol (E2, 0...
December 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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