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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621758/brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-parkinson-s-disease-pd
#1
REVIEW
Paul Tuite
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to serve as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the type or types of biomarker it could provide remain to be determined. At this time there is not sufficient sensitivity or specificity for MRI to serve as an early diagnostic biomarker, i.e., it is unproven in its ability to determine if a single individual is normal, has mild PD, or has some other forms of degenerative parkinsonism. However there is accumulating evidence that MRI may be useful in staging and monitoring disease progression (staging biomarker), and also possibly as a means to monitor pathophysiological aspects of disease and associated response to treatments, i...
June 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617379/-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-the-substantia-nigra-neurons-of-the-human
#2
D E Korzhevskii, I P Grigor'ev, E G Sukhorukova, V V Gusel'nikova
AIM: To determine the cytochemical characteristics of unchanged neurons of the human substantia nigra using a wide range of immunocytochemical markers some of which (glutamate decarboxylase-65, PGP 9.5, non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, alpa-tubulin) have never been used for study of human dopaminergic neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fragments of human midbrain (17 men and women, aged from 28 to 78 years) from the archives of the Department of General and Specific Morphology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine were used...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552865/new-development-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Satoshi Orimo
New methods for the diagnosis and new treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) were explained. As imaging tools, neuromelanin imaging using brain MRI, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy, dopamine transporter scintigraphy, and transcranial sonography were introduced. Olfactory dysfunction and REM sleep behavior disorders (RBD), which are important non-motor symptoms, and the new Clinical Criteria for PD launched by Movement Disorder Society (MDS) were also described. Investigative new medications and new anti-PD medications, which recently became available in Japan, were introduced...
May 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537985/neuroimaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-focus-on-substantia-nigra-and-nigro-striatal-projection
#4
Daniela Frosini, Mirco Cosottini, Duccio Volterrani, Roberto Ceravolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on clinical features; however, unmet need is an imaging signature for Parkinson disease and the early differential diagnosis with atypical parkinsonisms. A summary of the molecular imaging and MRI recent evidences for Parkinson disease diagnosis will be presented in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: The nigro-striatal dysfunction explored by dopamine transporter imaging is not a mandatory diagnostic criterion for Parkinson disease, recent evidence supported its utility as in-vivo proof of degenerative parkinsonisms, and there might be compensatory mechanisms leading to an early overestimation...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533189/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-odorants-through-their-ectopic-receptors-in-pigmented-cells
#5
REVIEW
Barbara Pavan, Antonio Capuzzo, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Several olfactory receptors (ORs) have been characterized outside the olfactory neuroepithelium in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, where they were implicated in the recognition of diverse chemical signals. ORs have been found to regulate melanogenesis in skin melanocytes, and OR expression has been found in the human brain nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, where production of melanin occurs as neuromelanin and can change with age; OR expression is downregulated in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we propose several odorants as new functional ligands to ORs expressed in non-olfactory pigmented cells as dopaminergic neurons and melanocytes, where, by acting on cAMP-induced melanin production, they could help to counteract melanogenic and neurodegenerative dysfunctions, including melanoma and Parkinson's disease...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469642/neuromelanin-one-of-the-most-overlooked-molecules-in-modern-medicine-is-not-a-spectator
#6
REVIEW
Robert L Haining, Cindy Achat-Mendes
The loss of pigmented neurons from the human brain has long been the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Neuromelanin (NM) in the pre-synaptic terminal of dopamine neurons is emerging as a primary player in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders including PD. This mini-review discusses the interactions between neuromelanin and different molecules in the synaptic terminal and describes how these interactions might affect neurodegenerative disorders including PD. Neuromelanin can reversibly bind and interact with amine containing neurotoxins, e...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460588/neuromelanin-in-parkinsonian-disorders-an-update
