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Capsaicin and obesity

Sharon Varghese, Peter Kubatka, Luis Rodrigo, Katarina Gazdikova, Martin Caprnda, Julia Fedotova, Anthony Zulli, Peter Kruzliak, Dietrich Büsselberg
Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Masayuki Saito, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita
Since the recent re-discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, this thermogenic tissue has attracted increasing interest. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. Cold exposure activates and recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The stimulatory effects of cold are mediated through transient receptor potential channels (TRP), most of which are also chemesthetic receptors for various food ingredients...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Lei Ding, Feng Zhang, Ming-Xia Zhao, Xing-Sheng Ren, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) causes adipose afferent reflex (AAR) and sympathetic activation. This study is to investigate the effects of AAR on lipolysis and the mechanisms of attenuated lipolysis response to enhanced AAR in obesity. Obesity was caused by high-fat diet for 12 weeks in rats. AAR was induced by injection of capsaicin into inguinal WAT or electrical stimulation of epididymal WAT afferent nerve. AAR caused sympathetic activation, which was enhanced in obesity rats. AAR increased cAMP levels and PKA activity, promoted hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin phosphorylation, and increased lipolysis in WAT, which were attenuated in obesity rats...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shaherin Basith, Minghua Cui, Sunhye Hong, Sun Choi
Capsaicin is the most predominant and naturally occurring alkamide found in Capsicum fruits. Since its discovery in the 19th century, the therapeutic roles of capsaicin have been well characterized. The potential applications of capsaicin range from food flavorings to therapeutics. Indeed, capsaicin and few of its analogues have featured in clinical research covered by more than a thousand patents. Previous records suggest pleiotropic pharmacological activities of capsaicin such as an analgesic, anti-obesity, anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and neuro-protective functions...
July 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Victor Fattori, Miriam S N Hohmann, Ana C Rossaneis, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Waldiceu A Verri
In this review, we discuss the importance of capsaicin to the current understanding of neuronal modulation of pain and explore the mechanisms of capsaicin-induced pain. We will focus on the analgesic effects of capsaicin and its clinical applicability in treating pain. Furthermore, we will draw attention to the rationale for other clinical therapeutic uses and implications of capsaicin in diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, airway diseases, itch, gastric, and urological disorders...
June 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Heather L Rossi, Orlando Lara, Ana Recober
Migraine affects predominantly women. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest that obesity is a risk factor for migraine and this association is influenced by sex. However, the biological basis for this bias is unclear. To address this issue, we assessed light avoidant behavior, a surrogate of photophobia, in female C57BL/6J mice fed regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat). We first assessed sex differences in basal photophobia in 20-25-week-old mice and found that both obese and lean females spent significantly less time in light than their male counterparts...
September 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Padmamalini Baskaran, Vivek Krishnan, Jun Ren, Baskaran Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The growing epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases necessitates the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat such diseases. Current research suggests that browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes energy expenditure to counter obesity. Recent research suggests that activation of the TRPV1 channels counters obesity. However, the mechanism by which activation of TRPV1 channels counters obesity still remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We evaluated the effect of dietary capsaicin to induce a browning program in WAT by activating TRPV1 channels to prevent diet-induced obesity using wild-type and TRPV1(-/-) mouse models...
August 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
H W Shin, E S Jang, B S Moon, J J Lee, D E Lee, C H Lee, C S Shin
The Korean traditional hot sauce gochujang has been reported to have biological activities. Different kinds of gochujang products were prepared based on combinations of a fungal rice koji with two kinds of bacterial soybean mejus. Diets that included gochujang products were fed to rats and anti-obesity effects were investigated. Gochujang products reduced body weight gains, epididymal fat weights, and triglyceride levels in the serum and the liver. Effects were exerted by the diet that included the non-fermented gochujang mixture, increased using a fungal rice koji, and further enhanced using a bacterial soybean meju...
February 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Fang Sun, Shiqiang Xiong, Zhiming Zhu
Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels...
2016: Nutrients
Ph D Aneta Stefanidis, Neal Forrest, Wendy A Brown, John B Dixon, Paul B O'Brien, Juliane Kampe, Brian J Oldfield
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms via which adjustable gastric band (AGB) surgery provides effective and durable weight loss remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study defines the role of sensory vagal fibers in the efficacy of the adjustable gastric banding using capsaicin to eliminate unmyelinated afferent fibers in the vagus nerve in a rodent model. SETTING: University. METHODS: A miniaturized AGB was fitted at the gastroesophageal junction of obese rats with either intact or sensory fiber depleted vagus nerves where deafferentation involved intraperitoneal (125 mg/kg) or topical (1% to the stomach) application of capsaicin...
