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Osteoclastogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317237/disruption-of-the-cx43-mir21-pathway-leads-to-osteocyte-apoptosis-and-increased-osteoclastogenesis-with-aging
#1
Hannah M Davis, Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Emily G Atkinson, Lucas R Brun, Arancha R Gortazar, Julia Harris, Masahiro Hiasa, Surajudeen A Bolarinwa, Toshiyuki Yoneda, Mircea Ivan, Angela Bruzzaniti, Teresita Bellido, Lilian I Plotkin
Skeletal aging results in apoptosis of osteocytes, cells embedded in bone that control the generation/function of bone forming and resorbing cells. Aging also decreases connexin43 (Cx43) expression in bone; and osteocytic Cx43 deletion partially mimics the skeletal phenotype of old mice. Particularly, aging and Cx43 deletion increase osteocyte apoptosis, and osteoclast number and bone resorption on endocortical bone surfaces. We examined herein the molecular signaling events responsible for osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast recruitment triggered by aging and Cx43 deficiency...
March 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315458/cyperus-rotundus-l-extract-suppresses-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-through-nfatc1-c-fos-downregulation-and-prevent-bone-loss-in-ovx-induced-osteoporosis-rat
#2
Chang-Jun Kum, Eun-Young Kim, Jae-Hyun Kim, Bina Lee, Ju-Hee Min, Jun Heo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Mijung Yeom, Youngjoo Sohn, Hyuk-Sang Jung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cyperus Rotundus L. (CyR) has been widely used for the treatment of gynecologic disorder. Recent studies have reported that CyR can prevent the formation of cystic follicles and ovarian malfunction. However, the effects of CyR on osteoclastogenesis and postmenopausal osteoporosis remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to investigate the preventive effects of CyR on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315446/targeted-delivery-of-morin-a-dietary-bioflavanol-encapsulated-mannosylated-liposomes-to-the-macrophages-of-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rats-inhibits-inflammatory-immune-response-and-osteoclastogenesis
#3
Farhath Sultana, Manoj Kumar Neog, MahaboobKhan Rasool
The purpose of the study was to develop a liposomal drug delivery system for morin, a dietary polyphenol, in order to target the synovial macrophages and investigate the remission of disease severity in the adjuvant-induced arthritic (AIA) rats. To do so, mannose decorated liposomal morin (ML-Morin) was prepared using the thin film hydration method and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The particle size and zeta potential of liposomal morin (L-Morin) was found to be 127.9nm ± 2.6 and -24.5mV ± 0...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315346/inhibition-of-osteoporosis-by-the-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-antagonist-of-rhodostomin-variants
#4
Tzu-Hung Lin, Rong-Sen Yang, Huang-Ju Tu, Houng-Chi Liou, Yen-Ming Lin, Woie-Jer Chuang, Wen-Mei Fu
Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction. The vitronectin and osteopontin receptor αvβ3 integrin has increased expression levels and is implicated in the adhesion, activation, and migration of osteoclasts on the bone surface as well as osteoclast polarization. αvβ3 integrin plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation and resorption. In addition, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides, small molecular inhibitors, and antibodies to αvβ3 integrin have been shown to inhibit bone resorption in vitro and in vivo...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314855/def6-restrains-osteoclastogenesis-and-inflammatory-bone-resorption
#5
Nikolaus Binder, Christine Miller, Masaki Yoshida, Kazuki Inoue, Shinichi Nakano, Xiaoyu Hu, Lionel B Ivashkiv, Georg Schett, Alessandra Pernis, Steven R Goldring, F Patrick Ross, Baohong Zhao
Inflammatory bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts is a major cause of morbidity and disability in many inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The mechanisms that regulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in inflammatory settings are complex and have not been well elucidated. In this study, we identify the immunoregulator differentially expressed in FDCP 6 homolog (Def6) as a novel inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in physiological and inflammatory conditions. Def6 deficiency in Def6(-/-) mice enhanced the sensitivity of osteoclast precursors to the physiological osteoclastogenic inducer receptor activator for NF-κB ligand, and Def6(-/-) osteoclasts formed actin rings...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302565/inhibition-of-prmt5-suppresses-osteoclast-differentiation-and-partially-protects-against-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-through-downregulation-of-cxcl10-and-rsad2
#6
Yonghui Dong, Chao Song, Yuting Wang, Zuowei Lei, Fei Xu, Hanfeng Guan, Anmin Chen, Feng Li
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an arginine methylation methyltransferase that regulates various physiological processes. Abnormal PRMT5 activity has been reported in inflammation and various types of cancers. Because osteoclast differentiation is characterized by the activation of inflammation-related pathways, we speculated that PRMT5 may play a role in this process. In the present study, we found that PRMT5 was upregulated during osteoclast differentiation. Knockdown of PRMT5 with siRNA in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMs) resulted in inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation...
