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Malnutrition in HIV

J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n=44) and HIV-negative (n=70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Giselle Souza Pinto, Anelise Fernanda Zanolla, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta Gottschall, Caroline Buss
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection may cause nutrient deficiency and affect the nutritional status.Objetive: To assess nutritional status, and energy and macronutrient intake in HCV/HIV coinfected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated in a public hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by measurements of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), arm circumference (AC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), non-dominant hand gripltrength (NDHGS), body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Sadikalmahdi Hussen, Tefera Belachew, Nezif Hussien
PURPOSES: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional status at the start of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on treatment outcomes among HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 340 adults who started highly active anti-retroviral therapy. The patients have been clinically followed for 2 years. Data were extracted from paper based medical charts by trained data collectors from January 30 to February 28, 2014 using data collection format...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Ayaaz Habib, Nagaraj Sivaji, Tauseef Ashraf
Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Ingrid Peterson, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil Kennedy, Antonia Ho, Laura Newberry, Miguel A San Joaquin, Mavis Menyere, Maaike Alaerts, Gugulethu Mapurisa, Moses Chilombe, Ivan Mambule, David G Lalloo, Suzanne T Anderson, Thembi Katangwe, Nigel Cunliffe, Nico Nagelkerke, Meredith McMorrow, Marc-Allain Widdowson, Neil French, Dean Everett, Robert S Heyderman
BACKGROUND:  We used four years of paediatric severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) sentinel surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi to identify factors associated with clinical severity and co-viral clustering. METHODS:  From January 2011 to December 2014, 2363 children aged 3 months to 14 years presenting to hospital with SARI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses. We assessed risk factors for clinical severity and conducted clustering analysis to identify viral clusters in children with co-viral detection...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
John R Koethe, Douglas C Heimburger, George PrayGod, Suzanne Filteau
The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Regilda Anne A Romero, Elizabeth L Prado, Elsa G Shapiro, Paul Bangirana, Chandy C John
Diseases affecting millions of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as malnutrition, micronutrient deficiency, malaria, and HIV, can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Thus, a key health outcome in children is neurodevelopmental status. In this paper, the neurodevelopmental screening and testing measures most commonly utilized in LMICs are reviewed, and a matrix is presented to help researchers and clinicians determine which measures may be most useful for various LMIC inquiries...
September 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Susan Hrapcak, Hannah Kuper, Peter Bartlett, Akash Devendra, Atupele Makawa, Maria Kim, Peter Kazembe, Saeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4-14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014...
2016: PloS One
Waleed Al-Salem, Jennifer R Herricks, Peter J Hotez
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ran Hu, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Hao Wu, Lin Pang, Liming Wang, Qingxia Zhao, Yasong Wu, Decai Zhao, Meiling Chen, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related complications are commonly seen in HIV-infected children, and these have been shown in high-prevalent areas such as Africa. Antiviral therapy (ART) has notably controlled disease progression, whereas it effectively reverses underweight and growth retardation in HIV-infected children. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth status after initiation of ART in HIV-infected children in China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the National Science and Technology Major Project...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Sherly George, Colm Bergin, Susan Clarke, Grainne Courtney, Mary B Codd
BACKGROUND: Considering the chronic and debilitating nature of HIV infection, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important patient-reported clinical outcome to better understand the effects of this infection and its treatment on patients' lives. The purpose of this study was to assess the HRQoL and its association with sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, nutrition-related factors and social support in an Irish HIV cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional, prospective study using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health survey assessed the 10 dimensions of HRQoL and summarised as Physical Health Summary (PHS) and Mental Health Summary (MHS) scores...
2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Natasha Lelijveld, Andrew Seal, Jonathan C Wells, Jane Kirkby, Charles Opondo, Emmanuel Chimwezi, James Bunn, Robert Bandsma, Robert S Heyderman, Moffat J Nyirenda, Marko Kerac
BACKGROUND: Tackling severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a global health priority. Heightened risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in children exposed to SAM at around 2 years of age is plausible in view of previously described consequences of other early nutritional insults. By applying developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) theory to this group, we aimed to explore the long-term effects of SAM. METHODS: We followed up 352 Malawian children (median age 9·3 years) who were still alive following SAM inpatient treatment between July 12, 2006, and March 7, 2007, (median age 24 months) and compared them with 217 sibling controls and 184 age-and-sex matched community controls...
September 2016: Lancet Global Health
Iréne McLachlan, Willem I Visser, H Francois Jordaan
BACKGROUND: The current pandemic of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, the modern era of antiretroviral therapy, and the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant TB have led to a broader spectrum of skin conditions in patients hospitalized with TB. These factors also influence investigations into possible causal relationships with TB. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe mucocutaneous conditions found in patients hospitalized with TB and to report associated factors...
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Lucas Otieno, Martina Oneko, Walter Otieno, Joseph Abuodha, Emmanuel Owino, Chris Odero, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Ben Andagalu, Norbert Awino, Karen Ivinson, Dirk Heerwegh, Nekoye Otsyula, Maria Oziemkowska, Effua Abigail Usuf, Allan Otieno, Kephas Otieno, Didier Leboulleux, Amanda Leach, Janet Oyieko, Laurence Slutsker, Marc Lievens, Jessica Cowden, Didier Lapierre, Simon Kariuki, Bernhards Ogutu, Johan Vekemans, Mary J Hamel
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major global public health concern, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The RTS,S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine was reviewed by the European Medicines Agency and received a positive scientific opinion; WHO subsequently recommended pilot implementation in sub-Saharan African countries. Because malaria and HIV overlap geographically, HIV-infected children should be considered for RTS,S/AS01 vaccination. We therefore aimed to assess the safety of RTS,S/AS01 in HIV-infected children at two sites in western Kenya...
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Moherndran Archary, Hugh Adler, Philip La Russa, Prasha Mahabeer, Raziya A Bobat
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections in HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) contribute to higher mortality and poorer outcomes. This study describes the spectrum of bacterial infections in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve, HIV-infected children admitted with SAM. METHODS: Between July 2012 and February 2015, 82 children were prospectively enrolled in the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. Specimens obtained on and during admission for microbiological evaluation, if clinically indicated, included blood, urine (obtained by catheterisation or suprapubic aspiration), induced sputum and cerebrospinal fluid...
July 4, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Stefania Moramarco, Giulia Amerio, Clarice Ciarlantini, Jean Kasengele Chipoma, Matilda Kakungu Simpungwe, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Leonardo Palombi, Ersilia Buonomo
(1) BACKGROUND: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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