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Malnutrition in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633331/does-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-influence-treatment-outcomes-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-northwest-ethiopia
#1
Endashaw M Aderie, Ermias Diro, Rony Zachariah, Marcio Silveira da Fonseca, Charles Abongomera, Bethabile L Dolamo, Koert Ritmeijer
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients with HIV co-infection should receive antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, the best timing for initiation of ART is not known. Among such individuals, we assessed the influence of ART timing on VL outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Northwest Ethiopia among VL patients starting ART between 2008 and 2015. VL outcomes were assessed by the twelfth month of starting ART, within 4 weeks of VL diagnosis or thereafter...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612658/the-dimensions-of-food-insecurity-and-malnutrition-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-senegal-west-africa
#2
Noelle A Benzekri, Jacques F Sambou, Binetou Diaw, El Hadji Ibrahima Sall, Fatima Sall, Alassane Niang, Selly Ba, Ndèye Fatou Ngom Guèye, Mouhamadou Baïla Diallo, Stephen E Hawes, Moussa Seydi, Geoffrey S Gottlieb
An understanding of the factors contributing to food insecurity and malnutrition among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Senegal is urgently needed in order to develop effective interventions. The goals of this study were to identify differences in the dimensions of food security among PLHIV in Dakar versus Ziguinchor, Senegal, to determine which of these dimensions are most predictive of severe food insecurity, and to identify factors associated with malnutrition. We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal...
June 14, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606173/tuberculosis-caseload-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-related-with-high-hospital-based-mortality-in-lusaka-zambia
#3
Tendai Munthali, Chishala Chabala, Elson Chama, Raider Mugode, Nathan Kapata, Patrick Musonda, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children pose a major treatment and care challenge in high HIV burden countries in Africa. We investigated the prevalence of Tuberculosis notifications among hospitalised under-five children with severe acute malnutrition. A retrospective review of medical records for all children aged 0-59 months admitted to the University Teaching Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate TB caseload...
June 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594232/revisiting-the-aids-epidemic-in-pakistan-where-we-stand-and-what-we-must-aim-for
#4
Hamza Arshad Dar, Areeba Mubashir, Manal Adil, Aiman Farzeen, Hasaan Naseer, Gohar Ayub, Sajid Mansoor, Aneela Javed
Human Immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in humans, where the immune system totally succumbs to the virus. Large proportion of the AIDS infected belong to developing countries and AIDS prevalence is intensified by severe poverty, malnutrition and famine; fatal illnesses with a scorn shortage of medical amenities complemented with the lack of education and development. Current Pakistani health system setting is in a dire need of improvement. Low literacy rates, high birth rates and associated maternal mortality plus a lack of clean drinking water and appropriate sanitation system have a serious impact on general living conditions contributing to a relatively short life-span...
June 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589415/noma-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-in-guinea-bissau-a-case-report
#5
Tina Madsen, Candida Medina, Sanne Jespersen, Christian Wejse, Bo Langhoff Hønge
BACKGROUND: Noma is a multifactorial and multibacterial opportunistic infection that initially causes necrotic gingivitis but rapidly spreads to the nearby orofacial tissue resulting in sloughing and severe deformation of the facial structures. The majority of cases are seen in young children under the age of 6 years. Noma is strongly associated with poverty, malnutrition and immunosuppression, and is often preceded by severe systemic infections such as measles and malaria. Only few cases of noma infection in adults have been described...
June 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560175/miliary-tuberculosis-with-cerebral-liver-prostate-and-retroesophageal-involvement
#6
Raquel Goncalves, Pedro Lopes, Patrícia Mendes, João Trêpa, João Rua, Rosa Sá, Isabel Ramos, J Saraiva da Cunha
Miliary tuberculosis results from the lymphohematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and it is a rare form of this disease. The most affected places are the lymph nodes, pleura, and osteoarticular system, but any organ can be involved. Currently the disease is still endemic in developing countries by its close association with poor living conditions and malnutrition. Other comorbidities, particularly infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism are of great importance in the epidemiology of this disease...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538421/malnutrition-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-children-less-than-5-years-in-bobo-dioulasso-city-burkina-faso-a-case-control-study
#7
Ghislain Gnimbar Poda, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Jane C-J Chao
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474590/epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-in-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses
#8
REVIEW
Aashima Dabas, Dheeraj Shah, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Rakesh Lodha
CONTEXT: Cryptosporidium spp. is a zoonotic infection, now being recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. However, there still exist significant knowledge gaps in its estimated global burden, epidemiology, diagnosis and management. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A semi-systematic search was performed across PubMed to select studies on epidemiological burden of cryptosporidium diarrhea using the following keywords- ['crytosporidiosis' OR 'cryptosporidium'] AND ['diarrhea' OR 'diarrhoea']...
April 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434056/beyond-the-primary-endpoint-paradigm-a-test-of-intervention-effect-in-hiv-behavioral-intervention-trials-with-numerous-correlated-outcomes
#9
Jessica M Harwood, Robert E Weiss, W Scott Comulada
Behavioral interventions are increasingly based on holistic approaches to health with an understanding that health-related behaviors are linked. A motivating example is provided by the Philani study, an intervention trial conducted to improve the health of South African mothers and their children. Inter-related health problems around maternal alcohol use, malnutrition, and HIV were addressed; multiple endpoints were targeted. The traditional hypothesis testing paradigm that tests significance on one primary outcome did not suffice...
