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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#1
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847659/interferon-induced-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#2
Yusuf Kayar, Nuket Bayram Kayar, Nadir Alpay, Jamshid Hamdard, Iskender Ekinci, Sebnem Emegil, Rabia Bag Soydas, Birol Baysal
Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet's disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846266/the-association-between-renal-hyperfiltration-and-the-sources-of-habitual-protein-intake-and-dietary-acid-load-in-a-general-population-with-preserved-renal-function-the-koges-study
#3
Rina So, Sihan Song, Jung Eun Lee, Hyung-Jin Yoon
Although the differential response of the kidney to the acute load of various sources of dietary protein in subjects with normal renal function is well known, the influence of habitual dietary protein intake and dietary acid load on renal function has not been tested well. The association between renal hyperfiltration (RHF), the earlier and possibly reversible stage of chronic kidney disease, and the sources of habitual dietary protein and dietary acid load was analyzed with the baseline data of 123,169 middle-aged healthy Koreans of a large prospective cohort study, who had a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/min/m2 and no known history of diabetes and/or hypertension...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832768/central-obesity-associates-with-renal-hyperfiltration-in-the-non-diabetic-general-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Vidar Tor Nyborg Stefansson, Jørgen Schei, Trond Geir Jenssen, Toralf Melsom, Bjørn Odvar Eriksen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Renal hyperfiltration, defined as an abnormally high glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is a link in the causal chain between diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Whether obesity is associated with hyperfiltration in the non-diabetic general population, remains unresolved due to a lack of consensus regarding the definition of hyperfiltration and the limited precision of high-range GFR estimations with creatinine and/or cystatin C...
November 10, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816946/advanced-glycation-end-products-mediated-cellular-and-molecular-events-in-the-pathology-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#5
Anil Kumar Pasupulati, P Swathi Chitra, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Degenerative changes such as glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, widening of basement membranes, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and podocytopathy manifest in various degrees of proteinuria in DN. One of the key mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of DN is non-enzymatic glycation (NEG). NEG is the irreversible attachment of reducing sugars onto free amino groups of proteins by a series of events, which include the formation of Schiff's base and an Amadori product to yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
November 7, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812743/glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-children-with-cancer-prevalence-and-a-hypothesis
#6
Neha S Kwatra, Holly J Meany, Sunil J Ghelani, David Zahavi, Nayan Pandya, Massoud Majd
BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration has recently been reported in children with malignancies and has been attributed to increased solute from breakdown of tumor tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of hyperfiltration in the pediatric oncology population and explore its pathophysiological mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tc-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) examinations (437 studies) and medical records of 177 patients <21 years of age diagnosed with a malignancy between January 2005 and October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 3, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804962/alcohol-consumption-and-the-risk-for-renal-hyperfiltration-in-the-general-chinese-population
#7
M Lin, Q Su, H Huang, Y Zheng, J Wen, J Yao, J Liang, L Li, W Lin, L Lin, J Lu, Y Bi, W Wang, G Ning, G Chen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Glomerular hyperfiltration has been considered an early marker of kidney injury in prediabetes and prehypertension. Heavy alcohol consumption remains highly prevalent and is considered a major public health problem worldwide. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration associated with alcohol consumption remains unclear. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study was conducted in three communities in China. A total of 15 390 participants (5396 males and 9994 females) aged 40-65 years were included in the study...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801685/dietary-protein-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Gang Jee Ko, Yoshitsugu Obi, Amanda R Tortorici, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. RECENT FINDINGS: Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776918/chronic-kidney-disease-and-high-egfr-according-to-body-composition-phenotype-in-adults-with-normal-bmi
#9
Y Y Hyun, K B Lee, E J Rhee, C Y Park, Y Chang, S Ryu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body composition contributes to the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerular hyperfiltration. In adults with normal body mass index (BMI), the relationships of body composition with CKD and high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 10,734 adults from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), whose body mass index (BMI) was within the normal range (18...
