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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763613/the-importance-of-mitophagy-in-maintaining-mitochondrial-function-in-u373mg-cells-bafilomycin-a1-restores-aminochrome-induced-mitochondrial-damage
#1
Sandro Huenchuguala, Patricia Muñoz, Juan Segura-Aguilar
Aminochrome, an orthoquinone formed during the dopamine oxidation of neuromelanin, is neurotoxic because it induces mitochondria dysfunction, protein degradation dysfunction (both autophagy and proteasomal systems), α-synuclein aggregation to neurotoxic oligomers, neuroinflammation, and oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aminochrome-induced autophagy/lysosome dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction in U373MGsiGST6 cells. Aminochrome (75 μM) induces mitochondrial dysfunction as determined by (i) a significant decrease in ATP levels (70%; P < 0...
August 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761417/on-the-role-of-endogenous-neurotoxins-and-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Juan Segura-Aguilar
For 50 years ago was introduced L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in Parkinson's disease treatment and during this significant advances has been done but what trigger the degeneration of the nigrostriatal system remain unknown. There is a general agreement in the scientific community that mitochondrial dysfunction, protein degradation dysfunction, alpha-synuclein aggregation to neurotoxic oligomers, neuroinflammation, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress are involved in the loss of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743460/high-resolution-in-vivo-imaging-of-human-locus-coeruleus-by-magnetization-transfer-mri-at-3t-and-7t
#3
Nikos Priovoulos, Heidi I L Jacobs, Dimo Ivanov, Kamil Uludag, Frans R J Verhey, Benedikt A Poser
Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a neuromelanin-rich brainstem structure that is the source of noradrenaline in the cortex and is thought to modulate attention and memory. LC imaging in vivo is commonly performed with a 2D T1-weighted Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) MRI sequence, an approach that suffers from several drawbacks at 3T, including long acquisition times and highly anisotropic spatial resolution. In this study, we developed a high-resolution Magnetization Transfer (MT) sequence for LC imaging at both 7T and 3T and compared its performance to a TSE sequence...
July 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743197/evaluation-of-parkinson-s-disease-by-neuromelanin-sensitive-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-123-i-fp-cit-spect
#4
Keita Kuya, Toshihide Ogawa, Yuki Shinohara, Mana Ishibashi, Shinya Fujii, Naoko Mukuda, Yoshio Tanabe
Background Both neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NmMRI) and (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTSCAN) assist the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there have been few studies investigating a correlation between them. Purpose To correlate the utility of NmMRI and DaTSCAN and to evaluate the relationship between both imaging findings and the Unified PD rating scale part III (UPDRS III) score for the diagnosis and management of PD. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with PD who underwent both NmMRI and DaTSCAN were included...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738061/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-tensor-based-morphometry-in-the-mptp-non-human-primate-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Michel Modo, William R Crum, Madeline Gerwig, Anthony C Vernon, Priya Patel, Michael J Jackson, Sarah Rose, Peter Jenner, Mahmoud M Iravani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder producing a variety of motor and cognitive deficits with the causes remaining largely unknown. The gradual loss of the nigrostriatal pathway is currently considered the pivotal pathological event. To better understand the progression of PD and improve treatment management, defining the disease on a structural basis and expanding brain analysis to extra-nigral structures is indispensable. The anatomical complexity and the presence of neuromelanin, make the use of non-human primates an essential element in developing putative imaging biomarkers of PD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671143/substantia-nigra-neuromelanin-as-an-imaging-biomarker-of-disease-progression-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Margherita Fabbri, Sofia Reimão, Miguel Carvalho, Rita G Nunes, Daisy Abreu, Leonor Correia Guedes, Raquel Bouça, Patricia P Lobo, Catarina Godinho, Miguel Coelho, Nilza C Gonçalves, Mario Miguel Rosa, Angelo Antonini, Joaquim J Ferreira
BACKGROUND: A specific T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence has been shown to detect substantia nigra (SN) neuromelanin (NM) signal changes that accurately discriminate Parkinson's disease (PD) patients from controls, even in early disease stages. However, it is unclear what happens to these SN changes in later disease stages and if they can be a marker of disease progression. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the pattern of SN-NM area loss and contrast ratio (CR) intensity changes in late-stage PD (LSPD) compared to earlier disease stages...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655632/normative-data-of-dopaminergic-neurotransmission-functions-in-substantia-nigra-measured-with-mri-and-pet-neuromelanin-dopamine-synthesis-dopamine-transporters-and-dopamine-d2-receptors
#7
Hiroshi Ito, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Fumitoshi Kodaka, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Yoko Ikoma, Hitoshi Shimada, Yasuyuki Kimura, Chie Seki, Hitoshi Kubo, Shiro Ishii, Harumasa Takano, Tetsuya Suhara
The central dopaminergic system is of major importance in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the normative data of dopaminergic neurotransmission functions in the midbrain, consisting of neuromelanin, dopamine synthesis, dopamine transporters and dopamine D2 receptors, were constructed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). PET studies with L-[β-(11)C]DOPA, [(18)F]FE-PE2I and [(11)C]FLB457 and MRI studies were performed on healthy young men...
