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organic photovoltaic

Yun Lin, Yang Bai, Yanjun Fang, Zhaolai Chen, Shuang Yang, Xiaopeng Zheng, Shi Tang, Ye Liu, Jingjing Zhao, Jinsong Huang
Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have been shown to be more stable than their three-dimensional (3D) counterparts due to the protection of the organic ligands. Herein a method is introduced to form 2D/3D stacking structures by the reaction of 3D perovskite with n-Butylamine (BA). Different from regular treatment with n-Butylammonium iodide (BAI) where 2D perovskite with various layers form, the reaction of BA with MAPbI3 only produce (BA)2PbI4, which has better protection due to more organic ligands in (BA)2PbI4 than the mixture of 2D perovskites...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Silvia Mariotti, Oliver S Hutter, Laurie J Phillips, Peter J Yates, Biswajit Kundu, Ken Durose
In this manuscript, the inorganic perovskite CsPbI2Br is investigated as a photovoltaic material that offers higher stability than the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials. It is demonstrated that CsPbI2Br does not irreversibly degrade to its component salts as in the case of methylammonium lead iodide but instead is induced (by water vapor) to transform from its metastable brown cubic (1.92 eV band gap) phase to a yellow phase having a higher band gap (2.85 eV). This is easily reversed by heating to 350 °C in a dry environment...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrey Yu Sosorev, Dmitry Yu Godovsky, Dmitry Yu Paraschuk
The modeling of organic solar cells (OSCs) can provide a roadmap for their further improvement. Many OSC models have been proposed in recent years; however, the impact of the key intermediates from photons to electricity-hot charge-transfer (CT) states-on the OSC efficiency is highly ambiguous. In this study, we suggest an analytical kinetic model for OSC that considers a two-step charge generation via hot CT states. This hot kinetic model allowed us to evaluate the impact of different material parameters on the OSC performance: the driving force for charge separation, optical bandgap, charge mobility, geminate recombination rate, thermalization rate, average electron-hole separation distance in the CT state, dielectric permittivity, reorganization energy and charge delocalization...
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Deli Shen, Aiying Pang, Yafeng Li, Jie Dou, Mingdeng Wei
In this study, metal-organic frameworks, as an interfacial layer, were introduced into perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for the first time. An interface modified with the metal-organic framework ZIF-8 efficiently enhanced perovskite crystallinity and grain sizes, and the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs was significantly improved, resulting in a maximum PCE of 16.99%.
January 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jong Baek Park, Mehmet Isik, Hea Jung Park, In Hwan Jung, David Mecerreyes, Do-Hoon Hwang
Interfacial layers play a critical role in building up the ohmic contact between the electrodes and functional layers in organic photovoltaic solar cells. These layers are based on either inorganic oxides (ZnO, TiO2) or water-soluble organic polymers such as poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)-alt-(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] (PFN) and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE). In this work, we have developed a series of novel poly(ionic liquid) non-conjugated block copolymers for improving the performance of inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) by acting as work function modifiers of indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Haydar Taylan Turan, Oğuzhan Kucur, Birce Kahraman, Seyhan Salman, Viktorya Aviyente
80 different push-pull type organic chromophores which possess Donor-Acceptor (D-A) and Donor-Thiophene-Acceptor-Thiophene (D-T-A-T) structures have been systematically investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G* level. The introduction of thiophene (T) in the chain has allowed us to monitor the effect of π-spacers. Benchmark studies on the methodology have been carried out to predict the HOMO and LUMO energies and optical band gaps of the D-A systems accurately...
January 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Praveen Naik, Rui Su, Mohamed R Elmorsy, Ahmed El-Shafei, Airody Vasudeva Adhikari
Herein, we report the design and synthesis of three new un-symmetrical metal-free carbazole based organic dyes, E1-3 with A-π-D-π-A architecture, as effective di-anchoring sensitizers in DSSCs. The new entities comprise carbazole as a donor scaffold connected to three different units, viz. cyano acetic acid, 2,4-thiazolidinedione and barbituric acid as acceptor/anchoring units via vinylene and phenylene as π-spacers at 3- and 6-positions of the carbazole ring, respectively. Photophysical, electrochemical and theoretical studies were carried out in order to assess their feasibility as active sensitizers...
