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organic photovoltaic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106380/role-of-sputter-deposition-rate-in-tailoring-nanogranular-gold-structures-on-polymer-surfaces
#1
Matthias Schwartzkopf, Alexander Hinz, Oleksandr Polonskyi, Thomas Strunskus, Franziska Carina Löhrer, Volker Körstgens, Peter Muller-Buschbaum, Franz Faupel, Stephan V Roth
The reproducible low-cost fabrication of functional polymer-metal-interfaces via self-assembly is of crucial importance in organic electronics and organic photovoltaics. In particular, submonolayer and nanogranular systems expose highly interesting electrical, plasmonic and catalytical properties. The exploitation of their great potential requires tailoring of the structure on the nanometer scale and below. In order to obtain full control over the complex nanostructural evolution at the polymer-metal interface, we monitor the evolution of the metallic layer morphology with in situ time-resolved GISAXS during sputter deposition...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106061/acoustic-optical-phonon-up-conversion-and-hot-phonon-bottleneck-in-lead-halide-perovskites
#2
Jianfeng Yang, Xiaoming Wen, Hongze Xia, Rui Sheng, Qingshan Ma, Jincheol Kim, Patrick Tapping, Takaaki Harada, Tak W Kee, Fuzhi Huang, Yi-Bing Cheng, Martin Green, Anita Ho-Baillie, Shujuan Huang, Santosh Shrestha, Robert Patterson, Gavin Conibeer
The hot-phonon bottleneck effect in lead-halide perovskites (APbX3) prolongs the cooling period of hot charge carriers, an effect that could be used in the next-generation photovoltaics devices. Using ultrafast optical characterization and first-principle calculations, four kinds of lead-halide perovskites (A=FA(+)/MA(+)/Cs(+), X=I(-)/Br(-)) are compared in this study to reveal the carrier-phonon dynamics within. Here we show a stronger phonon bottleneck effect in hybrid perovskites than in their inorganic counterparts...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099813/photoactive-donor-acceptor-composite-nanoparticles-dispersed-in-water
#3
Laurie Parrenin, Gildas Laurans, Eleni Pavlopoulou, Guillaume Fleury, Gilles Pecastaings, Cyril Brochon, Laurence Vignau, Georges Hadziioannou, Eric Cloutet
A major issue that inhibits large-scale fabrication of organic solar modules is the use of chlorinated solvents considered as toxic and hazardous. In this work, composite particles of poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) were obtained in water from a versatile and a ready-to-market methodology based on miniemulsion post-polymerization. Depending on experimental conditions, size-controlled particles comprising both the electron-donor and the electron-acceptor were obtained and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopic (AFM), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099020/two-dimensional-electronic-stark-spectroscopy
#4
Anton Loukianov, Andrew Niedringhaus, Brandon Berg, Jie Pan, S Seckin Senlik, Jennifer P Ogilvie
Characterizing ultrafast energy and charge transfer is important for understanding a wide range of systems, from natural photosynthetic complexes to organic photovoltaics. Distinguishing the kinetic processes of energy transfer and charge separation in such systems is challenging due to the lack of clear spectral signatures of charge transfer states, which are typically non-radiative. Stark spectroscopy has proven to be a valuable method for uncovering charge transfer states. Here we extend the dimensionality of Stark spectroscopy to perform two-dimensional electronic Stark spectroscopy...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098975/development-of-spiro-cyclopenta-1-2-b-5-4-b-dithiophene-4-9-fluorene-based-a-%C3%AF-d-%C3%AF-a-small-molecules-with-different-acceptor-units-for-efficient-organic-solar-cells
#5
Wengong Wang, Ping Shen, Xinning Dong, Chao Weng, Guo Wang, Haijun Bin, Jing Zhang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yongfang Li
Three acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A) small molecules (STFYT, STFRDN, and STFRCN) with spiro[cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene] (STF) as the central donor unit, terthiophene as the π-conjugated bridge, indenedione, 3-ethylrhodanine, or 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)rhodanine as the acceptor unit are designed, synthesized and characterized as electron donor materials in solution-processing organic solar cells (OSCs). The effects of the spiro STF-based central core and different acceptors on the molecular configuration, absorption properties, electronic energy levels, carrier transport properties, the morphology of active layers, and photovoltaic properties are investigated in detail...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094830/molecular-electron-acceptors-for-efficient-fullerene-free-organic-solar-cells
#6
Shuixing Li, Zhongqiang Zhang, Minmin Shi, Chang-Zhi Li, Hongzheng Chen
Nowadays, organic solar cells (OSCs) with efficiencies over 10% have been achieved through the elaborate design of electron donors and fullerene acceptors. However, the drawbacks of fullerene acceptors, like poor absorption, limited chemical and energetic tunabilities, high-cost purification and morphological instability, have become the bottlenecks for the further improvement of OSCs. To overcome the mentioned shortages from fullerene, research studies on non-fullerene electron acceptors have boomed. To date, the highest efficiency of fullerene-free OSCs has been pushed to be 12%, which surpasses that of fullerene-based OSCs...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094499/organic-solar-cells-with-controlled-nanostructures-based-on-microphase-separation-of-fullerene-attached-thiophene-selenophene-heteroblock-copolymers