March 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302039/bone-degeneration-inflammation-and-secondary-complications-of-arthritis-potential-targets-and-their-natural-inhibitors
#7
Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Ram M Thushara, Somanatahpura K NaveenKumar, Paul Manoj, Mahalingam S Sundaram, Kempaiah Kemparaju, Kesturu S Girish
Arthritis is marked with joint deterioration that affects articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Though cartilage degradation is a major damage during arthritis, the subsequent bone loss cannot be neglected. Progress in the arthritis research has identified clinical importance of bone erosion in destructive arthritis. Studies have showed the key role played by osteoclasts and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) signaling in bone erosion. Cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) are considered key enzymatic factors contributing to bone erosion...
March 15, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299652/roles-of-runx2-in-skeletal-development
#8
Toshihisa Komori
Runx2 is the most upstream transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation. It regulates the expression of Sp7, the protein of which is a crucial transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation, as well as that of bone matrix genes including Spp1, Ibsp, and Bglap2. Runx2 is also required for chondrocyte maturation, and Runx3 has a redundant function with Runx2 in chondrocyte maturation. Runx2 regulates the expression of Col10a1, Spp1, Ibsp, and Mmp13 in chondrocytes. It also inhibits chondrocytes from acquiring the phenotypes of permanent cartilage chondrocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294321/artesunate-inhibits-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-and-bone-resorption-in-vitro-and-prevents-lps-induced-bone-loss-in-vivo
#9
Cheng-Ming Wei, Qian Liu, Fang-Ming Song, Xi-Xi Lin, Yi-Ji Su, Jiake Xu, Lin Huang, Shao-Hui Zong, Jin-Min Zhao
Osteoclasts are multinuclear giant cells responsible for bone resorption in lytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, periodontitis, and bone tumors. Due to the severe side-effects caused by the currently available drugs, a continuous search for novel bone-protective therapies is essential. Artesunate (Art), the water-soluble derivative of artemisinin has been investigated owing to its anti-malarial properties. However, its effects in osteoclastogenesis have not yet been reported. In this study, Art was shown to inhibit the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis, the mRNA expression of osteoclastic-specific genes, and resorption pit formation in a dose-dependent manner in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages cells (BMMs)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292604/anti-osteoclastogenesis-of-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-through-inhibition-of-the-autophagic-pathway
#10
Xue Cheng, Lingxin Zhu, Jie Zhang, Jingjing Yu, Shan Liu, Fengyuan Lv, Ying Lin, Guojing Liu, Bin Peng
INTRODUCTION: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) regulates bone remodeling, particularly osteoclast differentiation. However, intracellular mechanisms underlying the anti-osteoclastogenesis of MTA remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential alterations of autophagic pathway during anti-osteoclastogenic effects by MTA in vitro and investigate their underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Osteoclast precursors were treated with MTA extracts containing the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292438/maoa-dependent-activation-of-shh-il6-rankl-signaling-network-promotes-prostate-cancer-metastasis-by-engaging-tumor-stromal-cell-interactions
#11
Jason Boyang Wu, Lijuan Yin, Changhong Shi, Qinlong Li, Peng Duan, Jen-Ming Huang, Chunyan Liu, Fubo Wang, Michael Lewis, Yang Wang, Tzu-Ping Lin, Chin-Chen Pan, Edwin M Posadas, Haiyen E Zhau, Leland W K Chung
Metastasis is a predominant cause of death for prostate cancer (PCa) patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report that monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a clinically and functionally important mediator of PCa bone and visceral metastases, activating paracrine Shh signaling in tumor-stromal interactions. MAOA provides tumor cell growth advantages in the bone microenvironment by stimulating interleukin-6 (IL6) release from osteoblasts, and triggers skeletal colonization by activating osteoclastogenesis through osteoblast production of RANKL and IL6...
March 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291852/osteoclastic-response-on-titanium-surfaces-in-modified-simulated-body-fluid
#12
Moon-Hyoung Kim, Su-Young Lee, Seong-Joo Heo, Seong-Kyun Kim, Myung-Joo Kim, Jai-Young Koak
PURPOSE: It was hypothesized that calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition onto Ti surfaces using biomimetic deposition contributed to not only improving osteogenesis but also suppressing osteoclastogenesis in terms of high surface hydrophilicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ti discs with two different surfaces were prepared: machined and anodic oxidized surfaces. The specimens of two different surfaces were soaked in modified simulated body fluid solution for 14 days at physiologic condition...
March 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289800/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-overexpression-induces-mainly-osteoclastogenesis-at-the-vertebral-site
#13
Guillaume Courbon, Sacha Flammier, Norbert Laroche, Laurence Vico, Hubert Marotte, Fabienne Coury
Syndesmophyte occurrence and axial bone loss were investigated in the heterozygous Tg187 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) transgenic mouse model (Tg-huTNF) of arthritis. Female and male Tg-huTNF mice were compared to wild-type mice (WT) at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks. Syndesmophytes, intervertebral disc space, osteoclasts, osteoid surface, and vertebra microarchitecture were assessed by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. No spontaneous syndesmophyte formation was detected in Tg-huTNF compared to WT mice...
