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Malnutrition in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311395/risk-and-prognosis-of-acute-liver-injury-among-hospitalized-patients-with-hemodynamic-instability-a-nationwide-analysis
#1
Najeff Waseem, Berkeley N Limketkai, Brian Kim, Tinsay Woreta, Ahmet Gurakar, Po-Hung Chen
Risk and Prognosis of Acute Liver Injury Among Hospitalized Patients with Hemodynamic Instability: A Nationwide Analysis Introduction and aim. Critically ill patients in states of circulatory failure are at risk of acute liver injury, from mild elevations in aminotransferases to substantial rises consistent with hypoxic hepatitis or "shock liver". The present study aims to quantify the national prevalence of acute liver injury in patients with hemodynamic instability, identify risk factors for its development, and determine predictors of mortality...
January 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310974/sepsis-in-tropical-regions-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#2
Steven McGloughlin, Guy A Richards, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Shirish Prayag, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Sepsis and septic shock in the tropics are caused by a wide array of organisms. These infections are encountered mainly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where a lack of infrastructure and medical facilities contribute to the high morbidity and mortality. Published sepsis guidelines are based on studies primarily performed in high income countries and as such recommendations may or may not be relevant to practice in the tropics. Failure to adhere to guidelines, particularly among non-intensive care specialists even in high-income countries, is an area of concern for sepsis management...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302321/developmental-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Meta van den Heuvel, Wieger Voskuijl, Kate Chidzalo, Marko Kerac, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Robert Bandsma, Melissa Gladstone
Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Particularly an important research gap exists in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is a high prevalence of SAM and a high rate of co-occurring HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259927/gelatinous-transformation-of-bone-marrow-rare-or-underdiagnosed
#4
REVIEW
Khushdeep Kaur Shergill, Gagandeep Singh Shergill, Hari Janardanan Pillai
Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow (GTBM) is a rare hematologic entity, which was first described by Paul Michael in 1930. GTBM is mostly associated with caloric intake/anorexia nervosa, although it also has been described accompanying other pathologic conditions, such as malignancy, systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV infections. Even though the diagnostic features of the hematopoietic tissue, such as hypoplasia, adipose cell atrophy, and deposition of a gelatinous substance in the bone marrow (which stains with Alcian blue at pH 2...
October 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#5
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227461/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lopinavir-in-severely-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-and-the-effect-on-treatment-outcomes
#6
Moherndran Archary, Helen Mcllleron, Raziya Bobat, Phillip La Russa, Thobekile Sibaya, Lubbe Wiesner, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition were randomised to early or delayed initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir, abacavir and lamivudine using WHO weight-band dosage charts...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227424/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-growth-parameters-of-children-with-hiv-infection
#7
Anju Seth, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Rohini Gupta, Jagdish Chandra, Praveen Kumar, Sarita Singh, Garima Sharma
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV (CLHIV) commonly experience growth failure. We report growth parameters in CLHIV at baseline and during 3 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Records of CLHIV who had completed at least 3 years on ART were reviewed after excluding subjects who died, were lost to follow-up or developed treatment failure to assess impact of sustained administration of ART. Height-for-age (HFA) and body mass index for age (BFA) Z scores were calculated, and proportion of CLHIV with wasting and stunting estimated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after starting ART using the linear mixed model...
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219134/does-infant-feeding-method-influence-the-incidence-and-pattern-of-morbidities-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-uninfected-nigerian-infants
#8
Olusoga Babatunde Ogunfowora, Tinuade Adetutu Ogunlesi, Abiodun Folashade Adekanmbi, Victor Ayodeji Ayeni
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants enrolled into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program generally receive antiretroviral therapy (ARV), but the feeding methods differ based on several socioeconomic and cultural differences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the incidence and pattern of morbidities among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) Nigerian infants and determine any relationship with infant feeding methods...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189659/high-prevalence-of-lipid-abnormalities-and-insulin-resistance-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-children-in-india
#9
Chandrasekaran Padmapriyadarsini, Anita Shet, Ramalingam Srinivasan, Geetha Ramachandran, G N Sanjeeva, Poornaganga Devi, Karunainathan Ramesh, Perumal Kannabiran Bhavani, Devaraj Reddy, Elumalai Suresh, Chockalingam Chandrasekhar, Christine Wanke, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: As large numbers of children are accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India, we evaluated the dietary intake, growth pattern and risk of metabolic complications like dyslipidemia and insulin resistance among ART-naïve HIV infected children (CLHIV). METHODS: CLHIV aged 2-12 years, at the time of initiating ART in Chennai and Bangalore, were assessed for their dietary intake, anthropometry, blood CD4 cell count, HIV-1 viral load, fasting serum lipids, glucose and insulin...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187783/the-effect-of-micronutrient-supplementation-on-active-tb-incidence-early-in-hiv-infection-in-botswana
#10
Adriana Campa, Marianna K Baum, Hermann Bussmann, Sabrina Sales Martinez, Mansour Farahani, Erik van Widenfelt, Sikhulile Moyo, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Richard Marlink
Background: Coinfection with active tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death in people living with HIV (PLWH) in Africa. This investigation explores the role of micronutrient supplementation in preventing active TB in PLWH. Methods: A randomized trial of nutritional supplementation was conducted among antiretroviral- naïve (without previous antiretroviral treatment [ART]) HIV-infected people in Botswana between 2004 and 2009. The study had a factorial design with four arms: the selenium (Se) alone arm, the multivitamins (MVT) alone arm that contained vitamin B complex and vitamins C and E, the combined Se+MVT group and the placebo group...
