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Malnutrition in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784840/oxidative-stress-and-first-line-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#1
Wing Wai Yew, Kwok Chiu Chang, Denise P Chan
Hepatotoxicity induced by antituberculosis drugs is a serious adverse reaction with significant morbidity and even rarely mortality. This form of toxicity potentially impacts the treatment outcome of tuberculosis in some patients. Confining to first-line antituberculosis drugs, this review addresses whether and how oxidative stress, and more broadly, disturbance in redox homeostasis alongside mitochondrial dysfunction, may contribute to the hepatotoxicity induced by them. Risk factors for such toxicity that have been identified, in addition to genetic factors, principally include old age, malnutrition, alcoholism, chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B infection, HIV infection and pre-existing liver disease...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779813/negative-role-of-malnutrition-in-cell-mediated-immune-response-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pcp-in-a-severely-malnourished-hiv-negative-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa
#2
Mouna Hanachi, Vanessa Bohem, Pauline Bemer, Nadja Kayser, Pierre de Truchis, Jean-Claude Melchior
It is generally acknowledged that malnutrition is a propensity factor for secondary infections in different clinical situations (malnutrition-associated infections in hospitalized patients and malnourished children in developing countries). However, it is not clear how malnutrition might facilitate the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients without a definite etiology (disease or treatment) of impaired cell-mediated immune response. We report here on a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an HIV-negative patient suffering from anorexia nervosa with extreme malnutrition, which had a favorable outcome despite the severity of her respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770360/biomarkers-associated-with-death-after-initiating-treatment-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-patients-with-very-low-cd-4-cells
#3
Fred R Sattler, Daniel Chelliah, Xingye Wu, Alejandro Sanchez, Michelle A Kendall, Evelyn Hogg, David Lagat, Umesh Lalloo, Valdilea Veloso, Diane V Havlir, Alan Landay
Background: The risk of short-term death for treatment naive patients dually infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV may be reduced by early anti-retroviral therapy. Of those dying, mechanisms responsible for fatal outcomes are unclear. We hypothesized that greater malnutrition and/or inflammation when initiating treatment are associated with an increased risk for death. Methods: We utilized a retrospective case-cohort design among participants of the ACTG A5221 study who had baseline CD4 < 50 cells/mm3 ...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746496/pharyngeal-colonization-and-drug-resistance-profiles-of-morraxella-catarrrhalis-streptococcus-pneumoniae-staphylococcus-aureus-and-haemophilus-influenzae-among-hiv-infected-children-attending-art-clinic-of-felegehiwot-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#4
Wondemagegn Mulu, Endalew Yizengaw, Megbaru Alemu, Daniel Mekonnen, Derese Hailu, Kassaw Ketemaw, Bayeh Abera, Mulugeta Kibret
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization by potential bacteria is the primary reservoir for bacterial species within a population and is considered a prerequisite for development of major childhood diseases such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. However, there is dearth of data on the colonization and drug resistance pattern of the main bacterial pathogens in the pharynx of HIV infected children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined the pharyngeal colonization and drug resistance profile of bacterial pathogens in HIV infected children attending ART clinic of Felegehiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Amhara Region, Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746470/new-insights-into-leishmaniasis-in-the-immunosuppressed
#5
REVIEW
Hannah Akuffo, Carlos Costa, Johan van Griensven, Sakib Burza, Javier Moreno, Mercè Herrero
Immunosuppression contributes significantly to the caseload of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). HIV coinfection, solid organ transplantation, malnutrition, and helminth infections are the most important immunosuppression-related factors. This review briefly describes the challenges of these associations. East Africa and the Indian subcontinent are the places where HIV imposes the highest burden in VL. In the highlands of Northern Ethiopia, migrant rural workers are at a greater risk of coinfection and malnutrition, while in India, HIV reduces the sustainability of a successful elimination programme...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699043/-dynamic-variations-of-bmi-and-influencing-factors-among-hiv-aids-patients-receiving-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-liuzhou-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-2013-2014
#6
H H Chen, B T Fu, Q Y Zhu, H X Lu, L H Luo, L Chen, X H Liu, X J Zhou, J H Huang, X X Feng, G S Shan, Z Y Shen
Objective: To understand the dynamic variation of BMI and influencing factors among HIV/AIDS patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi). Methods: HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART for the first time since 1 January 2013 were selected. Data on BMI was analyzed among patients receiving HAART at baseline,6 months and 12 months after treatment. By using the general linear model repeated measures of analysis of variance, BMI dynamic variations and influencing factors were described and analyzed...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688853/gender-difference-in-health-related-quality-of-life-and-associated-factors-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-attending-anti-retroviral-therapy-at-public-health-facilities-western-ethiopia-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#7
Delelegn Yilma Gebremichael, Kokeb Tesfamariam Hadush, Ermiyas Mulu Kebede, Robel Tezera Zegeye
