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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742829/community-burden-of-undiagnosed-hiv-infection-among-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-following-primary-healthcare-based-provider-initiated-hiv-testing-and-counselling-a-cross-sectional-survey
#1
Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Subathira Dakshina, Tsitsi Bandason, Grace McHugh, Shungu Munyati, Prosper Chonzi, Katharina Kranzer, Getrude Ncube, Collen Masimirembwa, Roslyn Thelingwani, Tsitsi Apollo, Richard Hayes, Helen A Weiss, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735453/comparing-oral-health-services-use-in-the-spanish-and-immigrant-working-population
#2
Natalia Muñoz-Pino, Carmen Vives-Cases, Andrés A Agudelo-Suárez, Elena Ronda-Pérez
We aim to analyze oral health services use and related factors in the immigrant working population compared to the Spanish counterparts. Cross-sectional study of working population (n = 8591) that responded Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS), 2011-2012. The association between oral health services use and migration status was estimated using logistic regression. Immigrant men presented a greater probability of oral health service use a year or more prior (aOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.26-2.02), independently of oral health, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734822/icotinib-versus-whole-brain-irradiation-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-multiple-brain-metastases-brain-a-multicentre-phase-3-open-label-parallel-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Jin-Ji Yang, Caicun Zhou, Yisheng Huang, Jifeng Feng, Sun Lu, Yong Song, Cheng Huang, Gang Wu, Li Zhang, Ying Cheng, Chengping Hu, Gongyan Chen, Li Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Hong Hong Yan, Fen Lai Tan, Wenzhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733184/medication-use-and-its-potential-impact-on-the-oral-health-status-of%C3%A2-nursing-home-residents-in-flanders-belgium
#4
Barbara Janssens, Mirko Petrovic, Wolfgang Jacquet, Jos M G A Schols, Jacques Vanobbergen, Luc De Visschere
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is considered the most important etiologic factor of hyposalivation, which in turn can initiate oral health problems. OBJECTIVES: To describe the medication use of nursing home residents, to identify the medications related to hyposalivation and to find possible associations between the different classes of medication, the number of medications, and the oral health status of the residents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733180/association-between-malnutrition-and-oral-health-in-dutch-nursing-home-residents-results-of-the-lpz-study
#5
Viviënne A L Huppertz, Gert-Jan van der Putten, Ruud J G Halfens, Jos M G A Schols, Lisette C P G M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and FDI World Dental Federation (FDI), malnutrition and bad oral health are of great concern to global health, especially among the older population. This study aimed to assess the associations between oral health problems ([artificial] teeth problems, chewing problems, and xerostomia) and malnutrition in residents of somatic and psychogeriatric wards in Dutch nursing homes. METHODS: Data of the cross-sectional National Prevalence Measurement of Quality of Care study (Landelijke Prevalentiemeting Zorgproblemen study) in the Netherlands were used to evaluate nutritional status and oral health of 3220 residents, aged 65 or older and living in somatic or psychogeriatric wards in Dutch nursing homes...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732773/efficacy-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-among-women-with-abnormal-vaginal-microbiota-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-randomised-placebo-controlled-partners-prep-study
#6
Renee Heffron, R Scott McClelland, Jennifer E Balkus, Connie Celum, Craig R Cohen, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Deborah Donnell, Jairam Lingappa, James Kiarie, Tina Fiedler, Matthew Munch, David N Fredricks, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Daily oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is high efficacious for HIV prevention among women with high adherence. However, the effect of abnormal vaginal microbiota on PrEP efficacy is of concern. We investigated whether bacterial vaginosis modified the efficacy of oral PrEP. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from women in the Partners PrEP Study, a placebo-controlled trial of daily oral PrEP (either tenofovir monotherapy or a combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine) in HIV serodiscordant couples aged 18 years or older in Kenya and Uganda that showed high efficacy in women...
July 18, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732048/wolbachia-and-dengue-virus-infection-in-the-mosquito-aedes-fluviatilis-diptera-culicidae
#7
Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva, Debora Magalhães Alves, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Thiago Nunes Pereira, Marcos Henrique Ferreira Sorgine, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730619/real-world-adherence-and-persistence-with-direct-oral-anticoagulants-in-adults-with-atrial-fibrillation
#8
Beenish S Manzoor, Todd A Lee, Lisa K Sharp, Surrey M Walton, William L Galanter, Edith A Nutescu
BACKGROUND: Evidence of adherence and persistence patterns in anticoagulation (AC) therapy comparing treatment-naïve and non-naïve patients is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate patterns of medication adherence and persistence in a real-world setting among AC-naïve and AC-experienced atrial fibrillation (AF) patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHODS: AF patients newly initiating a DOAC with a minimum of 6 months of continuous health plan enrollment pre and post-index date (first DOAC prescription) were identified from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases (2009-2013)...