April 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424189/diagnostic-criteria-for-severe-acute-malnutrition-among-infants-aged-under-6-mo
#11
Martha Mwangome, Moses Ngari, Greg Fegan, Neema Mturi, Mohammed Shebe, Evasius Bauni, James A Berkley
Background: There is an increasing recognition of malnutrition among infants under 6 mo of age (U6M). Current diagnosis criteria use weight-for-length z scores (WLZs), but the 2006 WHO standards exclude infants shorter than 45 cm. In older children, midupper arm circumference (MUAC) predicts mortality better than does WLZ. Outcomes may also be influenced by exposure to HIV and size or gestational age at birth. Diagnostic thresholds for WLZ, MUAC, and other indexes have not been fully evaluated against mortality risk among U6M infants...
June 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406422/nutritional-status-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-the-ratoma-community-medical-center-republic-of-guinea
#12
S Sidibé, A S Magassouba, A Delamou, F B Magaboussa, S D Sandouno, K É Kra, N Conte
The nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) has a direct impact on their health. The aim of this study was to describe the nutritional status of PLWHA receiving care at the Ratoma community medical center in Conakry, Guinea. This quantitative cross-sectional study assessed the nutritional status of 184 people PLHIV receiving antiretroviral treatment. The sample comprised 184 PLHIV selected by a systematic random sampling from the complete list of PLHIV. The data were collected by individual questionnaires...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393746/changes-in-serum-phosphate-and-potassium-and-their-effects-on-mortality-in-malnourished-african-hiv-infected-adults-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-and-given-vitamins-and-minerals-in-lipid-based-nutritional-supplements-secondary-analysis-from-the-nutritional
#13
Andrea Mary Rehman, Susannah Louise Woodd, Douglas Corbett Heimburger, John Robert Koethe, Henrik Friis, George PrayGod, Lackson Kasonka, Paul Kelly, Suzanne Filteau
Malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at high risk of early mortality, some of which may be attributed to altered electrolyte metabolism. We used data from a randomised controlled trial of electrolyte-enriched lipid-based nutritional supplements to assess the association of baseline and time-varying serum phosphate and K concentrations with mortality within the first 12 weeks after starting ART. Baseline phosphate results were available from 1764 patients and there were 9096 subsequent serum phosphate measurements, a median of 6 per patient...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381429/long-term-effects-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-on-lung-function-in-malawian-children-a-cohort-study
#14
Natasha Lelijveld, Marko Kerac, Andrew Seal, Emmanuel Chimwezi, Jonathan C Wells, Robert S Heyderman, Moffat J Nyirenda, Janet Stocks, Jane Kirkby
Early nutritional insults may increase risk of adult lung disease. We aimed to quantify the impact of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) on spirometric outcomes 7 years post-treatment and explore predictors of impaired lung function.Spirometry and pulse oximetry were assessed in 237 Malawian children (median age: 9.3 years) who had been treated for SAM and compared with sibling and age/sex-matched community controls. Spirometry results were expressed as z-scores based on Global Lung Function Initiative reference data for the African-American population...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380279/causes-and-consequences-of-higher-leishmania-infantum-burden-in-patients-with-kala-azar-a-study-of-625-patients
#15
Danielle A Zacarias, Nuno Rolão, Flaviane A de Pinho, Ingridi Sene, Jailthon C Silva, Teresinha C Pereira, Dorcas L Costa, Carlos H N Costa
BACKGROUND: An infected host's Leishmania infantum load in blood is considered to be an estimate of his or her total parasite burden. Therefore, the measurement of blood parasite burden is important in the identification of factors involved in parasite control. METHODS: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on blood samples from 625 patients with kala-azar consecutively admitted to a reference hospital in Teresina, Brazil. Primers were used to amplify a segment of kDNA using the TaqMan system...
April 5, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361747/dietary-counseling-adherence-during-tuberculosis-treatment-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Adriana Costa Bacelo, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Cláudia Dos Santos Cople-Rodrigues, Georg Ingebourg, Eliane Paiva, Andrea Ramalho, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of dietary counseling to overcome malnutrition for patients with tuberculosis, with or without HIV, however the response to nutritional treatment depends on patient's adherence to nutritional counseling. OBJECTIVE: Identify the degree of adherence to dietary counseling and predictors of adherence among patients undergoing tuberculosis treatment. DESIGN: Observational prospective follow-up study conducted in adults treating for tuberculosis with or without HIV...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317139/mortality-after-inpatient-treatment-for-severe-pneumonia-in-children-a-cohort-study
#17
Moses M Ngari, Greg Fegan, Martha K Mwangome, Mwanajuma J Ngama, Neema Mturi, John Anthony Gerard Scott, Evasius Bauni, David James Nokes, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Although pneumonia is a leading cause of inpatient mortality, deaths may also occur after discharge from hospital. However, prior studies have been small, in selected groups or did not fully evaluate risk factors, particularly malnutrition and HIV. We determined 1-year post-discharge mortality and risk factors among children diagnosed with severe pneumonia. METHODS: A cohort study of children aged 1-59 months admitted to Kilifi County Hospital with severe pneumonia (2007-12)...
May 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#18
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301592/psychosocial-correlates-of-nutritional-status-among-people-living-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-matched-case-control-study-in-central-zone-of-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#19
Negassie Berhe Weldehaweria, Elsa Hagos Abreha, Meresa Gebremedhin Weldu, Kebede Haile Misgina
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284260/tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-south-african-children-with-complicated-severe-acute-malnutrition
#20
H Adler, M Archary, P Mahabeer, P LaRussa, R A Bobat
SETTING: Academic tertiary referral hospital in Durban, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and diagnostic challenges of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial that enrolled antiretroviral therapy naïve, HIV-infected children with SAM. Trial records and hospital laboratory results were explored for clinical diagnoses and bacteriologically confirmed cases of TB...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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