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Azithromycine prophylaxis

Georgina F van den Berg, Charles Picavet, Rianne Hoopman, Patricia A Lohr, Eline L M Op de Coul
BACKGROUND: Women having a termination of pregnancy (TOP) have higher rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) than the general population. In this study, we explored CT treatment and prevention in Dutch TOP clinics in comparison to that provided in Great Britain (GB). METHODS: A qualitative study including 14 semi-structured interviews with health care professionals (HCPs) in TOP clinics (the Netherlands: 9, GB: 5). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed by thematic content analysis...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Alan T N Tita, Jeff M Szychowski, Kim Boggess, George Saade, Sherri Longo, Erin Clark, Sean Esplin, Kirsten Cleary, Ron Wapner, Kellett Letson, Michelle Owens, Adi Abramovici, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Gary Cutter, William Andrews
Background The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. Methods In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture...
September 29, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Piotr K Borkowski, Joanna Brydak-Godowska, Wojciech Basiak, Karolina Świtaj, Hanna Żarnowska-Prymek, Maria Olszyńska-Krowicka, Piotr Kajfasz, Daniel Rabczenko
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of intensive antifolate treatment, followed by secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) on the recurrence rate of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TRC). To investigate whether there are any other factors potentially predisposing for recurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 637 medical records of TRC patients, who had been treated in the years 1994-2013 were reviewed. All patients were treated with pyrimethamine /sulfadoxine one 25mg/500mg tablet daily (P/S 25/500mg) for 21 days with a double loading dose for the first two days...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hirminder Ubhi, Mitul Patel, Lisa Ludwig
AIM: Aims of the study included evaluation of outpatient antibiotic prescribing practices relating to good Antimicrobial Stewardship1 focusing on documentation of indication and duration. METHOD: Prescriptions dispensed at the Outpatient Pharmacy over a 6 week were evaluated. Data collected include patient's hospital identification in full, the antibiotic prescribed, duration of treatment, indication (in a specifically allocated area on the prescription) and route of administration, prescriber speciality and grade...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Rukiyat Adeola Abdus-Salam, Folasade Adenike Bello, Fatai A Fehintola, Ayodele O Arowojolu
CONTEXT: The benefit of malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy is threatened by emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial agents for chemoprophylaxis and treatment. AIM: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of azithromycin (AZ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for malaria prevention. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective comparative study of antenatal clinic attendees at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria...
April 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Hamed Basir Ghafouri, Morteza Zare, Azam Bazrafshan, Abbas Edalatkhah, Niloofar Abazarian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy of azithromycin versus cephalexin for infection prophylaxisis in patients with simple traumatic wounds managed at emergency department. METHOD: This randomized controlled trial compared short-course therapy of once-daily azithromycin (500 mg before the wound repair followed by 250 mg/day for 5 days) with cephalexin (1000 mg before wound repair followed by 250 mg every 6 hours for 5 days) in the treatment of patients with simple traumatic wounds...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
James L Rutkowski, Jonathan R Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Oral Implantology
J Limeres Posse, M Álvarez Fernández, J Fernández Feijoo, J Medina Henríquez, P B Lockhart, V H Chu, P Diz Dios
OBJECTIVES: Although controversy exists regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk of infective endocarditis, expert committees continue to publish recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of four antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of bacteraemia following dental extractions. METHODS: The study population included 266 adults requiring dental extractions who were randomly assigned to the following five groups: control (no prophylaxis); 1000/200 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate intravenously; 2 g of amoxicillin by mouth; 600 mg of clindamycin by mouth; and 600 mg of azithromycin by mouth...
July 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jonathan Hussain, Alexander Schlachterman, Amir Kamel, Anand Gupte
We present the unique case of adult hyperinsulinism hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA). This condition is rarely seen in children and even more infrequently in adults. A 27-year-old female with HI/HA, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, staring spells, and gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with diffuse abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, confusion, and sweating. She reported a history of significant nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which had been present intermittently over the past year. On examination, she was found to have a soft, nontender, and mildly distended abdomen without splenomegaly or masses...
January 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Erin Ward, Patrick Duff
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotics are of proven value in decreasing the frequency of postcesarean endometritis. The beneficial effect of prophylaxis is enhanced when the antibiotics are administered before the surgical incision as opposed to after the clamping of the umbilical cord. However, the optimal antibiotic regimen for prophylaxis has not been established firmly. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare 3 different antibiotic regimens for the prevention of postcesarean endometritis...
June 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tiphaine Gaillard, Jérôme Dormoi, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the biggest health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of malaria chemoprophylaxis. The emergence and rapid extension of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to various anti-malarial drugs has gradually limited the potential malaria therapeutics available to clinicians. In this context, macrolides and associated antibiotics based on similar mechanism of action like lincosamides constitute an interesting alternative in the treatment of malaria...