July 21, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729180/symptom-and-quality-of-life-improvement-in-lux-lung-8-an-open-label-phase-iii-study-of-second-line-afatinib-versus-erlotinib-in-patients-with-advanced-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung-after-first-line-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#9
Enriqueta Felip, Vera Hirsh, Sanjay Popat, Manuel Cobo, Andrea Fülöp, Charles Dayen, José M Trigo, Richard Gregg, Cornelius F Waller, Jean-Charles Soria, Glenwood D Goss, James Gordon, Bushi Wang, Michael Palmer, Eva Ehrnrooth, Shirish M Gadgeel
INTRODUCTION: In the phase III LUX-Lung 8 trial, afatinib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) versus erlotinib in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung progressing during or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-related quality of life (QoL) in these patients are presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 795) were randomized 1:1 to oral afatinib (40 mg/d) or erlotinib (150 mg/d)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727668/comprehensive-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-secondary-prevention-after-transient-ischemic-attack-or-mild-stroke-psychological-profile-and-outcomes
#10
Peter L Prior, Vladimir Hachinski, Richard Chan, Karen Unsworth, Sharon Mytka, Michael Harnadek, Christina OʼCallaghan, Neville Suskin
PURPOSE: Having previously reported that comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR) is effective for secondary prevention post-transient ischemic attack (TIA)/mild nondisabling stroke (MNDS), we present psychometric findings for the same sample that elucidate subacute TIA/MNDS psychological outcomes and test whether CCR would be independently associated with psychological improvements. METHODS: In this prospective cohort trial patients with ≥1 risk factor, recruited from a stroke prevention clinic within 12 months (mean = 11...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727118/technical-note-assessment-of-an-alternative-technique-for-measuring-body-temperature-in-pigs
#11
A Petry, W McGilvray, A R Rakhshandeh, A Rakhshandeh
Core body temperature (CBT) is one of the main vital signs that is used to evaluate the health status of pigs. The most common and feasible method for assessing CBT in pigs is rectal temperature (RT). Obtaining RT is stressful for animals, may generate inaccurate results, and has the risk of spreading disease. Infrared imaging (IR) thermography of the body of pigs may be a safer and less stressful alternative to RT. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of using IR as an alternative for monitoring CBT in pigs...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724863/factors-associated-with-number-of-present-teeth-in-adults-in-japanese-urban-city
#12
Tsukasa Kurahashi, Miki Kitagawa, Takashi Matsukubo
The purpose of this study was to identify which factors were associated with number of present teeth (PT) in older adults as their clarification might contribute to maintaining the number of PT in this population. These factors were investigated by means of a questionnaire on oral health condition, general health behavior, and anamnesis of diabetes mellitus together with a dental examination. Data were obtained from a total of 7,741 Japanese subjects (2,623 males and 5,118 females), all of whom were aged 40, 50, or 60 years...
2017: Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721433/oral-health-and-the-frail-elderly
#13
L Rapp, S Sourdet, B Vellas, M-H Lacoste-Ferré
INTRODUCTION: The relationships between oral health conditions and frailty have rarely been explored. A systematic review of frailty components and oral health concluded that differences in study population endpoint criteria and study design cannot establish a relationship between frailty and oral health. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the distribution of the OHAT (Oral Health Assessment Tool) score in a population of frail subjects and to assess associated parameters (age, socio-economic status, living conditions, education level, nutritional habits, cognitive functioning, autonomy)...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719222/how-drug-life-cycle-management-patent-strategies-may-impact-formulary-management
#14
Jan Berger, Jeffrey D Dunn, Margaret M Johnson, Kurt R Karst, W Chad Shear
Drug manufacturers may employ various life-cycle management patent strategies, which may impact managed care decision making regarding formulary planning and management strategies when single-source, branded oral pharmaceutical products move to generic status. Passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act enabled more rapid access to generic medications through the abbreviated new drug application process. Patent expirations of small-molecule medications and approvals of generic versions have led to substantial cost savings for health plans, government programs, insurers, pharmacy benefits managers, and their customers...
