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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619150/alpha-beta-interferon-receptor-deficiency-in-mice-significantly-enhances-susceptibility-of-the-animals-to-pseudorabies-virus-infection
#1
Jingyun Wei, Yanmei Ma, Long Wang, Xiaojuan Chi, Ruoxiang Yan, Song Wang, Xinxin Li, Xiaoyong Chen, Wenhan Shao, Ji-Long Chen
Pseudorabies virus, one of the neurotropic viruses, can infect numerous mammals. In particular, pseudorabies virus infection of swine occurs worldwide, and is a major threat to swine industry. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction between pseudorabies virus and host innate immune system is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of interferon α/β (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) in the pathogenesis of pseudorabies virus in a mouse model. The results showed that IFNAR-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice were highly susceptible to the virus infection, as evidenced by markedly reduced survival rate of infected animals and increased viral replication...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546972/the-survey-of-mindfulness-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-and-its-association-with-attachment-style
#2
Soheila Mohamadirizi, Vahid Shaygannejad, Shahla Mohamadirizi
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness may be conceptualized as a dispositional trait which differs across individuals, so this study was, therefore, designed to determine the survey of mindfulness in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its association with attachment style. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Kashani Hospital affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2013. Samples were 210 adult patients who suffered from MS completed demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire and adult attachment style...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475587/two-studies-in-one-a-propensity-score-matched-comparison-of-fingolimod-versus-interferons-and-glatiramer-acetate-using-real-world-data-from-the-independent-german-studies-pangaea-and-pearl
#3
Jonathan Alsop, Jennie Medin, Christian Cornelissen, Stefan Viktor Vormfelde, Tjalf Ziemssen
BACKGROUND: This study compared outcomes following fingolimod or BRACE treatments (beta-interferons/glatiramer acetate) in patients with active MS (≥ 1 relapse in the previous year) following previous BRACE treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients with active MS who previously received BRACE were identified from German prospective, observational studies, PANGAEA and PEARL. A novel methodology was developed to compare outcomes between propensity-score-matched cohorts (3:1 ratio) from the independent single-arm studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395999/the-ns1-protein-of-h5n6-feline-influenza-virus-inhibits-feline-beta-interferon-response-by-preventing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-irf3-activation
#4
Lifang Wang, Xinliang Fu, Yun Zheng, Pei Zhou, Bo Fang, San Huang, Xin Zhang, Jidang Chen, Zongxi Cao, Jin Tian, Shoujun Li
Despite the apparent lack of a feline influenza virus lineage, cats are susceptible to infection by influenza A viruses. Here, we characterized in vitro A/feline/Guangdong/1/2015, an H5N6 avian influenza virus recently isolated from cats. A/feline/Guangdong/1/2015 replicated to high titers and caused CPE in feline kidney cells. We determined that infection with A/feline/Guangdong/1/2015 did not activate the IFN-β promoter, but inhibited it by blocking the activation of NF-κB and IRF3. We also determined that the viral NS1 protein mediated the block, and that the dsRNA binding domain of NS1 was essential to perform this function...
April 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273762/natural-killer-cell-subpopulations-are-associated-with-mri-activity-in-a-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patient-cohort-from-australia
#5
P Caruana, K Lemmert, K Ribbons, R Lea, J Lechner-Scott
BACKGROUND: The importance of the innate immune system in multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasingly recognized and the role of natural killer (NK) cells in controlling autoimmunity may be an important modulator of disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To examine NK subsets in MS patients on different treatments and to evaluate the role of NK subsets as indicators for disease activity. METHODS: We measured NK subset levels in blood obtained from 110 relapsing-remitting MS patients...
November 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219110/estimating-inverse-probability-weights-using-super-learner-when-weight-model-specification-is-unknown-in-a-marginal-structural-cox-model-context
#6
Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, Robert W Platt
Correct specification of the inverse probability weighting (IPW) model is necessary for consistent inference from a marginal structural Cox model (MSCM). In practical applications, researchers are typically unaware of the true specification of the weight model. Nonetheless, IPWs are commonly estimated using parametric models, such as the main-effects logistic regression model. In practice, assumptions underlying such models may not hold and data-adaptive statistical learning methods may provide an alternative...