May 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Cheng-Hui Liu, Xian-Le Bu, Jun Wang, Tao Zhang, Yang Xiang, Lin-Lin Shen, Qing-Hua Wang, Bo Deng, Xin Wang, Chi Zhu, Xiu-Qing Yao, Meng Zhang, Hua-Dong Zhou, Yan-Jiang Wang
BACKGROUND: Capsaicin-rich diets are common worldwide. Capsaicin has been shown to have favorable effects on various diseases including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, obesity, hypertension, cancer, and gastrointestinal and inflammatory diseases. The impact of capsaicin on Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlations of capsaicin intake with cognition and blood markers of AD...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Zhen Shi, Yuan-Fang Wang, Gui-Hua Wang, Yu-Long Wu, Chun-Lei Ma
Increasing evidence indicates a link between sympathetic nervous system activation and obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The adipose afferent reflex (AAR) is a sympathoexcitatory reflex that is activated by afferent neurotransmission from the white adipose tissue (WAT). This study aimed to investigate whether the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is an important component of the central neurocircuitry of the AAR. In anesthetized rats, the discharge activity of individual PVH neurons was recorded in vivo...
May 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Nicholas P Gannon, Emily L Lambalot, Roger A Vaughan
There is increasing interest in dietary chemicals that may provide benefits for pathologies such as diabetes and obesity. Capsaicinoids found in chili peppers and pepper extracts, are responsible for the "hot" or "spicy" sensation associated with these foods. Capsaicinoid consumption is also associated with enhanced metabolism, making them potentially therapeutic for metabolic disease by promoting weight loss. This review summarizes much of the current experimental evidence (ranging from basic to applied investigations) of the biochemical and molecular metabolic effects of capsaicinoids in metabolically significant cell types...
May 2016: BioFactors
Kana Ohyama, Yoshihito Nogusa, Kosaku Shinoda, Katsuya Suzuki, Makoto Bannai, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes emerge postnatally within the white adipose tissue in response to certain environmental cues, such as chronic cold exposure. Because of its highly recruitable nature and relevance to adult humans, beige adipocytes have gained much attention as an attractive cellular target for antiobesity therapy. However, molecular circuits that preferentially promote beige adipocyte biogenesis remain poorly understood. We report that a combination of mild cold exposure at 17°C and capsinoids, a nonpungent analog of capsaicin, synergistically and preferentially promotes beige adipocyte biogenesis and ameliorates diet-induced obesity...
May 2016: Diabetes
Sidney J Stohs, Vladimir Badmaev
Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non-stimulatory or a combination thereof...
May 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
A Tremblay, H Arguin, S Panahi
Capsaicin is the molecule that is responsible for the pungency of hot peppers. It stimulates the sympathoadrenal system that mediates the thermogenic and anorexigenic effects of capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids have been found to accentuate the impact of caloric restriction on body weight loss. Some studies have also shown that capsinoids, the non-pungent analogs of capsaicinoids, increase energy expenditure. Capsaicin supplementation attenuates or even prevents the increase in hunger and decrease in fullness as well as the decrease in energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which normally result from energy restriction...
August 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Masayuki Saito
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of sympathetically activated adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis, thereby being involved in the regulation of energy balance and body fatness. Recent radionuclide imaging studies have revealed the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure and contributes to cold-induced increase in whole-body energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT is lower in older and obese individuals. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation...
2015: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Tatsuo Watanabe, Yuko Terada
There are several thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels including capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Food components activating TRPV1 inhibit body fat deposition through sympathetic nerve stimulation. TRPA1 is another pungency sensor for pungent compounds and is mainly coexpressed with TRPV1 in sensory nerve endings. Therefore, TRPA1 activation is expected to have an anti-obesity effect similar to TRPV1 activation. We have searched for agonists for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in vitro from Asian spices by the use of TRPV1- and TRPA1-expressing cells...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Jipeng Maa, Lifang Yang, Yanyan Maa, Xiaowu Wang, Jun Ren, Jian Yang
Cardiovascular disease is still the most frequent cause of death in both developed and developing countries while metabolic syndrome and myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury are the common risk factors responsible for the impaired cardiac function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are non-selective cation channels and sense a broad range of stimuli from physical conditions such as stretch to chemicals including capsaicin. The diverse studies have revealed multifunctional roles of TRP channels in the physiological conditions and various diseases while some members of TRP channel superfamily are demonstrated to participate in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic diseases and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury...
October 18, 2015: Current Drug Targets
Mahmoud Bahmani, Zohreh Eftekhari, Kourosh Saki, Ezatollah Fazeli-Moghadam, Mahyar Jelodari, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Obesity is an important disorders due to which 25 million deaths occur annually worldwide. Synthetic drugs for weight loss have low efficacy and high side effects. Apart from synthetic drugs in modern medicine, various other methods including the use of herbal medications are used to induce weight loss. Cambodia hoodia, green tea, Citrus aurantium, white beans, fenugreek, caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, yohimbine, chitosan, fitostreols, and guar gum have been studied in clinical trials and their effects have been confirmed...
July 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
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