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Merritt D Kinon, Rani Nasser, Jonathan Nakhla, Rupen Desai, Jessica R Moreno, Reza Yassari, Carlos A Bagley
Pediatric emergency physicians must have a high clinical suspicion for atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS), particularly when a child presents with neck pain and an abnormal head posture without the ability to return to a neutral position. As shown in the neurosurgical literature, timely diagnosis and swift initiation of treatment have a greater chance of treatment success for the patient. However, timely treatment is complicated because torticollis can result from a variety of maladies, including: congenital abnormalities involving the C1-C2 joint or the surrounding supporting muscles and ligaments, central nervous system abnormalities, obstetric palsies from brachial plexus injuries, clavicle fractures, head and neck surgery, and infection...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Mitsuhiro Kamiyoshihara, Takashi Ibe, Natsuko Kawatani, Fumi Ohsawa, Ryohei Yoshikawa, Kimihiro Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT)-guided lung needle marking is useful to identify pulmonary nodules. However, certain complications sometimes trigger severe after-effects or death. So, we present a convenient and safe method by which small pulmonary nodules can be identified using a particular dye [2% (w/v) gentian violet]. METHODS: A patient is initially placed in the lateral operative position. Under CT guidance, a "magic marker" is used to identify the skin above the pulmonary nodule...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Athanasios Raikos, Thomas English, Omar Khalid Yousif, Mandeep Sandhu, Allan Stirling
PURPOSE: The great auricular point (GAP) marks the exit of the great auricular nerve at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It is a key landmark for the identification of the spinal accessory nerve, and its intraoperative localization is vital to avoid neurological sequelae. This study delineates the topography and surface anatomy landmarks that used to localize the GAP. METHODS: Thirty cadaveric heminecks were dissected on a layer-by-layer approach...
October 15, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Thandar Aye, Thanh Trung Phan, Douglas Findlay Muir, Nicholas John Linker, Richard Hartley, Andrew John Turley
AIM: This new laser facilitated 'inside-out' technique was used for transvenous pacemaker insertion in a pacemaker-dependent patient with bilateral subclavian occlusion and a failed epicardial system who is not suitable for a transfemoral approach. METHOD AND RESULTS: Procedure was undertaken under general anaesthesia with venous access obtained from right femoral vein and left axillary vein. 7F multipurpose catheter was used to enter proximal edge of the occluded segment of subclavian vein via femoral approach, which then supported stiff angioplasty wires and microcatheters to tunnel into the body of occlusion...
October 14, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Erhan Şükür, Yusuf Öztürkmen, Yunus Emre Akman, Mustafa Güngör
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and functional results of hook plate fixation in Neer type 2 distal clavicle fractures. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 16 patients (11 males, 5 females) who were diagnosed with Neer type 2 distal clavicle fractures and treated with hook plate fixation between 2013 and 2014. Mean age was 38 (range: 27-61), and mean follow-up time was 14.3 (range: 12-18) months. Complications seen on radiographs were implant failure and subacromial osteolysis...
October 11, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Natalie R Langley, Sandra Cridlin
Secular changes refer to short-term biological changes ostensibly due to environmental factors. Two well-documented secular trends in many populations are earlier age of menarche and increasing stature. This study synthesizes data on maximum clavicle length and fusion of the medial epiphysis in 1840-1980 American birth cohorts to provide a comprehensive assessment of developmental and morphological change in the clavicle. Clavicles from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (n = 354), McKern and Stewart Korean War males (n = 341), Forensic Anthropology Data Bank (n = 1,239), and the McCormick Clavicle Collection (n = 1,137) were used in the analysis...
January 2016: Human Biology
Sean McIntire, Lee Boujie, John Leasiolagi
Injuries involving rupture of the pectoralis major are relatively rare. When they do occur, it is mostly frequently in a young, athletic man. The most common cause is weight lifting that results in eccentric muscle contraction (muscle contraction against an overbearing force, leading to muscle lengthening)-specifically, the bench press. Other mechanisms for this injury include forceful abduction and external rotation of the arm. Injury can occur anywhere along the pectoralis major from its medial origin on the sternum and clavicle to its lateral tendinous insertion on the humerus...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
J Christoph Katthagen, Dimitri S Tahal, Travis J Menge, Marilee P Horan, Peter J Millett
HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of open resection arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the sternoclavicular (SC) joint on pain levels, functional outcomes, and return to sport. METHODS: Patients from a single surgeon's practice who underwent open resection arthroplasty (maximum 10-mm resection) for SC osteoarthritis or prearthritic changes between November 2006 and November 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. This was an outcomes study with prospectively collected data...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Jorge Delgado, Diego Jaramillo, Nancy A Chauvin
Increased physical activity in childhood has resulted in a large number of sports-related injuries. Although there is overlap between the sports-related injuries seen in pediatric and adult patients, important differences exist in the injury patterns of pediatric patients. These differences are related to the continuous changes in the developing skeleton and its relationship with adjacent soft tissues. The imbalance in strength between the growing bones and the nearby tendons and ligaments makes the bones prone to acute and chronic injuries...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Prakashchandra Shetty, Satheesha B Nayak, Rajesh Thangarajan, Melanie Rose D'Souza