January 16, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Sholeh Kazemifard, Leila Naji, Faramarz Afshar Taromi
Ternary blend (TB) strategy has been considered as an effective method to enhance the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we report on TB-based PSCs containing two donor materials; poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and Rhodamine B (RhB) laser organic dye, and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as an acceptor. The influence of RhB weight percentage and injection volume was extensively studied. To gain insight into the influences of RhB on the photovoltaic performance of PSCs, physicochemical and optical properties of TBs were compared with those of BHJ binary blend as a standard...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Fatih Ongul, Sureyya Aydin Yuksel, Cagdas Allahverdi, Sinem Bozar, Mehmet Kazici, Serap Gunes
In this study, the high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with stearic acid were synthesized in a solvent and then purified four times by using the precipitation and redissolution process. The average size of the synthesized CdSe NCs was determined ~3.0nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement and their corresponding optical band edge energy was also calculated as ~2.1eV using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells based on a ternary system including P3HT, PCBM and CdSe NCs at different weight concentrations (0wt%, 0...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Iris Elvira, Juan F Muñoz-Martínez, Álvaro Barroso, Cornelia Denz, José B Ramiro, Angel García-Cabañes, Fernando Agulló-López, Mercedes Carrascosa
Optical tools for manipulation and trapping of micro- and nano-objects are a fundamental issue for many applications in nano- and biotechnology. This work reports on the use of one such method, known as photovoltaic optoelectronics tweezers, to orientate and organize cylindrical microcrystals, specifically elongated zeolite L, on the surface of Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal plates. Patterns of aligned zeolites have been achieved through the forces and torques generated by the bulk photovoltaic effect. The alignment patterns with zeolites parallel or perpendicular to the substrate surface are highly dependent on the features of light distribution and crystal configuration...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Alberto Fabrizio, Clémence Corminboeuf
In the last two decades, linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT) has become one of the most widely used approaches for the computation of the excited-state properties of atoms and molecules. Despite its success in describing the photochemistry and the photophysics of a vast majority of molecular systems, its domain of applicability has been limited by several substantial drawbacks. Commonly identified problems of LR-TDDFT include the correct description of Rydberg states, charge-transfer excited states, doubly excited states, and nearly degenerate states...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tae Woong Kim, Satoshi Uchida, Tomonori Matsushita, Ludmila Cojocaru, Ryota Jono, Kohei Kimura, Daiki Matsubara, Manabu Shirai, Katsuji Ito, Hiroaki Matsumoto, Takashi Kondo, Hiroshi Segawa
Organometal halide perovskites have attracted widespread attention as the most favorable prospective material for photovoltaic technology because of their high photoinduced charge separation and carrier transport performance. However, the microstructural aspects within the organometal halide perovskite are still unknown, even though it belongs to a crystal system. Here direct observation of the microstructure of the thin film organometal halide perovskite using transmission electron microscopy is reported. Unlike previous reports claiming each phase of the organometal halide perovskite solely exists at a given temperature range, it is identified that the tetragonal and cubic phases coexist at room temperature, and it is confirmed that superlattices composed of a mixture of tetragonal and cubic phases are self-organized without a compositional change...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Pei Cheng, Rui Wang, Jingshuai Zhu, Wenchao Huang, Sheng-Yung Chang, Lei Meng, Pengyu Sun, Hao-Wen Cheng, Meng Qin, Chenhui Zhu, Xiaowei Zhan, Yang Yang
Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yu Bi, Santanu Pradhan, Shuchi Gupta, Mehmet Zafer Akgul, Alexandros Stavrinadis, Gerasimos Konstantatos
Developing low-cost photovoltaic absorbers that can harvest the short-wave infrared (SWIR) part of the solar spectrum, which remains unharnessed by current Si-based and perovskite photovoltaic technologies, is a prerequisite for making high-efficiency, low-cost tandem solar cells. Here, infrared PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells employing a hybrid inorganic-organic ligand exchange process that results in an external quantum efficiency of 80% at 1.35 µm are reported, leading to a short-circuit current density of 34 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 7...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yuli Yin, Yong Zhang, Liancheng Zhao
Polymer solar cells have received considerable attention due to the advantages of low material cost, tunable band gaps, ultralight weight, and high flexible properties, and they have been a promising organic photovoltaic technology for alternative non-renewable fossil fuels for the past decade. Inspired by these merits, numerous state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic materials have been constructed. Among them, indaceno-based polymer materials have made an impact in obtaining an impressive power conversion efficiency of more than 11%, which shows the momentous potential of this class of materials for commercial applications...