#7
Antonio Martin-Bastida, Sara Pietracupa, Paola Piccini
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment that accumulates linearly with aging in substantia nigra (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC). The dual protective and toxic role of NM has been hypothesized according to its intraneuronal or extraneuronal deposition. The melanized dopaminergic neurons in SN and LC seem to have special vulnerability to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). The paramagnetic properties of NM due to its association to metals like iron induce T1 prolongation; hence the measurement of SN-sensitive contrast could be a useful diagnostic biomarker in neurodegenerative disease like PD and other atypical parkinsonisms...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420950/metallothionein-copper-and-alpha-synuclein-in-alpha-synucleinopathies
#8
REVIEW
Yuho Okita, Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Michael Goulding, Roger S Chung, Peter Faller, Dean L Pountney
Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that function by metal exchange to regulate the bioavailability of metals, such as zinc and copper. Copper functions in the brain to regulate mitochondria, neurotransmitter production, and cell signaling. Inappropriate copper binding can result in loss of protein function and Cu(I)/(II) redox cycling can generate reactive oxygen species. Copper accumulates in the brain with aging and has been shown to bind alpha-synuclein and initiate its aggregation, the primary aetiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD), and other alpha-synucleinopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389783/erratum-to-correlation-between-pathology-and-neuromelanin-mr-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-notice-of-redundant-publication
#9
Shinichiro Kitao, Eiji Matsusue, Shinya Fujii, Fuminori Miyoshi, Toshio Kaminou, Shinsuke Kato, Hisao Ito, Toshihide Ogawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370449/the-role-of-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders-pushing-the-boundaries-forward
#10
REVIEW
Stéphane Lehericy, David E Vaillancourt, Klaus Seppi, Oury Monchi, Irena Rektorova, Angelo Antonini, Martin J McKeown, Mario Masellis, Daniela Berg, James B Rowe, Simon J G Lewis, Caroline H Williams-Gray, Alessandro Tessitore, Hartwig R Siebner
Historically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has contributed little to the study of Parkinson's disease (PD), but modern MRI approaches have unveiled several complementary markers that are useful for research and clinical applications. Iron- and neuromelanin-sensitive MRI detect qualitative changes in the substantia nigra. Quantitative MRI markers can be derived from diffusion weighted and iron-sensitive imaging or volumetry. Functional brain alterations at rest or during task performance have been captured with functional and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352978/transcranial-sonography-in-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-associated-neurodegeneration
#11
Marta Skowronska, Tomasz Kmiec, Anna Czlonkowska, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
INTRODUCTION: Although the nature of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity in transcranial sonography (TCS) examinations remains unclear, many studies have shown associations between hyperechogenicity and iron accumulation. The role of iron in basal ganglia hyperechogenicity raises interest in the use of TCS in forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Here we analyzed TCS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among patients affected by one type of NBIA, mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN)...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292181/synthesis-structure-characterization-and-evaluation-in-microglia-cultures-of-neuromelanin-analogues-suitable-for-modeling-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Emanuele Ferrari, Andrea Capucciati, Ilaria Prada, Fabio Andrea Zucca, Giulia D'Arrigo, Daniele Pontiroli, Maria Grazia Bridelli, Michela Sturini, Luigi Bubacco, Enrico Monzani, Claudia Verderio, Luigi Zecca, Luigi Casella
In the substantia nigra of human brain, neuromelanin (NM) released by degenerating neurons can activate microglia with consequent neurodegeneration, typical of Parkinson's disease (PD). Synthetic analogues of NM were prepared to develop a PD model reproducing the neuropathological conditions of the disease. Soluble melanin-protein conjugates were obtained by melanization of fibrillated β-lactoglobulin (fLG). The melanic portion of the conjugates contains either eumelanic (EufLG) or mixed eumelanic/pheomelanic composition (PheofLG), the latter better simulating natural NMs...
