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Azithromycine prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#1
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697108/economic-evaluation-of-adjunctive-azithromycin-prophylaxis-for-cesarean-delivery
#2
Lorie M Harper, Meredith Kilgore, Jeff M Szychowski, William W Andrews, Alan T N Tita
OBJECTIVE: To compare the costs associated with adjunctive azithromycin compared with standard cefazolin antibiotic prophylaxis alone for unscheduled and scheduled cesarean deliveries. METHODS: A decision analytic model was created to compare cefazolin alone with azithromycin plus cefazolin. Published incidences of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery were used to estimate the baseline incidence of surgical site infection in scheduled and unscheduled cesarean delivery using standard antibiotic prophylaxis...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690864/surgical-site-infections-after-cesarean-delivery-epidemiology-prevention-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Tetsuya Kawakita, Helain J Landy
Cesarean delivery (CD) is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States, accounting for 32% of all deliveries. Postpartum surgical site infection (SSI), wound infection and endometritis is a major cause of prolonged hospital stay and poses a burden to the health care system. SSIs complicate a significant number of patients who undergo CD - 2-7% will experience sound infections and 2-16% will develop endometritis. Many risk factors for SSI have been described. These include maternal factors (such as tobacco use; limited prenatal care; obesity; corticosteroid use; nulliparity; twin gestations; and previous CD), intrapartum and operative factors (such as chorioamnionitis; premature rupture of membranes; prolonged rupture of membranes; prolonged labor, particularly prolonged second stage; large incision length; subcutaneous tissue thickness > 3 cm; subcutaneous hematoma; lack of antibiotic prophylaxis; emergency delivery; and excessive blood loss), and obstetrical care on the teaching service of an academic institution...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669839/optimal-antimalarial-dose-regimens-for-chloroquine-in-pregnancy-based-on-population-pharmacokinetic-modelling
#4
Sam Salman, Francesca Baiwog, Madhu Page-Sharp, Kay Kose, Harin A Karunajeewa, Ivo Mueller, Stephen J Rogerson, Peter M Siba, Kenneth F Ilett, Timothy M E Davis
Despite extensive use and accumulated evidence of safety, there have been few pharmacokinetic studies from which appropriate chloroquine (CQ) dose regimens could be developed specifically for pregnant women. Such optimized CQ-based regimens, used as treatment for acute malaria or as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), may have a valuable role if parasite CQ sensitivity returns following reduced drug pressure. In this study, population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling was used to simultaneously analyze plasma concentration-time data for CQ and its active metabolite desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in 44 non-pregnant and 45 pregnant Papua New Guinean women treated with CQ and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) or azithromycin (AZI)...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520998/medications-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-travellers-diarrhea
#5
David N Taylor, Davidson H Hamer, David R Shlim
Background: . Travellers' diarrhea (TD) remains one of the most common illnesses encountered by travellers to less developed areas of the world. Because bacterial pathogens such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli , Campylobacter spp. and Shigella spp. are the most frequent causes, antibiotics have been useful in both prevention and treatment of TD. Methods.: Results of trials that assessed the use of medications for the prevention and treatment of TD were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE searches using search terms 'travellers' diarrhea', 'prevention' and 'treatment'...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438539/recurrent-acute-rhinosinusitis-prevention-by-azithromycin-in-children-with-nonallergic-rhinitis
#6
Jittima Veskitkul, Patcharaporn Wongkaewpothong, Tanita Thaweethamchareon, Kitirat Ungkanont, Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Punchama Pacharn, Pakit Vichyanond, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk
BACKGROUND: Recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (RARS) is characterized by multiple episodes of acute rhinosinusitis between which symptoms and signs resolve completely. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent RARS in children with nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of azithromycin to prevent RARS in children with NAR. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in NAR children (5-15 years) with RARS...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180002/quality-of-life-after-tonsillectomy-versus-azithromycin
#7
REVIEW
Diaa El Din Mohamed El Hennawi, Mohamed Rifaat Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Recurrent tonsillitis is a common disease with marked evidence of affecting children quality of life (QOL) such as their progression in school and increased burden to extended families. The aim of this study was to compare the QOL outcomes after conventional dissection tonsillectomy versus azithromycin treatment in controlling recurrent tonsillitis. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 184 children with recurrent tonsillitis randomly divided into two groups: Group A was subjected to conventional dissection tonsillectomy, whereas Group B received single 250 mg (children ≤25 kg) and 500 mg (children ≥25 kg) of oral azithromycin once weekly...
December 2016: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178058/risk-factors-for-postcesarean-maternal-infection-in-a-trial-of-extended-spectrum-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kim A Boggess, Alan Tita, Victoria Jauk, George Saade, Sherri Longo, Erin A S Clark, Sean Esplin, Kristin Cleary, Ronald Wapner, Kelli Letson, Michelle Owens, Sean Blackwell, Carmen Beamon, Jeffrey M Szychowski, William Andrews
OBJECTIVE: To identify maternal clinical risk factors for postcesarean maternal infection in a randomized clinical trial of preincision extended-spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a planned secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Patients were 24 weeks of gestation or greater and delivered by cesarean after a minimum of 4 hours of ruptured membranes or labor. All participants received standard preincision prophylaxis and were randomized to receive azithromycin or placebo...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130431/azithromycin-prophylaxis-for-laboring-mothers
#9
Jeffrey S Gerber, Theoklis E Zaoutis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128085/antiphospholipid-syndrome-with-anti%C3%AE-2glicoprotein-1-antibodies-as-the-cause-of-recurrent-tibial-vein-thrombosis-in-sapho-syndrome
#10
Hanna Przepiera-Będzak, Marek Brzosko
The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is defined by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with recurrent venous or arterial thromboembolism (1). SAPHO syndrome is a rare disease, characterized by specific clinical manifestations of synovitis, acne pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis. It is a disease that manifests with a combination of osseous and articular manifestations associated with skin lesions (2). Venous thrombosis complicating SAPHO syndrome seems to be uncommon with an unclear pathogenesis (3-9)...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106466/phototoxic-effect-of-topical-fluoroquinolones-administered-before-corneal-crosslinking-in-a-murine-model
#11
Victor E Reviglio, Matias Osaba, Gabriela Sambuelli, Irene C Kuo
PURPOSE: Corneal crosslinking by UV light (UV-CXL) has become a popular treatment for keratoconus and corneal ectasia. Fluoroquinolones (FQs), commonly administered topically before UV-CXL, are known to be phototoxic to the skin and lens. The purpose of this study was to investigate phototoxic effects of topical FQ treatment on murine corneas before UV-CXL, in which the corneal epithelium was kept intact. METHODS: Murine corneas were treated with various antibiotics with or without riboflavin before UV-CXL...