January 4, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Brahim Aissa, Mourad Nedil, Jens Kroeger, Adnan Ali, Rima J Isaifan, Rachid Essehli, Khaled Mahmoud
Hybrid organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on conjugated polymers photoactive materials are promising candidates for flexible, high-performance and low-cost energy sources owing to their inexpensive materials, cost-effective processing, and ease of fabrication by simple solution processes. However, the modest PV performance obtained to date -in particular the low power conversion efficiency (PCE)- has impeded the large scale deployment of OPV cells. The low PCE in OPV solar cells has been mainly attributed to low carrier mobility, which is closely correlated to the transport diffusion length of the charge carriers within the photoactive layers...
January 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Zach D Seibers, Thinh P Le, Youngmin Lee, Enrique D Gomez, S Michael Kilbey
Despite tremendous progress in using additives to enhance the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices, significant challenges remain in controlling the microstructure of the active layer, such as at internal donor-acceptor interfaces. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of low molecular weight poly(3-hexylthiophene)s (low-MW P3HT) to the P3HT/fullerene active layer increases device performance up to 36% over an unmodified control device. Low MW P3HT chains ranging in size from 1.6 to 8...
January 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joël Teuscher, Jan C Brauer, Andrey Stepanov, Alicia Solano, Ariadni Boziki, Majed Chergui, Jean-Pierre Wolf, Ursula Rothlisberger, Natalie Banerji, Jacques-E Moser
Electron transfer and subsequent charge separation across donor-acceptor heterojunctions remain the most important areas of study in the field of third-generation photovoltaics. In this context, it is particularly important to unravel the dynamics of individual ultrafast processes (such as photoinduced electron transfer, carrier trapping and association, and energy transfer and relaxation), which prevail in materials and at their interfaces. In the frame of the National Center of Competence in Research "Molecular Ultrafast Science and Technology," a research instrument of the Swiss National Science Foundation, several groups active in the field of ultrafast science in Switzerland have applied a number of complementary experimental techniques and computational simulation tools to scrutinize these critical photophysical phenomena...
November 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
Sara S M Fernandes, M Cidália R Castro, Ana Isabel Pereira, Adélio Mendes, Carlos Serpa, João Pina, Licínia L G Justino, Hugh D Burrows, M Manuela M Raposo
The effect of anchoring groups on the optical and electrochemical properties of triphenylamine-thienothiophenes, and on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs photosensitized with the prepared dyes, was studied using newly synthesized compounds with cyanoacetic acid or rhodanine-3-acetic acid groups. Precursor aldehydes were synthesized through Suzuki cross-coupling, whereas Knoevenagel condensation of these with 2-cyanoacetic acid or rhodanine-3-acetic acid afforded the final push-pull dyes. A comprehensive photophysical study was performed in solution and in the solid state...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Jian Wang, Trey B Daunis, Lanxia Cheng, Bo Zhang, Jiyoung Kim, Julia W P Hsu
Low-temperature solution processing of p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) will open up new opportunities for applications on flexible substrates that utilize low-cost, large-area manufacturing. Here we report a facile solution synthesis method that produces two p-type TCO thin films: copper chromium oxide and copper doped chromium oxide. Using combustion chemistry, both films are solution processed at 180 °C, which is lower than most recent efforts. While adopting the same precursor preparation and annealing temperature, we find that annealing environment (solvent vapor vs...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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