December 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770523/possible-mechanism-of-development-of-salt-sensitive-essential-hypertension
#10
N Kantaria, I Pantsulaia, I Andronikashvili, G Simonia
It has been known that salt-sensitivity of blood pressure is defined genetically as well as can be developed secondary to either decreased renal function or by influence of other environmental factors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible mechanism for the development of salt-sensitive essential hypertension in the population of Georgia. The Case-Control study included 185 subjects, 94 cases with Essential Hypertension stage I (JNC7) without prior antihypertensive treatment, and 91 controls. Salt-sensitivity test was used to divide both case and control groups into salt-sensitive (n=112) and salt-resistant (n=73) subgroups...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755482/risk-factors-for-renal-impairment-revealed-after-unilateral-adrenalectomy-in-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#11
Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kwon, Sang A Ji, Hye Ryoun Jang, Sin-Ho Jung, Jung-Han Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Wooseong Huh, Yoon-Goo Kim, Dae Joong Kim, Ha Young Oh
Primary aldosteronism (PA) may induce significant decline of renal function and structural damage of kidney. However, it is difficult to evaluate accurate renal function in patients with PA, because glomerular hyperfiltration and aldosterone escape can conceal renal impairment. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared changes in renal function after unilateral adrenalectomy between patients with PA and patients with other adrenal diseases. Risk factors associated with postoperative renal impairment in patients with PA were analyzed...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753900/os-01-09-markers-of-early-renal-impairment-in-prehypertension
#12
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753815/ssa-05-2-hypertension-and-kidney-complication-in-africa
#13
Solomon Kadiri
Hypertension prevalence rates in most urbanized areas of Africa range from 20-30%, with a recent systematic review reporting 16.2% for sub-Saharan Africa. These rates are lower than those in the West but the age standardized rates are higher than in other regions of the world. The attendant morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high. For example, failure of nocturnal dipping and microalbuminuria, predictive of vascular disease, occur relatively early in the course of hypertension and predispose to early vascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751993/the-triad-of-kidney-obesity-and-bariatric-surgery
#14
Talha H Imam, Karen J Coleman
There is an epidemic of obesity in the USA. Obesity significantly increases the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Multiple studies have shown overall health and mortalityrelated benefits of medical and surgical weight loss. Renal benefits of bariatric surgery include decrease in proteinuria and hyperfiltration. There have only been a few small studies in patients with abnormally low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that have shown improvements in GFR postsurgery over a short term. Long-term and larger scale studies are needed to see if renal benefits of weight loss are sustained in post-bariatric surgery patients...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738776/does-significant-renal-ablation-truly-and-invariably-lead-to-hyperfiltration-and-progressive-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Andrew Wang, Ramin Sam
It is generally believed that significant renal ablation leads to hyperfiltration and eventually progressively worsening chronic kidney disease. The data behind this belief have not been scrutinized intensively. More importantly, the above belief leads many physicians to manage patients differently than they otherwise would manage. Here, we examine the data behind whether hyperfiltration occurs when patients lose kidney mass (by excision or by disease) and whether the hyperfiltration is uniformly injurious.
October 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736813/longitudinal-changes-in-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-renal-fibrosis-and-biomarkers-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Zhi Su, Deborah Widomski, Ji Ma, Marian Namovic, Arthur Nikkel, Laura Leys, Lauren Olson, Katherine Salte, Diana Donnelly-Roberts, Timothy Esbenshade, Steve McGaraughty
BACKGROUND: Obese ZSF-1 rats display many features of human type II diabetes including nephropathy (DN). The study aimed to further understand the relevance of this model to DN, for which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal fibrosis and several urinary/tissue biomarkers was followed over 24 weeks in ZSF-1 rats. METHODS: Intact/sham or uninephrectomized male and female ZSF-1 rats were studied. GFR was measured by transdermal clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701452/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-renal-function-in-obese-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Kun Li, Jianan Zou, Zhibin Ye, Jianzhong Di, Xiaodong Han, Hongwei Zhang, Weijie Liu, Qinggui Ren, Pin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. METHODS: We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701167/metabolic-and-hormonal-determinants-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-renal-hemodynamics-in-severely-obese-individuals
#18
Edoardo Vitolo, Eleonora Santini, Antonio Salvati, Duccio Volterrani, Valerio Duce, Rosa Maria Bruno, Anna Solini
OBJECTIVE: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm) perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. METHODS: We measured GFR (mGFR) by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF) by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683625/association-of-increasing-gfr-with-change-in-albuminuria-in-the-general-population
#19
Toralf Melsom, Vidar Stefansson, Jørgen Schei, Marit Solbu, Trond Jenssen, Tom Wilsgaard, Bjørn O Eriksen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperfiltration at the single-nephron level has been proposed as an early stage of kidney dysfunction of different origins. Evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, because there is no method of measuring single-nephron GFR in humans. However, increased whole-kidney GFR in the same individual implies an increased single-nephron GFR, because the number of nephrons does not increase with age. We hypothesized that an increase in GFR would be associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio in a cohort of the general population...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679716/iohexol-plasma-clearance-for-measuring-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-clinical-practice-and-research-a-review-part-2-why-to-measure-glomerular-filtration-rate-with-iohexol
#20
Pierre Delanaye, Toralf Melsom, Natalie Ebert, Sten-Erik Bäck, Christophe Mariat, Etienne Cavalier, Jonas Björk, Anders Christensson, Ulf Nyman, Esteban Porrini, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Piero Ruggenenti, Elke Schaeffner, Inga Soveri, Gunnar Sterner, Bjørn Odvar Eriksen, Flavio Gaspari
A reliable assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of paramount importance in clinical practice as well as epidemiological and clinical research settings. It is recommended by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines in specific populations (anorectic, cirrhotic, obese, renal and non-renal transplant patients) where estimation equations are unreliable. Measured GFR is the only valuable test to confirm or confute the status of chronic kidney disease (CKD), to evaluate the slope of renal function decay over time, to assess the suitability of living kidney donors and for dosing of potentially toxic medication with a narrow therapeutic index...
October 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
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