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capsaicin and

Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Cassandra E Deering-Rice, Chris Stockmann, Erin G Romero, Zhenyu Lu, Darien Shapiro, Brian L Stone, Bernhard Fassl, Flory Nkoy, Derek A Uchida, Robert M Ward, John M Veranth, Christopher A Reilly
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of TRPV1 would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared to the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1 I315M and T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles, due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for I585 in activation by particles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zi-Xin Zhang, Shu-Niu Zhao, Gao-Feng Liu, Zu-Mei Huang, Zhen-Mu Cao, Shan-Han Cheng, Shi-Sen Lin
The Indian pepper 'Guijiangwang' (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world's hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper's expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) treatment strategy is a breakthrough in the field of cardiovascular pharmacology as it has the potential to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying intracellular pathways have not been widely explored. The present study intends to explore the possible role of TRPV1 channels in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus (4 cycles in succession) was delivered by tying the blood pressure cuff at the inguinal level of the rat...
October 17, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Le Xie, Guang-Hong Xiang, Tao Tang, Yan Tang, Ling-Yun Zhao, Dong Liu, You-Ren Zhang, Jin-Tian Tang, Shen Zhou, Da-Hua Wu
Human glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumor and one of the most invasive and aggressive tumors, which, even with treatments including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, often relapses and exhibits resistance to conventional treatment methods. Developing novel strategies to control human glioma is, therefore, an important research focus. The present study investigated the mechanism of apoptosis induction in U251 human glioma cells by capsaicin (Cap) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), the major pungent ingredients of red chili pepper, using the Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, transmission electron microscopy analysis, flow cytometry analysis, laser scanning confocal microscope analysis and immunohistochemical staining...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Amrita Saxena, Richa Raghuwanshi, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Harikesh B Singh
Indian cuisine is renowned and celebrated throughout the world for its spicy treat to the tongue. The flavor and aroma of the food generated due to the use of spices creates an indelible experience. Among the commonly utilized spices to stimulate the taste buds in Indian food, whole or powdered chilli constitutes an inevitable position. Besides being a vital ingredient of of Indian food, chilli occupy an important position as an economic commodity, a major share in Indian economy. Chilli also has uncountable benefits to human health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
David M Simpson, Jessica Robinson-Papp, Joanna Van, Malcolm Stoker, Hélène Jacobs, Robert J Snijder, Diederik S Schregardus, Stephen K Long, Bruno Lambourg, Nathaniel Katz
: This 12-week study evaluated the efficacy and safety of capsaicin 8% patch versus placebo patch in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN). Patients aged ≥18 years with PDPN were randomized (1:1) to one 30-minute treatment (capsaicin 8% patch or placebo patch) to painful areas of feet. Overall, 369 patients were randomized (capsaicin 8% patch, n=186; placebo patch, n=183). Percentage reduction in average daily pain score from baseline to between Weeks 2-8 (the primary endpoint) was statistically significant for capsaicin 8% patch versus placebo (-27...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Zahira Fernández-Bedmar, Angeles Alonso-Moraga
: The purpose of this study is to determine the nutraceutic potential of different Capsicum sp, capsaicin, capsanthin and lutein and provide data in order to clarify the conflicting results obtained for capsaicin by different authors. To achieve these objectives, in vivo (geno/antigenotoxicity and lifespan assays in the animal model Drosophila) and in vitro (cytotoxicity and DNA-fragmentation assays in HL60 promyelocytic cell line) assays were carried out. Results showed that i) none of the tested substances were genotoxic except green hot pepper and capsaicin at the highest tested concentration (5 mg/mL and 11...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jianguo Zhuang, Xiuping Gao, Franklin Gao, Fadi Xu
We tested the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the caudomedial nucleus tractus solitarius (cmNTS) are important for the ventilatory responses to stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), the carotid body-mediated hypoxia, and hypercapnia independent of the carotid body. First, we used immunohistochemistry to map MORs distribution in the caudal medulla. Then we compared the effects of intra-cmNTS microinjection of DAMGO (a MOR agonist) with or without a combination of CTAP (a MOR antagonist) on the ventilatory responses to: 1) right atrial injection of capsaicin (to stimulation of PCFs) and 2) acute hypoxia (HVR, to stimulate the carotid body) in awake intact rats; and 3) hypercapnia (HCVR) in the carotid body ablated rats...
