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Malnutrition in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056035/a-systematic-review-of-the-incidence-risk-factors-and-case-fatality-rates-of-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-ints-disease-in-africa-1966-to-2014
#1
Ifeanyi Valentine Uche, Calman A MacLennan, Allan Saul
This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031190/risk-factors-for-death-in-children-during-inpatient-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Maren Jh Rytter, Esther Babirekere-Iriso, Hanifa Namusoke, Vibeke B Christensen, Kim F Michaelsen, Christian Ritz, Charlotte G Mortensen, Ezekiel Mupere, Henrik Friis
BACKGROUND: Children who receive in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition often have high mortality rates, and the reasons are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We assessed risk factors for death in children who were treated for malnutrition in a hospital. DESIGN: In a prospective observational study of 120 children who were receiving in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition in Uganda with therapeutic formulas F-75 and F-100, we collected data on symptoms, clinical findings, plasma markers of refeeding syndrome (electrolytes and phosphate), and acute phase reactants, and recorded the nutritional therapy given in hospital...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030608/predicting-hospitalised-paediatric-pneumonia-mortality-risk-an-external-validation-of-risc-and-mrisc-and-local-tool-development-risc-malawi-from-malawi
#3
Shubhada Hooli, Tim Colbourn, Norman Lufesi, Anthony Costello, Bejoy Nambiar, Satid Thammasitboon, Charles Makwenda, Charles Mwansambo, Eric D McCollum, Carina King
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of under-5 mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical prediction tools may aide case classification, triage, and allocation of hospital resources. We performed an external validation of two published prediction tools and compared this to a locally developed tool to identify children admitted with pneumonia at increased risk for in-hospital mortality in Malawi. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the performance of the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) and modified RISC (mRISC) scores in a child pneumonia dataset prospectively collected during routine care at seven hospitals in Malawi between 2011-2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998310/pre-art-nutritional-status-and-its-association-with-mortality-in-adult-patients-enrolled-on-art-at-fiche-hospital-in-north-shoa-oromia-region-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Kokeb Tesfamariam, Negga Baraki, Haji Kedir
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compromises the nutritional status of infected individuals and in turn, malnutrition worsens the effects of the infection itself by weakening the immune system consequently accelerating disease progression and death. However, few studies have examined the association between nutritional status at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and early mortality. Therefore, this study assesses pre-ART nutritional status and other baseline characteristics and mortality among adult patients on ART at Fiche Hospital, Ethiopia...
December 20, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960210/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-latin-america
#5
Hernán A Iannella, Carlos M Luna
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924741/health-and-health-related-indicators-in-slum-rural-and-urban-communities-a-comparative-analysis
#6
Blessing U Mberu, Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Catherine Kyobutungi, Alex C Ezeh
BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906025/nutritional-status-and-its-effect-on-treatment-outcome-among-hiv-infected-clients-receiving-haart-in-ethiopia-a-cohort-study
#7
Sadikalmahdi Hussen, Tefera Belachew, Nezif Hussien
PURPOSES: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional status at the start of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on treatment outcomes among HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 340 adults who started highly active anti-retroviral therapy. The patients have been clinically followed for 2 years. Data were extracted from paper based medical charts by trained data collectors from January 30 to February 28, 2014 using data collection format...
September 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#8
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#9
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881690/acceptability-of-outpatient-ready-to-use-food-based-protocols-in-hiv-infected-senegalese-children-and-adolescents-within-the-maggsen-cohort-study
#10
Cecile Cames, Marie Varloteaux, Ndeye Ngone Have, Alhadji Bassine Diom, Philippe Msellati, Ngagne Mbaye, Helene Mbodj, Haby Sy Signate, Aminata Diack
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acceptability of ready-to-use food (RUF)-based outpatient protocols in HIV-infected children and adolescents with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). METHODS: Plumpy Nut and Plumpy Sup were supplied every 2 weeks and prescribed by weight to SAM and MAM children, respectively. Forty-three children, 24 MAM and 19 SAM, were enrolled. Organoleptic appreciation, feeding modalities, and perceptions surrounding RUF were recorded at week 2...
November 22, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843745/bibliometric-analysis-of-medicine-related-publications-on-poverty-2005-2015
#11
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Poverty is a global problem. The war against poverty requires not only financial support, but also poverty-related research to pinpoint areas of high need of intervention. In line with international efforts to fight poverty and negative consequences, we carried out this study to give a bibliometric overview of medicine-related literature on poverty. Such a s study is an indicator of the extent of interaction of various international key players on the war against poverty-related health problems...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829445/improving-early-childhood-care-and-development-hiv-testing-treatment-and-support-and-nutrition-in-mokhotlong-lesotho-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Mark Tomlinson, Sarah Skeen, Marguerite Marlow, Lucie Cluver, Peter Cooper, Lynne Murray, Shoeshoe Mofokeng, Nathene Morley, Moroesi Makhetha, Sarah Gordon, Tonya Esterhuizen, Lorraine Sherr
BACKGROUND: Since 1990, the lives of 48 million children under the age of 5 years have been saved because of increased investments in reducing child mortality. However, despite these unprecedented gains, 250 million children younger than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) cannot meet their developmental potential due to poverty, poor health and nutrition, and lack of necessary stimulation and care. Lesotho has high levels of poverty, HIV, and malnutrition, all of which affect child development outcomes...
November 9, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825956/psychosocial-factors-influencing-preferences-for-food-and-nutritional-supplements-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-bangkok-thailand
#13
Santiago Rodas-Moya, Supabhorn Pengnonyang, Stephen Kodish, Saskia de Pee, Praphan Phanuphak
Malnutrition and HIV are often coincident and may lead to wasting, a strong predictor of mortality. However; ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are showing promising results in restoring the nutritional status of adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource constrained settings but, its acceptability seems low. This study aimed to identify the psychosocial factors influencing general preferences for food and responses to five potential nutritional supplements to guide the development of novel products to treat malnutrition among PLHIV...
January 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806980/linear-growth-trajectories-in-zimbabwean-infants
#14
Ethan K Gough, Erica Em Moodie, Andrew J Prendergast, Robert Ntozini, Lawrence H Moulton, Jean H Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition in early life underlies 45% of child deaths globally. Stunting malnutrition (suboptimal linear growth) also has long-term negative effects on childhood development. Linear growth deficits accrue in the first 1000 d of life. Understanding the patterns and timing of linear growth faltering or recovery during this period is critical to inform interventions to improve infant nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the pattern and determinants of linear growth trajectories from birth through 24 mo of age in a cohort of Zimbabwean infants...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765020/demographic-and-mortality-analysis-of-hospitalized-children-at-a-referral-hospital-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#15
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761979/maternal-systemic-or-cord-blood-inflammation-is-associated-with-birth-anthropometry-in-a-tanzanian-prospective-cohort
#16
A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
January 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759980/nutritional-status-and-food-intake-of-hcv-hiv-coinfected-patients
#17
Giselle Souza Pinto, Anelise Fernanda Zanolla, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta Gottschall, Caroline Buss
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection may cause nutrient deficiency and affect the nutritional status.Objetive: To assess nutritional status, and energy and macronutrient intake in HCV/HIV coinfected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated in a public hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by measurements of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), arm circumference (AC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), non-dominant hand gripltrength (NDHGS), body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756279/smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-prison-settings-of-north-gondar-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#18
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717603/burden-spectrum-and-impact-of-healthcare-associated-infection-at-a-south-african-children-s-hospital
#19
A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693910/is-the-clinical-relevance-of-drug-food-and-drug-herb-interactions-limited-to-grapefruit-juice-and-saint-john-s-wort
#20
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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