October 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719064/the-association-between-dental-general-and-mental-health-status-among-underserved-and-vulnerable-populations-served-at-health-centers-in-the-us
#15
Vy H Nguyen, Sue C Lin, David P Cappelli, Suma Nair
OBJECTIVES: Vulnerable populations in underserved communities are disproportionately at high risk for multiple medical, dental, and behavioral health conditions. This study aims to: a) examine the occurrence of acute dental needs and b) investigate the association of acute dental needs and self-rated general and mental health status among the adult dentate health center population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data on adult patients (n = 5,035) from the 2014 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative survey of health center patients...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719013/in-an-era-of-highly-effective-treatment-hepatitis-c-screening-of-the-general-population-of-the-united-states-for-hepatitis-c-should-be-considered
#16
Zobair Younossi, Deidre Blissett, Rob Blissett, Linda Henry, Youssef Younossi, Rachel Beckerman, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with all oral direct acting antiviral agents (DAA's) achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 98%. Re-assessment of general US population screening for HCV is imperative. This study compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of three HCV screening strategies: screen all (SA), screen Birth Cohort (BCS), and screen high risks (HRS). METHODS: Using a previous designed decision-analytic Markov model, estimations of the natural history of HCV and CE evaluation of the three HCV screening strategies over a lifetime horizon in the US population was undertaken...
July 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718025/reduction-of-individual-or-combined-toxicity-of-fumonisin-b1-and-zearalenone-via-dietary-inclusion-of-organo-modified-nano-montmorillonite-in-rats
#17
Aziza A El-Nekeety, Ahmed A El-Kady, Khaled G Abdel-Wahhab, Nabila S Hassan, Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab
Fusarium mycotoxins are nature environmental contaminants worldwide in animal feed and human food resulting in a serious health risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential role of organo-modified nano-montmorillonite (OMNM) against the health risk and the oxidative stress resulted from the exposure of fumonisin (FB1) and zearalenone (ZEN) individually and in combination in rats. Eight groups of female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally for 3 weeks including the control group, FB1 alone-treated group (50 mg/kg b...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713645/effects-of-a-novel-disc-formulation-on-dry-mouth-symptoms-and-enamel-remineralization-in-patients-with-hyposalivation-an-in-vivo-study
#18
Jessica Ho, Miracle Vania Firmalino, Afarin Golabgir Anbarani, Thair Takesh, Joel Epstein, Petra Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the in vivo effects in patients with hyposalivation of a novel slowly dissolving adhering test disc upon on enamel remineralization, oral biofilm, salivary production, pH and buffering, gingival health, and on self-evaluation of oral well-being. METHODS: Five subjects with xerostomia wore custom made retainers carrying 5 demineralized enamel chips for periods of 1 week each. In 1 study arm, subjects used the test agent plus oral hygiene self-care; in the other they used oral hygiene self-care only, with a 1 week washout in between arms...
February 2017: Dentistry: Current Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709393/microbiome-associated-with-severe-caries-in-canadian-first-nations-children
#19
M Agnello, J Marques, L Cen, B Mittermuller, A Huang, N Chaichanasakul Tran, W Shi, X He, R J Schroth
Young Indigenous children in North America suffer from a higher degree of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) than the general population, leading to speculation that the etiology and characteristics of the disease may be distinct in this population. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted the first microbiome analysis of an Indigenous population using modern molecular techniques. We investigated the caries-associated microbiome among Canadian First Nations children with S-ECC. Thirty First Nations children <72 mo of age with S-ECC and 20 caries-free children were recruited in Winnipeg, Canada...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709131/tiron-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-induced-nephrotoxicity-of-male-rats
#20
Ashraf Morgan, Mona K Galal, Hanan A Ogaly, Marwa A Ibrahim, Reham M Abd-Elsalam, Peter Noshy
Although the widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), few studies were conducted on its hazard influence on human health. Tiron a synthetic vitamin E analog was proven to be a mitochondrial targeting antioxidant. The current investigation was performed to assess the efficacy of tiron against TiO2 NPs induced nephrotoxicity. Eighty adult male rats divided into four different groups were used: group I was the control, group II received TiO2 NPs (100mg\Kg BW), group III received TiO2 NPs plus tiron (470mg\kg BW), and group IV received tiron alone...
July 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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