June 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621758/brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-parkinson-s-disease-pd
#8
REVIEW
Paul Tuite
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to serve as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the type or types of biomarker it could provide remain to be determined. At this time there is not sufficient sensitivity or specificity for MRI to serve as an early diagnostic biomarker, i.e., it is unproven in its ability to determine if a single individual is normal, has mild PD, or has some other forms of degenerative parkinsonism. However there is accumulating evidence that MRI may be useful in staging and monitoring disease progression (staging biomarker), and also possibly as a means to monitor pathophysiological aspects of disease and associated response to treatments, i...
June 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617379/-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-the-substantia-nigra-neurons-of-the-human
#9
D E Korzhevskii, I P Grigor'ev, E G Sukhorukova, V V Gusel'nikova
AIM: To determine the cytochemical characteristics of unchanged neurons of the human substantia nigra using a wide range of immunocytochemical markers some of which (glutamate decarboxylase-65, PGP 9.5, non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, alpa-tubulin) have never been used for study of human dopaminergic neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fragments of human midbrain (17 men and women, aged from 28 to 78 years) from the archives of the Department of General and Specific Morphology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine were used...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552865/new-development-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Satoshi Orimo
New methods for the diagnosis and new treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) were explained. As imaging tools, neuromelanin imaging using brain MRI, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy, dopamine transporter scintigraphy, and transcranial sonography were introduced. Olfactory dysfunction and REM sleep behavior disorders (RBD), which are important non-motor symptoms, and the new Clinical Criteria for PD launched by Movement Disorder Society (MDS) were also described. Investigative new medications and new anti-PD medications, which recently became available in Japan, were introduced...
May 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537985/neuroimaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-focus-on-substantia-nigra-and-nigro-striatal-projection
#11
Daniela Frosini, Mirco Cosottini, Duccio Volterrani, Roberto Ceravolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on clinical features; however, unmet need is an imaging signature for Parkinson disease and the early differential diagnosis with atypical parkinsonisms. A summary of the molecular imaging and MRI recent evidences for Parkinson disease diagnosis will be presented in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: The nigro-striatal dysfunction explored by dopamine transporter imaging is not a mandatory diagnostic criterion for Parkinson disease, recent evidence supported its utility as in-vivo proof of degenerative parkinsonisms, and there might be compensatory mechanisms leading to an early overestimation...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533189/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-odorants-through-their-ectopic-receptors-in-pigmented-cells
#12
REVIEW
Barbara Pavan, Antonio Capuzzo, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Several olfactory receptors (ORs) have been characterized outside the olfactory neuroepithelium in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, where they were implicated in the recognition of diverse chemical signals. ORs have been found to regulate melanogenesis in skin melanocytes, and OR expression has been found in the human brain nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, where production of melanin occurs as neuromelanin and can change with age; OR expression is downregulated in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we propose several odorants as new functional ligands to ORs expressed in non-olfactory pigmented cells as dopaminergic neurons and melanocytes, where, by acting on cAMP-induced melanin production, they could help to counteract melanogenic and neurodegenerative dysfunctions, including melanoma and Parkinson's disease...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469642/neuromelanin-one-of-the-most-overlooked-molecules-in-modern-medicine-is-not-a-spectator
#13
REVIEW
Robert L Haining, Cindy Achat-Mendes
The loss of pigmented neurons from the human brain has long been the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Neuromelanin (NM) in the pre-synaptic terminal of dopamine neurons is emerging as a primary player in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders including PD. This mini-review discusses the interactions between neuromelanin and different molecules in the synaptic terminal and describes how these interactions might affect neurodegenerative disorders including PD. Neuromelanin can reversibly bind and interact with amine containing neurotoxins, e...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460588/neuromelanin-in-parkinsonian-disorders-an-update
#14
Antonio Martin-Bastida, Sara Pietracupa, Paola Piccini