March 13, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289415/pasteurella-multocida-toxin-triggers-rankl-independent-osteoclastogenesis
#14
Sushmita Chakraborty, Bianca Kloos, Ulrike Harre, Georg Schett, Katharina F Kubatzky
Bone remodeling is a continuous process to retain the structural integrity and function of the skeleton. A tight coupling is maintained between osteoclast-mediated resorption of old or damaged bones and osteoblast-mediated formation of new bones for bone homeostasis. While osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells, osteoclasts are hematopoietic in origin and derived from myeloid precursor cells. Osteoclast differentiation is driven by two cytokines, cytokine receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288319/synthesis-of-heterocyclic-ring-fused-tricyclic-diterpene-analogs-as-novel-inhibitors-of-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-and-bone-resorption
#15
Gao Wei, Yalan Wu, Xiao-Long He, Ting Liu, Mingyao Liu, Jian Luo, Wen-Wei Qiu
A series of heterocyclic ring-fused tricyclic diterpene analogs were synthesized and their inhibitory effects of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis were evaluated on bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMMs) by a cell based tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity assay. Among them, the most potent compound, 37 (QG368), showed 72.3% inhibition even at a low concentration of 0.1 μM, which was about 188-fold more potent than the lead compound. Cytotoxicity test on BMMs indicated that the inhibition on osteoclast differentiation of 37 did not result from its cytotoxicity...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287403/rankl-coordinates-multiple-osteoclastogenic-pathways-by-regulating-expression-of-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf146
#16
Yoshinori Matsumoto, Jose Larose, Oliver A Kent, Melissa Lim, Adele Changoor, Lucia Zhang, Yaryna Storozhuk, Xiaohong Mao, Marc D Grynpas, Feng Cong, Robert Rottapel
Bone undergoes continuous remodeling due to balanced bone formation and resorption mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Osteoclasts arise from the macrophage lineage, and their differentiation is dependent on RANKL, a member of the TNF family of cytokines. Here, we have provided evidence that RANKL controls the expression of 3BP2, an adapter protein that is required for activation of SRC tyrosine kinase and simultaneously coordinates the attenuation of β-catenin, both of which are required to execute the osteoclast developmental program...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286938/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-controls-osteoclastogenesis-through-regulating-th17-differentiation-and-rankl-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Hae-Rim Kim, Kyoung-Woon Kim, Bo-Mi Kim, Kyung-Ann Lee, Sang-Heon Lee
Background/Aims: This study aimed to determine the regulatory role of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, in interleukin 17 (IL-17)-induced osteoclast differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: After RA synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by IL-17, the expression and production of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Osteoclastogenesis was also determined after co-cultures of IL-17-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts, Th17 cells and various concentrations of NAC with monocytes...
March 13, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283537/increased-osteoclastogenesis-in-patients-with-vertebral-fractures-following-discontinuation-of-denosumab-treatment
#18
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Maria P Yavropoulou, Polyzois Makras, Grigorios T Sakellariou, Foteini Papadopoulou, Spyridon Gerou, Socrates Papapoulos
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that rebound of bone remodeling is responsible for clinical vertebral fractures reported in a few patients with osteoporosis after cessation of denosumab treatment. DESIGN: In this case-control study we compared clinical and biochemical characteristics of postmenopausal women with clinical vertebral fractures 8 to 16 months after the last injection of denosumab (Dmab/Fx+, n=5) with those of treatment-naïve women with such fractures (Fx+, n=5)...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281321/basis-of-bone-metabolism-around-dental-implants-during-osseointegration-and-peri-implant-bone-loss
#19
REVIEW
Angel Insua, Alberto Monje, Hom-Lay Wang, Richard J Miron
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of publications in the field of implant dentistry, there are limited studies to date investigating the biology and metabolism of bone healing around dental implants and their implications in peri-implant marginal bone loss. PURPOSE: The aim of this review article is to provide a thorough understanding of the biological events taking place during osseointegration and the subsequent early and late phases of bone remodeling around dental implants...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278513/il-6-enhances-osteocyte-mediated-osteoclastogenesis-by-promoting-jak2-and-rankl-activity-in-vitro
#20
Qing Wu, Xiaokang Zhou, Danqing Huang, Yingchen Ji, Feiwu Kang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Evidence suggests that IL-6 affects bone mass by modulating osteocyte communication towards osteoclasts. However, the mechanism by which IL-6 enhances osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the inflammatory factors in serum after orthodontic surgery and their relationship between osteocytes and osteoclasts. METHODS: Serum was obtained from 10 orthognathic surgery patients, and inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA...
March 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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