Persistence of jugulocephalic vein is one of the extremely rare variations of the cephalic vein. Knowledge of such a variation is of utmost importance to orthopedic surgeons while treating the fractures of the clavicle, head and neck surgeons, during surgery of the lower part of neck, for cardiothoracic surgeons and radiologists during catheterization and cardiac device placement. We report the persistent jugulocephalic vein in an adult male cadaver, observed during the routine dissection classes. The right cephalic vein ascended upwards, superficial to the lateral part of the clavicle and terminated into the external jugular vein...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Mélanie A Frelat, Michael Coquerelle, Erik Trinkaus
OBJECTIVES: Whereas variation of modern human adult body size and shape has been widely studied in the context of ecogeographical clines, little is known about the differential growth patterns of transverse and longitudinal dimensions among human populations. Our study explored the ontogenetic variation of those body proportions in modern humans. METHODS: We compared results from four different approaches to study cross-sectional skeletal samples of Africans (n = 43), Amerindians (n = 69) and Europeans (n = 40) from 0 to 14 years of age...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Stefanie Wintrich, Gerd Horneff
OBJECTIVE: To determine patient characteristics, clinical presentation, pattern of involvement, treatment, and outcome of patients with chronic non-bacterial osteitis (CNO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive cases of CNO were analyzed at a single center for pediatrics and adolescent medicine from 2006 to 2013 in terms of patient characteristics, clinical presentation, pattern of involvement, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: We identified 32 children aged 1...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Hayat Aynaou, Imane Skiker, Hanane Latrech
INTRODUCTION: Pycnodysostosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by osteosclerosis and bone fragility. The clinical aspects are varied including short stature, acro-osteolysis of distal phalanges, and dysplasia of the clavicles. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of this disease are very clear. The head is usually large, a beaked nose, obtuse mandibular angle, and both maxilla and mandible are hypoplastic. Dental abnormalities are common. We report a case with the typical clinical and radiological characteristics of the Pycnodysostosis associated with a conductive hearing loss, an association rarely reported...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Naveen Sharma, Avinash Mandloi, Ashish Agrawal, Shailendra Singh
INTRODUCTION: The clavicle, humerus and acromioclavicular (AC) joint separately are very commonly involved in traumatic injuries around the shoulder. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation with distal clavicle fracture is a well recognized entity in clinical practice. AC joint dislocation with mid shaft clavicle fracture is uncommon and only few cases have been reported in literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe an acromioclavicular dislocation with ipsilateral mid shaft clavicle, mid shaft humerus and coracoid process fracture...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Matthew T Provencher
Although superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) repairs have a relatively high success rate, emerging evidence suggests that this is not always the case. The authors of "Subsequent Shoulder Surgery Following Isolated Arthroscopic SLAP Repair" reveal that 1 in 10 people needed additional surgery within 3 years after SLAP repair-mainly for disorders of the rotator cuff, biceps, and distal clavicle. This underscores the fact that SLAP tears rarely occur in isolation and that the initial diagnosis and management may require more than just SLAP work...
October 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Ram R Kalagiri, Vinayak Govande, Martha Hemingway, Madhava R Beeram
Bilateral congenital pseudoarthrosis of the clavicles is extremely rare. We report a case of this entity presenting in the neonatal period. We highlight the importance of the differential diagnosis when clavicular fracture shows no evidence of healing or occurs bilaterally.
October 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Modesta Makungu, Wencke M du Plessis, Michelle Barrows, Hermanus B Groenewald, Katja N Koeppel
The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Patricia M Lambert, Martin H Welker
OBJECTIVES: Bioarchaeological research has documented a general decline in health with the transition from foraging to farming, primarily with respect to changing patterns of morbidity. Less is known about changes in injury risk, an aspect of health more obviously tied to particular landscapes and behaviors associated with different subsistence regimes. The purpose of this research is to evaluate several hypotheses emerging from the ideal free distribution model (Fretwell & Lucas, ) that predict injury risk based on subsistence-specific practices and land use patterns...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Arkady Rutkovskiy, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Ingvar Jarle Vaage
Ossification is a tightly regulated process, performed by specialized cells called osteoblasts. Dysregulation of this process may cause inadequate or excessive mineralization of bones or ectopic calcification, all of which have grave consequences for human health. Understanding osteoblast biology may help to treat diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, calcific heart valve disease, osteoporosis, and many others. Osteoblasts are bone-building cells of mesenchymal origin; they differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors, either directly or via an osteochondroprogenitor...
September 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Choon Sung Lee, Chang Ju Hwang, Eic Ju Lim, Dong-Ho Lee, Jae Hwan Cho
OBJECTIVE Postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) is a critical consideration after corrective surgery for a double thoracic curve (Lenke Type 2); however, the radiographic factors related to PSI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the radiographic factors related to PSI after corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in patients with a double thoracic curve. METHODS This study included 80 patients with Lenke Type 2 AIS who underwent corrective surgery. Patients were grouped according to the presence [PSI(+)] or absence [PSI(-)] of shoulder imbalance at the final follow-up examination (differences of 20, 15, and 10 mm were used)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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