March 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289798/-helpful-instrumental-examinations-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#13
U Walter, H Zach, I Liepelt-Scarfone, W Maetzler
BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) can be challenging. In these cases, additional diagnostic methods are available that can help to improve diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVES, MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article provides an overview of currently available and promising novel ancillary methods for the early and differential diagnosis of iPD. RESULTS: Imaging tools, such as 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are mainly used for the differentiation between iPD and symptomatic parkinsonian syndromes (PS)...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285345/on-the-role-of-dt-diaphorase-inhibition-in-aminochrome-induced-neurotoxicity-in-vivo
#14
Andrea Herrera-Soto, Gabriela Díaz-Veliz, Sergio Mora, Patricia Muñoz, Pablo Henny, Harry W M Steinbusch, Juan Segura-Aguilar
Dopamine oxidation in the pathway leading to neuromelanin formation generates the ortho-quinone aminochrome, which is potentially neurotoxic but normally rapidly converted by DT-diaphorase to nontoxic leukoaminochrome. However, when administered exogenously into rat striatum, aminochrome is able to produce damage to dopaminergic neurons. Because of a recent report that substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) tyrosine hydroxylase (T-OH) levels were unaltered by aminochrome when there was cell shrinkage of dopaminergic neurons along with a reduction in striatal dopamine release, the following study was conducted to more accurately determine the role of DT-diaphorase in aminochrome neurotoxicity...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283599/dopamine-transporter-imaging-does-not-predict-the-number-of-nigral-neurons-in-parkinson-disease
#15
Laura Saari, Katri Kivinen, Maria Gardberg, Juho Joutsa, Tommi Noponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
OBJECTIVE: To examine possible associations between in vivo brain dopamine transporter SPECT imaging and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neuronal survival in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Nigral neuron numbers were calculated for 18 patients (11 patients with neuropathologically confirmed PD) who had been examined with dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT before death. Correlation analyses between SNc tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and neuromelanin-containing neuron counts and DAT striatal specific binding ratios (SBRs) were performed with semiquantitative region of interest-based and voxel-based analyses...
April 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240402/in-vivo-detection-of-lateral-ventral-tier-nigral-degeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Daniel E Huddleston, Jason Langley, Jan Sedlacik, Kai Boelmans, Stewart A Factor, Xiaoping P Hu
The objective of this study was to measure neuromelanin-sensitive MRI contrast changes in the lateral-ventral tier of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease (PD). Histopathological studies of PD have demonstrated both massive loss of melanized dopamine neurons and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neurodegeneration is most profound in the lateral-ventral tier of this structure. We have previously shown in both healthy controls and individuals with PD that neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and iron-sensitive MRI contrast regions in substantia nigra overlap...
May 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215623/higher-locus-coeruleus-mri-contrast-is-associated-with-lower-parasympathetic-influence-over-heart-rate-variability
#17
Mara Mather, Hyun Joo Yoo, David V Clewett, Tae-Ho Lee, Steven G Greening, Allison Ponzio, Jungwon Min, Julian F Thayer
The locus coeruleus (LC) is a key node of the sympathetic nervous system and suppresses parasympathetic activity that would otherwise increase heart rate variability. In the current study, we examined whether LC-MRI contrast reflecting neuromelanin accumulation in the LC was associated with high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a measure reflecting parasympathetic influences on the heart. Recent evidence indicates that neuromelanin, a byproduct of catecholamine metabolism, accumulates in the LC through young and mid adulthood, suggesting that LC-MRI contrast may be a useful biomarker of individual differences in habitual LC activation...
April 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190394/neuroprotective-effect-of-atremorine-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinson%C3%A2-s-disease
#18
Ivan Carrera, Lucia Fernandez-Novoa, Carolina Sampedro, Ramon Cacabelos
Parkinsonian-like state was generated in mice by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to study the effects of Atremorine in Parkinson's disease (PD) related neuropathology and behavior deficits. This devastating disease is caused by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Numerous therapeutic strategies have been developed to protect neuronal damage, although no effective treatment for PD has been validated yet. This study tested the preventive and therapeutic neuroprotective effect of Atremorine on MPTP parkinsonian mouse model...
February 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160151/neuromelanin-mri-is-useful-for-monitoring-motor-complications-in-parkinson-s-and-park2-disease
#19
REVIEW
Taku Hatano, Ayami Okuzumi, Koji Kamagata, Kensuke Daida, Daisuke Taniguchi, Masaaki Hori, Hiroyo Yoshino, Shigeki Aoki, Nobutaka Hattori
Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Recently, specific T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla was reported to visualize neuromelanin (NM)-related contrast of dopaminergic neurons. Using NM-MRI, we analyzed whether disease severity and motor complications (MC) are associated with the degree of dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with idiopathic PD (PD) and PARK2. We examined 27 individuals with PD, 11 with PARK2, and a control group of 18...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122879/18f-av-1451-positron-emission-tomography-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#20
Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Young T Hong, Kieren S J Allinson, David Williamson, Robin J Borchert, Saber Sami, Thomas E Cope, W Richard Bevan-Jones, P Simon Jones, Robert Arnold, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Elijah Mak, Li Su, Tim D Fryer, Franklin I Aigbirhio, John T O'Brien, James B Rowe
The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer 18F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer's pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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