June 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161400/memory-b-cells-are-major-targets-for-effective-immunotherapy-in-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
David Baker, Monica Marta, Gareth Pryce, Gavin Giovannoni, Klaus Schmierer
Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be a CD4, Th17-mediated autoimmune disease, supportive evidence is perhaps circumstantial, often based on animal studies, and is questioned by the perceived failure of CD4-depleting antibodies to control relapsing MS. Therefore, it was interestingly to find that current MS-treatments, believed to act via T cell inhibition, including: beta-interferons, glatiramer acetate, cytostatic agents, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, cladribine, daclizumab, rituximab/ocrelizumab physically, or functionally in the case of natalizumab, also depleted CD19+, CD27+ memory B cells...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939488/first-and-second-trimester-immune-biomarkers-in-preeclamptic-and-normotensive-women
#8
Brandie D Taylor, Roberta B Ness, Mark A Klebanoff, Roger Zoh, Debra Bass, David M Hougaard, Kristin Skogstrand, Catherine L Haggerty
INTRODUCTION: Circulating immune markers may be associated with preeclampsia but further investigations in early pregnancy and among preeclampsia subtypes are warranted. We examined immune markers in 208 preeclamptic women and 411 normotensive controls. METHODS: Our study was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A total of 242 women had first trimester serum samples and 392 had second trimester serum samples. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension >20weeks of gestation with proteinuria or pulmonary edema, oliguria, or convulsions...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914152/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-in-portugal-a-multicentre-study
#9
Ana Sofia Correia, Luís Augusto, Joana Meireles, Joana Pinto, Ana Paula Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis is most often diagnosed among young adults but less frequently it may present during childhood or adolescence. In Portugal, there has been only one previous single-center, pediatric multiple sclerosis study. The main objective was the evaluation of the demographic, clinical, laboratorial and neuroradiological characteristics of patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis in Portugal. The secondary objectives were to compare the characteristics of childhood-onset multiple sclerosis and adolescent-onset multiple sclerosis and to characterize the treatments prescribed...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876365/midyear-commentary-on-trends-in-drug-delivery-and-clinical-translational-medicine-growth-in-biosimilar-complex-injectable-drug-formulation-products-within-evolving-collaborative-regulatory-interagency-fda-ftc-and-doj-practices-and-enforcement
#10
Rodney J Y Ho
Before the 2009 Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act that enabled the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) to create the 351(k) Biologic License Application-an abbreviated biosimilar approval process, FDA approved follow-on biomolecule products such as beta-interferon, glucagon, hyaluronidase, and somatropin (human growth hormone) under varying and evolving rules. With the 351(k) Biologic License Application biosimilar approval process in place, currently, there are 4 (licensed in 2015-2016) biosimilars available, namely Neupogen (filgrastim; $1 B/y), Humira (adalumumab; $14...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677792/chlamydial-protease-like-activity-factor-and-type-iii-secreted-effectors-cooperate-in-inhibition-of-p65-nuclear-translocation
#11
Michael John Patton, Stuart McCorrister, Chris Grant, Garrett Westmacott, Robert Fariss, Pingzhao Hu, Kaiqiong Zhao, Mary Blake, Bill Whitmire, Chunfu Yang, Harlan D Caldwell, Grant McClarty
The chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) is hypothesized to be an important secreted virulence factor; however, challenges in denaturing its proteolytic activity have hampered attempts to identify its legitimate targets. Here, we use a genetic and proteomic approach to identify authentic CPAF targets. Human epithelial cells infected with CPAF-sufficient and CPAF-deficient chlamydiae were lysed using known CPAF-denaturing conditions. Their protein profiles were analyzed using isobaric mass tags and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659168/comparison-of-statistical-approaches-dealing-with-time-dependent-confounding-in-drug-effectiveness-studies
#12
Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, John Petkau, Paul Gustafson, Robert W Platt, Helen Tremlett
In longitudinal studies, if the time-dependent covariates are affected by the past treatment, time-dependent confounding may be present. For a time-to-event response, marginal structural Cox models are frequently used to deal with such confounding. To avoid some of the problems of fitting marginal structural Cox model, the sequential Cox approach has been suggested as an alternative. Although the estimation mechanisms are different, both approaches claim to estimate the causal effect of treatment by appropriately adjusting for time-dependent confounding...