#7
Peihong Chen, Kyohei Nakano, Kaori Suzuki, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Tomoka Kikitsu, Daisuke Hashizume, Tomoyuki Koganezawa, Keisuke Tajima
Heteroblock copolymers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene-attached poly(3-alkylselenophene) (T-b-Se-PCBP) were synthesized for organic photovoltaic applications by quasi-living catalyst transfer polycondensation and subsequent conversion reactions. Characterization of the polymers confirmed the formation of well-defined diblock structures with high loading of the fullerene at the side chain (~40 wt%). Heteroblock copolymer cast as a thin film showed a clear microphase-separated nanostructure approximately 30 nm in repeating unit after thermal annealing, which is identical to the microphase-separated nanostructure of diblock copolymer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene-attached poly(3-alkylthiophene) (T-b-T-PCBP)...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094318/hydrogen-reduction-of-molybdenum-oxide-at-room-temperature
#8
Andreas Borgschulte, Olga Sambalova, Renaud Delmelle, Sandra Jenatsch, Roland Hany, Frank Nüesch
The color changes in chemo- and photochromic MoO3 used in sensors and in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells can be traced back to intercalated hydrogen atoms stemming either from gaseous hydrogen dissociated at catalytic surfaces or from photocatalytically split water. In applications, the reversibility of the process is of utmost importance, and deterioration of the layer functionality due to side reactions is a critical challenge. Using the membrane approach for high-pressure XPS, we are able to follow the hydrogen reduction of MoO3 thin films using atomic hydrogen in a water free environment...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091606/long-term-efficient-organic-photovoltaics-based-on-quaternary-bulk-heterojunctions
#9
Minwoo Nam, Minjeong Cha, Hyun Hwi Lee, Kahyun Hur, Kyu-Tae Lee, Jaehong Yoo, Il Ki Han, S Joon Kwon, Doo-Hyun Ko
A major impediment to the commercialization of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is attaining long-term morphological stability of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer. To secure the stability while pursuing optimized performance, multi-component BHJ-based OPVs have been strategically explored. Here we demonstrate the use of quaternary BHJs (q-BHJs) composed of two conjugated polymer donors and two fullerene acceptors as a novel platform to produce high-efficiency and long-term durable OPVs. A q-BHJ OPV (q-OPV) with an experimentally optimized composition exhibits an enhanced efficiency and extended operational lifetime than does the binary reference OPV...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088091/solar-to-chemical-and-solar-to-fuel-production-from-co2-by-metabolically-engineered-microorganisms
#10
REVIEW
Han Min Woo
Recent development of carbon capture utilization (CCU) for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are reviewed. In the case of CO2 utilization, I describe development of solar-to-chemical and solar-to-fuel technology that refers to the use of solar energy to convert CO2 to desired chemicals and fuels. Photoautotrophic cyanobacterial platforms have been extensively developed on this principle, producing a diverse range of alcohols, organic acids, and isoprenoids directly from CO2. Recent breakthroughs in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria were reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078483/theoretical-characterization-on-photoelectric-properties-of-benzothiadiazole-and-fluorene-based-small-molecule-acceptor-materials-for-the-organic-photovoltaics
#11
Mingyue Sui, Shuangbao Li, Qingqing Pan, Guangyan Sun, Yun Geng
The upper efficiency of heterojunction organic photovoltaics depends on the increased open-circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current (J sc). So, a higher lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level is necessary for organic acceptor material to possess higher V oc and more photons absorbsorption in the solar spectrum is needed for larger J sc. In this article, we theoretically designed some small molecule acceptors (2∼5) based on fluorene (F), benzothiadiazole, and cyano group (CN) referring to the reported acceptor material 2-[{7-(9,9-di-n-propyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl}methylene]malononitrile (1), the crucial parameters affecting photoelectrical properties of compounds 2∼5 were evaluated by the density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075549/solvent-morphology-property-relationship-of-ptb7-pc71bm-polymer-solar-cells
#12
Shuai Guo, Weijia Wang, Eva M Herzig, Anna Naumann, Gregory Tainter, Jan Perlich, Peter Muller-Buschbaum
The influence of three different solvents and a solvent additive on the morphology and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction films made of the copolymer based on thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene unit PTB7-F40 blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) is investigated. Optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are combined with X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS) enabling the characterization of the morphology of the whole photoactive film...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073273/ultrafast-exciton-dissociation-and-long-lived-charge-separation-in-a-photovoltaic-pentacene-mos2-van-der-waals-heterojunction
#13
Stephanie Bettis Homan, Vinod K Sangwan, Itamar Balla, Hadallia Bergeron, Emily A Weiss, Mark C Hersam