October 12, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
W Ma, B St-Jacques, U Rudakou, Y N Kim
BACKGROUND: Persistent peripheral sensitization contributes to chronic pain. Plasticity of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) induced by pro-inflammatory mediators contributes to sensitization. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enriched in injured tissues is known not only directly to sensitize DRG neurons, but also to potentiate sensitizing effects of other pain mediators such as capsaicin and its receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). It remains unknown whether PGE2 potentiates TRPV1 activity by stimulating its synthesis, cell surface and axonal trafficking in DRG neurons...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
L Buntinx, T Voets, B Morlion, L Vangeel, M Janssen, E Cornelissen, J Vriens, J de Hoon, E Levtchenko
Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation due to loss of function of the lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS). The most common mutation in cystinosis patients of Northern Europe consists of a 57-kb deletion. This deletion not only inactivates the CTNS gene but also extends into the non-coding region upstream of the start codon of the TRPV1 gene, encoding the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1. To evaluate the consequences of the 57-kb deletion on functional TRPV1 expression, we compared thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivity of cystinosis patients with matched healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Damir Omerbašić, Ewan St J Smith, Mirko Moroni, Johanna Homfeld, Ole Eigenbrod, Nigel C Bennett, Jane Reznick, Chris G Faulkes, Matthias Selbach, Gary R Lewin
The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Manuel P Pereira, Sebastian Mühl, Esther M Pogatzki-Zahn, Konstantin Agelopoulos, Sonja Ständer
In recent years, measurement of the intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density has gained relevance in the diagnostics of chronic pruritus. This method allows the objectification and quantification of a small-fiber neuropathy, which may manifest clinically with pruritus, pain or dysesthetic sensory symptoms, such as burning, stinging and tingling sensations or numbness. Upon suspicion of a small-fiber neuropathy as a cause for chronic pruritus, targeted diagnostic procedures are essential for the early detection of the neuroanatomical changes...
October 11, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
Tao Liu, Gang Wang, Huangheng Tao, Zhonghua Yang, Yongzhi Wang, Zhe Meng, Rui Cao, Yu Xiao, Xinghuan Wang, Jiajie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the tumors most refractory to chemotherapy to date. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin (CPS), a natural active ingredient of green and red peppers, and a ligand of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), has been showed potential in suppression of tumorigenesis of several cancers. Nonetheless, the anti-cancer activity of CPS has never been studied in human RCC. METHODS: CCK8 analysis, LDH release activity and ROS generation analysis, flow cytometry analysis, and nuclear staining test were performed to test the influence of CPS in cultured cells in vitro, meanwhile western blot was done to uncover the precise molecular mechanisms...
October 12, 2016: BMC Cancer
Maxi Weyer, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Dana Krinke, Franziska D Zitzmann, Kerstin Hill, Michael Schaefer, Andrea A Robitzki
The analysis of receptor activity, especially in its native cellular environment, has always been of great interest to evaluate its intrinsic but also downstream biological activity. An important group of cellular receptors are ion channels. Since they are involved in a broad range of crucial cell functions, they represent important therapeutic targets. Thus, novel analytical techniques for the quantitative monitoring and screening of biological receptor activity are of great interest. In this context, we developed an impedance spectroscopy-based label-free and non-invasive monitoring system that enabled us to analyze the activation of the transient receptor potential channel Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in detail...
October 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sara L Morales-Lázaro, Itzel Llorente, Félix Sierra-Ramírez, Ana E López-Romero, Miguel Ortíz-Rentería, Barbara Serrano-Flores, Sidney A Simon, León D Islas, Tamara Rosenbaum
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
André Schwambach Vieira, Dionéia Araldi, Elayne Vieira Dias, Filipe César do Prado, Claudia Herrera Tambeli, Carlos Amilcar Parada
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the major signaling molecules involved in hyperalgesia, acting directly on nociceptors and resulting in the activation of PKA and PKC. Once active, these kinases phosphorylate many cellular proteins, resulting in changes on nociceptors sensorial transduction properties. The Janus Kinases (JAKs) are a family of intracellular signaling molecules generally associated with cytokine signaling, and their activity can be increased in nociceptors after peripheral inflammation. However, there are no evidences of JAKs direct involvement in PGE2 mediated sensitization of nociceptors...
October 4, 2016: Life Sciences
Fei Wang, Jiayao Zhao, Da Liu, Tong Zhao, Zeming Lu, Lin Zhu, Lingling Cao, Jiaxing Yang, Jingji Jin, Yong Cai
Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent component of chili pepper and is being evaluated for use against numerous types of tumors. Although CAP is indicated to target multiple signaling pathways, exact mechanisms of how it disturb cancer cell metablism remain obscure. Recent studies revealed Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) serves as a potential target of CAP in cancer cells, indicating a direct regulation of cancer cell histone acetylation by capsaicin. The present study evaluated the effect of CAP on gastric cancer (GC) cell lines to understand the mechanism of cell growth inhibition...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Jun Ren, Xiuqing Ding, John J Greer
Inhalation of capsaicin based sprays can cause central respiratory depression and lethal apneas. There are contradictory reports regarding the sites of capsaicin action. Further, an understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced apneas and the development of pharmacological interventions are lacking. The main objectives were to perform a systematic study of the mechanisms of action of capsaicin-induced apneas and to provide insights relevant to pharmacological intervention. In vitro and in vivo rat and TRPV1-null mouse models were used to measure respiratory parameters and seizure-like activity in the presence of capsaicin and compounds that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Muhammad Laklouk, Ganesan Baranidharan
Capsaicin is a naturally occurring irritant active ingredient found in hot peppers. It is a ligand for transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptors, which are found in nociceptive nerve terminals in the skin. Initial exposure to topical capsaicin leads to excitation of these receptors, release of vasoactive mediators, erythema, intense burning, pain, and thereafter desensitization of sensory neurons resulting in inhibition of pain transmission. Capsaicin 8% has been licensed for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia pain in recent years...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
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