September 21, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640439/recombinant-beta-interferon-could-clear-the-low-dose-infected-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-in-marc-145-cells
#13
X Shi, X Zhang, L Wang, W Li, B Jiang, R Deng, A Wang, G Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes one of the most economically devastating and pandemic porcine diseases. Previous study has shown that MARC-145 cells pretreated with recombinant IFN-β (rIFN-β) couldn't develop cytopathic effect (CPE) of PRRSV. However, up to date, it is not clear whether MARC-145 cells post-treated with rIFN-β could develop CPE of PRRSV. The present work showed that the MARC-145 cells didn't develop the CPE at 120 hr post-infection (p.i.) with low-dose of PRRSV when the cells were pre-treated with rIFN-β (Group 1), post-treated with rIFN-β at 4 hr p...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603381/monitoring-interferon-%C3%AE-treatment-response-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Mehmet Fatih Yetkin, Meral Mirza, Halil Dönmez
The aim of this study is to compare the white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with healthy controls and to monitor the response to the treatment with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).Fifteen healthy controls and 36 recently diagnosed MS patients never treated with interferon β were included in this study. In the patient group, MRS was performed before treatment, at 6th and 12th month after the initiation of treatment and once in control group. Patient group was divided into 3 interferon groups randomly...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478307/inhibition-of-tlr4-signalling-induced-inflammation-attenuates-secondary-injury-after-diffuse-axonal-injury-in-rats
#15
Yonglin Zhao, Yahui Zhao, Ming Zhang, Junjie Zhao, Xudong Ma, Tingqin Huang, Honggang Pang, Jiaxi Li, Jinning Song
Increasing evidence suggests that secondary injury after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) damages more axons than the initial insult, but the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and have been shown to be associated with brain damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR4 signalling pathway in secondary axonal injury in the cortices of DAI rats...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455963/comparison-of-statistical-approaches-for-dealing-with-immortal-time-bias-in-drug-effectiveness-studies
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, Paul Gustafson, John Petkau, Helen Tremlett
In time-to-event analyses of observational studies of drug effectiveness, incorrect handling of the period between cohort entry and first treatment exposure during follow-up may result in immortal time bias. This bias can be eliminated by acknowledging a change in treatment exposure status with time-dependent analyses, such as fitting a time-dependent Cox model. The prescription time-distribution matching (PTDM) method has been proposed as a simpler approach for controlling immortal time bias. Using simulation studies and theoretical quantification of bias, we compared the performance of the PTDM approach with that of the time-dependent Cox model in the presence of immortal time...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374795/sam68-is-a-regulator-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling
#17
Jeffrey A Tomalka, Tristan J de Jesus, Parameswaran Ramakrishnan
Recognition of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLR) activate multiple signaling cascades and expression of genes tailored to mount a primary immune response, inflammation, cell survival and apoptosis. Although TLR-induced activation of pathways, such as nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), has been well studied, molecular entities controlling quantitative regulation of these pathways during an immune response remain poorly defined. We identified Sam68 as a novel regulator of TLR-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation...
January 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222466/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-a-signature-profile-for-tick-borne-flavivirus-persistence-in-hek-293t-cells
#18
Luwanika Mlera, Jennifer Lam, Danielle K Offerdahl, Craig Martens, Daniel Sturdevant, Charles V Turner, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
UNLABELLED: Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) cause febrile illnesses, which may progress to severe encephalitis and/or death in humans globally. Most people who recover from severe acute disease suffer from debilitating neurological sequelae, which may be due to viral persistence, infection-induced neurological cell damage, host response, or some combination of these. Acute TBFV infection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells in vitro results in the death of >95% of infected cells by day 5...
May 24, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073094/the-type-i-interferon-response-determines-differences-in-choroid-plexus-susceptibility-between-newborns-and-adults-in-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Douglas R Wilcox, Stephen S Folmsbee, William J Muller, Richard Longnecker
UNLABELLED: Newborns are significantly more susceptible to severe viral encephalitis than adults, with differences in the host response to infection implicated as a major factor. However, the specific host signaling pathways responsible for differences in susceptibility and neurologic morbidity have remained unknown. In a murine model of HSV encephalitis, we demonstrated that the choroid plexus (CP) is susceptible to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) early in infection of the newborn but not the adult brain...
April 12, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993334/a-recombinant-dna-vaccine-protects-mice-deficient-in-the-alpha-beta-interferon-receptor-against-lethal-challenge-with-usutu-virus
#20
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Rodrigo Cañas-Arranz, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Teresa Merino-Ramos, Estela Escribano-Romero, Francisco Sobrino, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus whose circulation had been confined to Africa since it was first detected in 1959. However, in the last decade USUV has emerged in Europe causing episodes of avian mortality and sporadic severe neuroinvasive infections in humans. Remarkably, adult laboratory mice exhibit limited susceptibility to USUV infection, which has impaired the analysis of the immune responses, thus complicating the evaluation of virus-host interactions and of vaccine candidates against this pathogen...
April 19, 2016: Vaccine
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