March 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076707/adjunctive-azithromycin-prophylaxis-for-cesarean-delivery
#12
LETTER
Alan T N Tita, Kim Boggess, George Saade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061753/treatment-efficacy-of-azithromycin-1%C3%A2-g-single-dose-versus-doxycycline-100%C3%A2-mg-twice-daily-for-7%C3%A2-days-for-the-treatment-of-rectal-chlamydia-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#13
Andrew Lau, Fabian Kong, Christopher K Fairley, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Catriona Bradshaw, Mark Boyd, Janaki Amin, Peter Timms, Sepehr Tabrizi, David G Regan, David A Lewis, Anna McNulty, Jane S Hocking
BACKGROUND: Rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmissible infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) with diagnosis rates continuing to rise. Current treatment guidelines recommend either azithromycin 1 g single dose or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days. However, there are increasing concerns about treatment failure with azithromycin. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare treatment efficacy of azithromycin versus doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia in MSM...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034388/evidence-appraisal-of-tita-atn-szychowski-jm-boggess-k-et%C3%A2-al-adjunctive-azithromycin-prophylaxis-for-cesarean-delivery-n-engl-j-med-2016-375-1231-1241
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007427/prophylaxis-with-topical-azithromycin-against-lyme-borreliosis
#15
Eugene D Shapiro, Gary P Wormser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701927/chlamydia-screening-and-prophylactic-treatment-in-termination-of-pregnancy-clinics-in-the-netherlands-and-great-britain-a-qualitative-study
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Georgina F van den Berg, Charles Picavet, Rianne Hoopman, Patricia A Lohr, Eline L M Op de Coul
BACKGROUND: Women having a termination of pregnancy (TOP) have higher rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) than the general population. In this study, we explored CT treatment and prevention in Dutch TOP clinics in comparison to that provided in Great Britain (GB). METHODS: A qualitative study including 14 semi-structured interviews with health care professionals (HCPs) in TOP clinics (the Netherlands: 9, GB: 5). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed by thematic content analysis...
December 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682034/adjunctive-azithromycin-prophylaxis-for-cesarean-delivery
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Alan T N Tita, Jeff M Szychowski, Kim Boggess, George Saade, Sherri Longo, Erin Clark, Sean Esplin, Kirsten Cleary, Ron Wapner, Kellett Letson, Michelle Owens, Adi Abramovici, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Gary Cutter, William Andrews
BACKGROUND: The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. METHODS: In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture...
September 29, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542116/the-impact-of-short-term-intensive-antifolate-treatment-with-pyrimethamine-and-sulfadoxine-and-antibiotics-followed-by-long-term-secondary-antifolate-prophylaxis-on-the-rate-of-toxoplasmic-retinochoroiditis-recurrence
#18
Piotr K Borkowski, Joanna Brydak-Godowska, Wojciech Basiak, Karolina Świtaj, Hanna Żarnowska-Prymek, Maria Olszyńska-Krowicka, Piotr Kajfasz, Daniel Rabczenko
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of intensive antifolate treatment, followed by secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) on the recurrence rate of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TRC). To investigate whether there are any other factors potentially predisposing for recurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 637 medical records of TRC patients, who had been treated in the years 1994-2013 were reviewed. All patients were treated with pyrimethamine /sulfadoxine one 25mg/500mg tablet daily (P/S 25/500mg) for 21 days with a double loading dose for the first two days...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540225/how-well-do-outpatient-prescriptions-adhere-to-good-antimicrobial-stewardship
#19
Hirminder Ubhi, Mitul Patel, Lisa Ludwig
AIM: Aims of the study included evaluation of outpatient antibiotic prescribing practices relating to good Antimicrobial Stewardship1 focusing on documentation of indication and duration. METHOD: Prescriptions dispensed at the Outpatient Pharmacy over a 6 week were evaluated. Data collected include patient's hospital identification in full, the antibiotic prescribed, duration of treatment, indication (in a specifically allocated area on the prescription) and route of administration, prescriber speciality and grade...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424614/a-comparative-study-of-azithromycin-and-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-as-prophylaxis-against-malaria-in-pregnancy
#20
Rukiyat Adeola Abdus-Salam, Folasade Adenike Bello, Fatai A Fehintola, Ayodele O Arowojolu
CONTEXT: The benefit of malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy is threatened by emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial agents for chemoprophylaxis and treatment. AIM: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of azithromycin (AZ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for malaria prevention. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective comparative study of antenatal clinic attendees at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria...
April 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
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