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment that accumulates linearly with aging in substantia nigra (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC). The dual protective and toxic role of NM has been hypothesized according to its intraneuronal or extraneuronal deposition. The melanized dopaminergic neurons in SN and LC seem to have special vulnerability to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). The paramagnetic properties of NM due to its association to metals like iron induce T1 prolongation; hence the measurement of SN-sensitive contrast could be a useful diagnostic biomarker in neurodegenerative disease like PD and other atypical parkinsonisms...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420950/metallothionein-copper-and-alpha-synuclein-in-alpha-synucleinopathies
#15
REVIEW
Yuho Okita, Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Michael Goulding, Roger S Chung, Peter Faller, Dean L Pountney
Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that function by metal exchange to regulate the bioavailability of metals, such as zinc and copper. Copper functions in the brain to regulate mitochondria, neurotransmitter production, and cell signaling. Inappropriate copper binding can result in loss of protein function and Cu(I)/(II) redox cycling can generate reactive oxygen species. Copper accumulates in the brain with aging and has been shown to bind alpha-synuclein and initiate its aggregation, the primary aetiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD), and other alpha-synucleinopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389783/erratum-to-correlation-between-pathology-and-neuromelanin-mr-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-notice-of-redundant-publication
#16
Shinichiro Kitao, Eiji Matsusue, Shinya Fujii, Fuminori Miyoshi, Toshio Kaminou, Shinsuke Kato, Hisao Ito, Toshihide Ogawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370449/the-role-of-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders-pushing-the-boundaries-forward
#17
REVIEW
Stéphane Lehericy, David E Vaillancourt, Klaus Seppi, Oury Monchi, Irena Rektorova, Angelo Antonini, Martin J McKeown, Mario Masellis, Daniela Berg, James B Rowe, Simon J G Lewis, Caroline H Williams-Gray, Alessandro Tessitore, Hartwig R Siebner
Historically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has contributed little to the study of Parkinson's disease (PD), but modern MRI approaches have unveiled several complementary markers that are useful for research and clinical applications. Iron- and neuromelanin-sensitive MRI detect qualitative changes in the substantia nigra. Quantitative MRI markers can be derived from diffusion weighted and iron-sensitive imaging or volumetry. Functional brain alterations at rest or during task performance have been captured with functional and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352978/transcranial-sonography-in-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-associated-neurodegeneration
#18
Marta Skowronska, Tomasz Kmiec, Anna Czlonkowska, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
INTRODUCTION: Although the nature of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity in transcranial sonography (TCS) examinations remains unclear, many studies have shown associations between hyperechogenicity and iron accumulation. The role of iron in basal ganglia hyperechogenicity raises interest in the use of TCS in forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Here we analyzed TCS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among patients affected by one type of NBIA, mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN)...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292181/synthesis-structure-characterization-and-evaluation-in-microglia-cultures-of-neuromelanin-analogues-suitable-for-modeling-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Emanuele Ferrari, Andrea Capucciati, Ilaria Prada, Fabio Andrea Zucca, Giulia D'Arrigo, Daniele Pontiroli, Maria Grazia Bridelli, Michela Sturini, Luigi Bubacco, Enrico Monzani, Claudia Verderio, Luigi Zecca, Luigi Casella
In the substantia nigra of human brain, neuromelanin (NM) released by degenerating neurons can activate microglia with consequent neurodegeneration, typical of Parkinson's disease (PD). Synthetic analogues of NM were prepared to develop a PD model reproducing the neuropathological conditions of the disease. Soluble melanin-protein conjugates were obtained by melanization of fibrillated β-lactoglobulin (fLG). The melanic portion of the conjugates contains either eumelanic (EufLG) or mixed eumelanic/pheomelanic composition (PheofLG), the latter better simulating natural NMs...
March 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289798/-helpful-instrumental-examinations-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#20
U Walter, H Zach, I Liepelt-Scarfone, W Maetzler
BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) can be challenging. In these cases, additional diagnostic methods are available that can help to improve diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVES, MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article provides an overview of currently available and promising novel ancillary methods for the early and differential diagnosis of iPD. RESULTS: Imaging tools, such as 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are mainly used for the differentiation between iPD and symptomatic parkinsonian syndromes (PS)...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
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