BACKGROUND: Though HIV/AIDS has multidimensional consequences on quality of life, there is a gap in measuring and monitoring health related quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Hence, this study intended to measure health related quality of life domains and associated determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS in western Ethiopia. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 520 HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy in public health facilities in West Shoa Zone, Western Ethiopia from April to May, 2016...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672576/malnutrition-and-lipid-abnormalities-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-adults-in-addis-ababa-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Melaku Adal, Rawleigh Howe, Desta Kassa, Abraham Aseffa, Beyene Petros
BACKGROUND: Both under- and over-nutrition may occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and impact on the course of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its management due to the close interaction between immunity and nutrition. We investigated occurrence of undernutrition, excess weight and lipid abnormalities among antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 594 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV-infected adults was conducted in four hospitals in Addis Ababa from February to September 2013...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663621/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-young-children-born-to-hiv-positive-mothers-in-rural-yunnan-china
#9
Jie Wu, Jing Li, Yan Li, Kek Khee Loo, Haixia Yang, Qiong Wang, Rufei Duan, Xia Xiao, Xiaoxiao Song, Siwei Yang, Lin Sun
BACKGROUND: Children born to HIV-infected mothers are at risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Little is known about neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants and toddlers who were born to HIV-positive mothers but were not themselves infected by HIV, especially in poor rural areas. This study was conducted to compare developmental outcomes between young children who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and their HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) peers in rural Yunnan, China. METHODS: A total of 250 HEU children aged 6-36 months and 250 HUU children matched on age, gender and residency were recruited from rural Yunnan, China...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660296/influence-of-aids-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-growth-pattern
#10
REVIEW
Ana Paula Brigatto Simões Golucci, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Mariana Freitas Fedato Valente, Maira Migliari Branco, Camila Carbone Prado, Roberto José Negrão Nogueira
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus infection can result in the early impairment of anthropometric indicators in children and adolescents. However, combined antiretroviral therapy has improved, in addition to the immune response and viral infection, the weight and height development in infected individuals. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of combined antiretroviral on the growth development of human immunodeficiency virus infected children and adolescents. SOURCE OF DATA: A systematic review was performed...
April 13, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619443/cloning-and-expression-of-mce1a-gene-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-and-h37rv-strain-for-vaccine-candidate-development
#11
Desi Indriarini, Andriansjah Rukmana, Andi Yasmon
Background: Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in the world, especially wherever poverty, malnutrition and poor housing prevail. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain is the most common strain that causes tuberculosis in Indonesia. The wide spread of tuberculosis has been further aggravated by HIV-AIDS and drug resistance. Unfortunately, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as the current vaccine has different protection function and efficacy. According to function analysis, mce1A gene was predicted to have a role in host invasion and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534241/clinical-features-and-outcome-of-children-with-severe-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-admitted-to-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-south-africa
#12
Hayley K Hutton, Heather J Zar, Andrew C Argent
Aim: Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods: This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival. Results: In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. In all,102 (38...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514237/priorities-for-decreasing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#13
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505479/pneumonia-in-hiv-exposed-and-infected-children-and-association-with-malnutrition
#14
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Matthew O Wiens, Jerome Kabakyenga, Julius Kiwanuka, Elias Kumbakumba, Peter P Moschovis
We evaluated the association between HIV exposed-uninfected (HEU) status, malnutrition, and risk of death in Ugandan children hospitalized with pneumonia. Both HIV exposure and infection were associated with lower anthropometric indices on univariate analysis, and mid-upper arm circumference was significantly associated with overall mortality (OR 0.96) in a multivariable model. HIV infection (OR 5.0) but not HEU status was associated with overall mortality. Malnutrition may contribute to poor pneumonia outcomes among HIV-infected and HEU children requiring hospitalization...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466967/a-pediatric-death-audit-in-a-large-referral-hospital-in-malawi
#15
Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Rachel Mlotha-Mitole, Emily J Ciccone, Alyssa E Tilly, Jennie M Montijo, Hans-Joerg Lang, Michelle Eckerle
BACKGROUND: Death audits have been used to describe pediatric mortality in under-resourced settings, where record keeping is often a challenge. This information provides the cornerstone for the foundation of quality improvement initiatives. Malawi, located in sub-Saharan Africa, currently has an Under-5 mortality rate of 64/1000. Kamuzu Central Hospital, in the capital city Lilongwe, is a busy government referral hospital, which admits up to 3000 children per month. A study published in 2013 reported mortality rates as high as 9%...