2016: Malaria Journal
Siddharth Sridhar, Kitty S C Fung, Jasper F W Chan, Jimmy Y W Lam, Eric K T Yip, Ivan F N Hung, Alan K L Wu, Tak-Lun Que, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes in non-HIV immunocompromised patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (dMAC) infections are unknown and the need for post-treatment secondary prophylaxis against MAC is uncertain in this setting. The objective of this study was to determine the need of continuing secondary anti-MAC prophylaxis in non-HIV patients after completing treatment of the primary dMAC episode. METHODS: We conducted a ten-year multi-center analysis of non-HIV immunosuppressed patients with dMAC infections in Hong Kong...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Igho J Onakpoya, Gail Hayward, Carl J Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in young children account for 1.4 million deaths annually worldwide. Antibiotics could be beneficial in preventing LRTIs in high-risk children, and may also help prevent school absenteeism and work days missed by children and/or carers. While it is well documented that the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for RTIs decreases over time, there are no reviews that describe the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent LRTIs in high-risk children aged 12 years and under...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Eskandarain Shafuddin, Graham D Mills, Mark D Holmes, Phillippa J Poole, Peter R Mullins, Peter N Black
BACKGROUND: Azithromycin prophylaxis has been shown to reduce COPD exacerbations but there is poor evidence for other antibiotics. We compared exacerbation rates in COPD patients with a history of frequent exacerbations (at least three moderate or severe COPD exacerbations in the past two years) during a 12-week treatment course and over a subsequent 48-week follow up period. RESULTS: 292 patients were randomised to one of three treatments for 12 weeks: roxithromycin 300 mg daily and doxycycline 100 mg daily (n = 101); roxithromycin 300 mg daily (n = 97); or matching placebos (n = 94)...
2015: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
Ruth Koepke, Michael L Bartholomew, Jens C Eickhoff, Roman A Ayele, Diane Rodd, Joan Kuennen, Jean Rosekrans, David M Warshauer, James H Conway, Jeffrey P Davis
BACKGROUND: During October 2011-December 2012, concurrent with a statewide pertussis outbreak, 443 Bordetella parapertussis infections were reported among Wisconsin residents. We examined clinical features of patients with parapertussis and the effect of antibiotic use for treatment and prevention. METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction results positive for B. parapertussis reported during October 2011-May 2012 were interviewed regarding presence and durations of pertussis-like symptoms and receipt of azithromycin treatment...
November 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Suellen Moli Yin, Ronald M Ferdman, Larry Wang, M Louise Markert, Jonathan S Tam
PURPOSE: Complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS) describes a subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome that have thymic aplasia, and thus are at risk for severe opportunistic infections. Patients with cDGS and mycobacterial infection have not previously been described. We present this case to illustrate that patients with cDGS are at risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial infections and to discuss further antimicrobial prophylaxis prior to thymic transplantation. METHODS: A 13-month old male was identified as T cell deficient by the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay on newborn screening, and was subsequently confirmed to have cDGS...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Rajesh Kunwar, Neeraj Sidana
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of streptococcal pneumonia among young recruits in military training centers are well-documented. A significant outbreak of pneumonia occurred between November 19, 2011 and February 4, 2012 among the young recruits of a large training center located in Southern India. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this investigation was to identify the cause of the outbreak, to control the outbreak at the earliest, and to provide future strategies for containing such an outbreak...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Public Health
Nisha Thampi, Ipek Gurol-Urganci, Natasha S Crowcroft, Beate Sander
BACKGROUND: Recent pertussis outbreaks have prompted re-examination of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategies, when immunization is not immediately protective. Chemoprophylaxis is recommended to household contacts; however there are concerns of clinical failure and significant adverse events, especially with erythromycin among infants who have the highest disease burden. Newer macrolides offer fewer side effects at higher drug costs. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of PEP strategies from the health care payer perspective...
2015: PloS One
Amelia L Sutton, Edward P Acosta, Kajal B Larson, Corenna D Kerstner-Wood, Alan T Tita, Joseph R Biggio
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum infections are polymicrobial and typically include Ureaplasma, an intracellular microbe that is treated by macrolides such as azithromycin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perinatal pharmacokinetics of azithromycin after a single preincision dose before cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty women who underwent scheduled cesarean delivery were assigned randomly to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin that was initiated 15, 30, or 60 minutes before incision and infused over 1 hour...
June 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Juan P Hincapié, Cesar A Castrillón, Fanny L Yepes, Natalia Roldan, María A Becerra, Sandra M Moreno, Jessika Consuegra, Adolfo Contreras, Javier E Botero
Current evidence suggests that periodontal infection may aggravate diabetes control. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the frequency with which Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected in patients with diabetes with the use of non-surgical therapy plus azithromycin in a randomized clinical trial. One hundred and five (105) patients with diabetes and chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: subgingival mechanical therapy with azithromycin, subgingival mechanical therapy with placebo and supragingival prophylaxis with azithromycin...
2014: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
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