van der Waals heterojunctions between two-dimensional (2D) layered materials and nanomaterials of different dimensions present unique opportunities for gate-tunable optoelectronic devices. Mixed-dimensional p-n heterojunction diodes, such as p-type pentacene (0D) and n-type monolayer MoS2 (2D), are especially interesting for photovoltaic applications where the absorption cross-section and charge transfer processes can be tailored by rational selection from the vast library of organic molecules and 2D materials...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072522/evaluating-electronic-couplings-for-excited-state-charge-transfer-based-on-maximum-occupation-method-mom-%C3%AE-scf-quasi-adiabatic-states
#14
Junzi Liu, Yong Zhang, Peng Bao, Yuanping Yi
Electronic couplings of charge-transfer states with the ground state and localized excited states at the donor/acceptor interface are crucial parameters for controlling the dynamics of exciton dissociation and charge recombination processes in organic solar cells. Here we propose a quasi-adiabatic state approach to evaluate electronic couplings through combining mom-ΔSCF and state diabatization schemes. Compared with TDDFT using global hybrid functional, mom-ΔSCF is superior to estimate the excitation energies of charge-transfer states; moreover it can also provide good excited state wave functions...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071700/temperature-dependent-schottky-barrier-in-high-performance-organic-solar-cells
#15
Hui Li, Dan He, Qing Zhou, Peng Mao, Jiamin Cao, Liming Ding, Jizheng Wang
Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted great attention in the past 30 years, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) now reaches around 10%, largely owning to the rapid material developments. Meanwhile with the progress in the device performance, more and more interests are turning to understanding the fundamental physics inside the OSCs. In the conventional bulk-heterojunction architecture, only recently it is realized that the blend/cathode Schottky junction serves as the fundamental diode for the photovoltaic function...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071054/high-pressure-study-of-perovskite-like-organometal-halide-band-gap-narrowing-and-structural-evolution-of-nh3-ch2-4-nh3-cucl4
#16
Qian Li, Shourui Li, Kai Wang, Zewei Quan, Yue Meng, Bo Zou
Searching for nontoxic and stable perovskite-like alternatives to lead-based halide perovskites for photovoltaic application is one urgent issue in photoelectricity science. Such exploration inevitably requires an effective method to accurately control both the crystalline and electronic structures. This work applies high pressure to narrow the band gap of perovskite-like organometal halide, [NH3-(CH2)4-NH3]CuCl4 (DABCuCl4), through the crystalline-structure tuning. The band gap keeps decreasing below ∼12 GPa, involving the shrinkage and distortion of CuCl4(2-)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070964/redox-flow-batteries-from-metals-to-organic-redox-active-materials
#17
REVIEW
Jan Winsberg, Tino Hagemann, Tobias Janoschka, Martin D Hager, Ulrich S Schubert
Research on redox-flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of "green", safe, and cost-efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal-based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow-battery systems...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070837/optoelectronic-evaluation-and-loss-analysis-of-pedot-pss-si-hybrid-heterojunction-solar-cells
#18
Zhenhai Yang, Zebo Fang, Jiang Sheng, Zhaoheng Ling, Zhaolang Liu, Juye Zhu, Pingqi Gao, Jichun Ye
The organic/silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential advantages in high efficiency and low cost. However, as a newly arisen photovoltaic device, its current efficiency is still much worse than commercially available Si solar cells. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematical optoelectronic evaluation and loss analysis on this HHSC is therefore highly necessary to fully explore its efficiency potential. Here, a thoroughly optoelectronic simulation is provided on a typical planar polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/Si HHSC...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070595/photosynthetic-microbial-fuel-cells
#19
Joseph A Laureanti, Anne K Jones
This chapter presents the current state of research on bioelectrochemical systems that include phototrophic organisms. First, we describe what is known of how phototrophs transfer electrons from internal metabolism to external substrates. This includes efforts to understand both the source of electrons and transfer pathways within cells. Second, we consider technological progress toward producing bio-photovoltaic devices with phototrophs. Efforts to improve these devices by changing the species included, the electrode surfaces, and chemical mediators are described...
January 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067365/inverted-organic-solar-cells-enhanced-by-grating-coupled-surface-plasmons-and-waveguide-modes
#20
Kazuma Hara, Chutiparn Lertvachirapaiboon, Ryousuke Ishikawa, Yasuo Ohdaira, Kazunari Shinbo, Keizo Kato, Futao Kaneko, Akira Baba
In this study, we demonstrate improved photovoltaic properties in inverted organic thin-film solar cells by simultaneous excitation of grating-coupled surface plasmons and grating-coupled waveguide modes on gold grating surfaces. The cell consists of a glass-ITO substrate/titanium dioxide/poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/gold structure. The grating structures were fabricated on P3HT:PCBM layers using a nanoimprinting technique with a PDMS stamp...
January 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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