February 21, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461265/severe-acute-malnutrition
#16
Etienne Nel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in our understanding of the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a resource-limited environment are needed to improve outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) made from local products and with reduced milk content lower costs and may be effective in older children. None of the therapeutic foods used to treat severely malnourished children correct long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies.Routine short-term antibiotic (amoxicillin) treatment, in the context of adequate healthcare supervision, does not improve the recovery rate...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432267/effectiveness-of-preoperative-antibiotics-in-preventing-surgical-site-infection-after-common-soft-tissue-procedures-of-the-hand
#17
Kevin Li, Tanmaya D Sambare, Sam Y Jiang, Emily J Shearer, Nathan P Douglass, Robin N Kamal
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis is a common but controversial practice for clean soft tissue procedures of the hand, such as carpal tunnel release or trigger finger release. Previous studies report no substantial reduction in the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after antibiotic prophylaxis, yet are limited in power by low sample sizes and low overall rates of postoperative infection. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Is there evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis decreases the risk of SSI after soft tissue hand surgery when using propensity score matching to control for potential confounding variables such as demographics, procedure type, medication use, existing comorbidities, and postoperative events? METHODS: This retrospective analysis used the Truven Health MarketScan databases, large, multistate commercial insurance claims databases corresponding to inpatient and outpatient services and outpatient drug claims made between January 2007 and December 2014...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427281/idiopathic-chylous-ascites-in-a-patient-with-hiv-infection-response-to-total-parenteral-nutrition-and-octreotide-therapy
#18
Gonçalo Nunes, Cristina Fonseca, Rita Barosa, Marta Patita, André Gomes, Júlio Botas, Hélder Coelho, Maria José Brito, Jorge Fonseca
The authors describe a 47-year-old man infected with human immunodeficiency virus admitted for ascites and weight loss. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed chylous ascites (triglycerides 444 mg/dl) with negative microbiological tests. Neoplasia, cardiac disease and liver cirrhosis were excluded after an extensive diagnostic workout. Exploratory laparotomy with tissue sampling did not clarify ascites etiology. During hospital admission, patient status gradually deteriorated, severe malnutrition developed and ascites became refractory to diuretics...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406463/malnutrition-growth-response-and-metabolic-changes-within-the-first-24-months-after-art-initiation-in-hiv-infected-children-treated-before-the-age-of-two-years-in-west-africa
#19
Julie Jesson, Désiré L Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Karen Malateste, Caroline Yonaba, Marie-Sylvie N'Gbeche, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Véronique Mea-Assande, Clarisse Amani-Bossé, Stéphane Blanche, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about malnutrition, growth evolution and metabolic changes among children initiated early on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. METHODS: HIV-1-infected children, age <2 years were initiated on ART, as part of the MONOD ANRS 12206 project, conducted in Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, WHZ) defined malnutrition (Z-score <-2 standard deviations [SD]) using WHO growth references...
February 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397039/nutrition-status-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-inpatients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
Tássia Kirchmann Lazzari, Gabriele Carra Forte, Denise Rossato Silva
BACKGROUND: The association between tuberculosis (TB) and malnutrition is well recognized. Considering the risk of mortality due to malnutrition in patients with TB, it is necessary to conduct a thorough nutrition assessment to identify individuals at nutrition risk. The study objective was to assess the nutrition status of hospitalized patients with TB, co-infected or not by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB were included using a cross-sectional design...
February 3, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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