2017: Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168465/investigation-of-the-risk-factors-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-case-control-study-among-saharia-tribe-in-gwalior-district-madhya-pradesh-india
#11
Jyothi Bhat, V G Rao, R K Sharma, M Muniyandi, Rajiv Yadav, M K Bhondley
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is known to be high in the indigenous tribal community Saharia in Madhya Pradesh, India. The risk factors for PTB are not well known among them. This study was done to determine various risk factors associated with PTB in the indigenous community Saharia. METHODS: A prevalence survey was conducted among Saharias of Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh. The population surveyed was 12,123 which was the source of cases and controls for the present study...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165579/investigating-mediators-of-the-poor-pneumonia-outcomes-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-but-uninfected-children
#12
Matthew S Kelly, Jiayin Zheng, Sefelani Boiditswe, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Boitshepe Seme, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Mohamed Z Patel, Savarra Mantzor, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study of children aged 1 to 23 months with clinically defined pneumonia. The children were recruited at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, between April 2012 and June 2016...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165513/-a-five-year-experience-with-zoonotic-salmonella-at-a-pediatric-reference-centre
#13
Patricia Barrios, Federica Badía, Valentina Misa, M Inés Mota, Arací Martínez, Hebert Mariño, Gabriela Algorta, Javier Prego, M Catalina Pírez
BACKGROUND: Salmonella can cause asymptomatic infections, diarrhea, bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis and osteomyelitis. AIM: To describe clinical and microbiological aspects of infections by Salmonella spp. in children in a pediatric referral hospital: Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, in Montevideo, Uruguay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study of 46 patients, from which Salmonella spp was isolated between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
January 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132283/predictors-of-survival-among-hiv-positive-children-on-art-in-swaziland
#15
Patrick Shabangu, Andy Beke, Samuel Manda, Nobuhle Mthethwa
The objective of the study was to determine predictors of survival among HIV-positive children (<15 years) in Swaziland. A retrospective cohort analysis of medical records for 4 167 children living with HIV who were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2004 and 2008, and followed up until 2014 was conducted in clinical settings at 36 health facilities. The Kaplan Meier Estimator, signed-ranks test, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were applied to determine survival probabilities, significant difference among stratified survival functions and adjusted hazard ratios respectively...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119032/cytomegalovirus-associated-duodenal-ulcer-and-duodenitis-in-a-malnourished-pediatric-patient
#16
Rachel Bernard, Ghanim Aljomah, Emily Klepper, Elizabeth McDonough
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) duodenitis is a rare occurrence, especially in pediatric patients. A thirteen-month-old female presented to the Emergency Department for a febrile seizure. She was incidentally admitted for severe malnutrition with an initial workup remarkable for only a slight elevation in her ALT at 48. The patient was found to have an oral aversion requiring nasogastric tube feeds for adequate caloric intake. She continued to fail to gain weight and underwent an EGD that demonstrated a duodenal ulcer...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020216/outpatient-management-of-children-with-world-health-organization-chest-indrawing-pneumonia-implementation-risks-and-proposed-solutions
#17
Eric D McCollum, Amy Sarah Ginsburg
This Viewpoints article details our recommendation for the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines to consider additional referral or daily monitoring criteria for children with chest indrawing pneumonia in low-resource settings. We review chest indrawing physiology in children and relate this to the risk of adverse pneumonia outcomes. We believe there is sufficient evidence to support referring or daily monitoring of children with chest indrawing pneumonia and signs of severe respiratory distress, oxygen saturation <93% (when not at high altitude), moderate malnutrition, or an unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in an HIV-endemic setting...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968393/correlates-of-multi-drug-non-susceptibility-in-enteric-bacteria-isolated-from-kenyan-children-with-acute-diarrhea
#18
Rebecca L Brander, Judd L Walson, Grace C John-Stewart, Jacqueline M Naulikha, Janet Ndonye, Nancy Kipkemoi, Doreen Rwigi, Benson O Singa, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens treatment efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa, where data on the burden and correlates of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens are limited. METHODS: Fecal samples from children aged 6 mos-15 yrs presenting with acute diarrhea in western Kenya were cultured for bacterial pathogens. HIV-uninfected children with identified Shigella or Salmonella species or pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC or EIEC) were included in this cross-sectional sub-study...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960594/birthweight-hiv-exposure-and-infant-feeding-as-predictors-of-malnutrition-in-botswanan-infants
#19
P Chalashika, C Essex, D Mellor, J A Swift, S Langley-Evans
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the nutritional status of infants who are HIV-Exposed-Uninfected (HEU) and HIV-Unexposed-Uninfected (HUU) during their first 1000 days is key to improving population health, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared the nutritional status, feeding practices and determinants of nutritional status of HEU and HUU infants residing in representative selected districts in Botswana during their first 1000 days of life...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915813/the-relationship-between-burden-of-childhood-disease-and-foreign-aid-for-child-health
#20
J Clay Bavinger, Paul Wise, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease. METHODS: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in children (0-5 years) were obtained from the World Health Organization for 2000 and 2012...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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