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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328761/drug-efficacy-monitoring-in-pharmacotherapy-of-multiple-sclerosis-with-biological-agents
#1
M Caldano, W Raoul, T Rispens, A Bertolotto
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease. Although several EMA approved Disease Modifying Treatments including biopharmaceuticals are available, their efficacy is limited and a certain percentage of patients are always non-responsive. Drug Efficacy Monitoring is an important tool to identify these non-responsive patients early on. Currently, Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies and quantification of Biological Activity are used as methods of efficacy monitoring for Interferon beta (IFNβ) and Natalizumab (NAT) therapies...
March 22, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321835/teriflunomide-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-real-world-setting
#2
M L Elkjaer, T Molnar, Z Illes
OBJECTIVES: Teriflunomide 14 mg is a once-daily oral disease-modifying treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We examined adverse event (AE) profile and efficacy in real life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we retrospectively examined 1521 blood samples and data of 102 patients followed for up to 28 months. RESULTS: The number of female patients starting teriflunomide peaked in the fifth decade, 10 years later compared to male patients (P<...
March 20, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319417/alterations-in-serum-levels-of-il-17-in-contrast-to-tnf-alpha-correspond-to-disease-modifying-treatment-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Anastasiya Georgieva Trenova, Georgi Svetoslavov Slavov, Maria Georgieva Manova, Milena Nenkova Draganaova-Filipova, Nonka Georgieva Mateva, Lyuba Dineva Miteva, Spaska Angelova Stanilova
Cytokines of different types play an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis as mediators and regulators of the immune processes in the central nervous system. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of interferon-beta and glatiramer acetate on serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-17 A and their correlation with the degree of disability in clinically stable patients with relapsing-remitting MS. A cross-sectional, case-control study of 220 patients (68 treatment naïve; 152 treated with interferon-beta or glatiramer acetate) and 99 clinically healthy age-gender-body mass index-matched subjects were performed...
March 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293479/mxa-mrna-decrease-preceding-nab-detection-in-ifn%C3%AE-treated-ms-patients
#4
Jana Libertinova, Eva Meluzinova, Vaclav Matoska, Miroslav Zajac, Ivana Kovarova, Eva Havrdova, Dana Horakova, Ales Tomek, Petr Marusic, Martin Bojar
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon beta (IFNβ) are at risk of a declining response to treatment because of the production of IFNβ-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The expression of Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) mRNA is regarded as a marker of IFNβ bioactivity. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics of MxA mRNA expression during long-term IFNβ treatment and assess its relationship to NAb production. METHODS: A prospective, observational, open-label, non-randomized study was designed in multiple sclerosis patients starting IFNβ treatment...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290755/active-cmv-infection-in-two-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-treated-with-alemtuzumab
#5
Marinella Clerico, Stefania De Mercanti, Carlo Alberto Artusi, Luca Durelli, Robert T Naismith
Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the surface molecule CD52, resulting in a rapid depletion of innate and adaptive immune cells. Infection rates in multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment trials were higher in alemtuzumab than in interferon beta-treated patients. We report two MS patients who developed cytomegalovirus disease within 1 month after the first 5-day cycle of alemtuzumab. Upon identification and appropriate treatment of the infection, each recovered completely. Neurologists should be aware of this serious but treatable complication...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287331/disability-progression-markers-over-6-12%C3%A2-years-in-interferon-%C3%AE-treated-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#6
Jordi Río, Àlex Rovira, Mar Tintoré, Susana Otero-Romero, Manuel Comabella, Ángela Vidal-Jordana, Ingrid Galán, Joaquín Castilló, Georgina Arrambide, Carlos Nos, Carmen Tur, Berta Pujal, Cristina Auger, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Xavier Montalban
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between activity during interferon-beta (IFNβ) therapy and disability outcomes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: A longitudinal study based on two previously described cohorts of IFNβ-treated RRMS patients was conducted. Patients were classified according to clinical activity after 2 years (clinical cohort) or to clinical and radiological activity after 1 year (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cohort)...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286970/daclizumab-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Marina Herwerth, Bernhard Hemmer
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Over the last two decades, the number of therapeutic options for the treatment of relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) has been constantly growing, providing new treatment options to patients. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the recently approved monoclonal antibody daclizumab for the treatment of RRMS. Based on original articles, they discuss its mode of action and evaluate its efficacy and safety profile compared to other available agents...
March 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285495/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-c-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Maria Kalafateli, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282804/ifnar1-expression-level-in-iranian-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-ifn-b
#9
Arezou Sayad, Mohsen Khakzad Kelarijani, Elham Sajjadi, Mohammad Taheri
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) as an auto-immune disease is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Certain genes have shown to be involved in the initiation of MS but the specific role of some of them, e.g. IFNAR1 has not been identified in certain populations yet. OBJECTIVE: The IFNAR1 as a type I membrane protein shapes one of the two chains of a receptor for interferons alpha and beta. METHODS: To find out how IFNAR1 functions in the Iranian population, the researchers compared the expression level of this gene in relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) samples with normal individuals...
March 3, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280313/impact-of-adherence-on-subcutaneous-interferon-beta-1a-effectiveness-administered-by-rebismart-%C3%A2-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
María Dolores Edo Solsona, Emilio Monte Boquet, Bonaventura Casanova Estruch, José Luis Poveda Andrés
BACKGROUND: Adherence to disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) is one of the key factors for achieving optimal clinical outcomes. Rebismart(®) is an injection device for subcutaneous administration of interferon beta-1a (INF β-1a) that is also able to monitor adherence objectively. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to INF β-1a using the said electronic autoinjection device and to explore the relationship between adherence and relapses in a Spanish cohort. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study in which 110 Spanish patients self-administered INF β-1a subcutaneously using an electronic autoinjection device between June 2010 and June 2015...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273779/concurrent-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Gonçalo Cação, Ernestina Santos, Ana Martins Silva
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare and chronic inflammatory disorder associated with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases, including, infrequently, multiple sclerosis (MS). Short Reports: We report five cases of MS and AIH association. One patient developed AIH while under interferon beta-1b and the remaining while off disease-modifying therapy, although after methylprednisolone bolus in three. All presented a liver biopsy compatible with AIH. Hepatitis resolution was achieved with immunosuppressive treatment, but one patient died after a fulminant hepatitis requiring liver transplant...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262704/il-33-st2-immune-responses-to-respiratory-bacteria-in-pediatric-asthma
#12
Isabell Hentschke, Anna Graser, Volker O Melichar, Alexander Kiefer, Theodor Zimmermann, Bettina Kroß, Patricia Haag, Paraskevi Xepapadaki, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Christian Bogdan, Susetta Finotto
Here we investigated the relationship between local bacterial colonization and anti-bacterial immune responses in pre-school asthmatic and control children within the EU-wide study PreDicta. In this cohort of pre-school asthmatic children, nasopharyngeal colonization with Gram-negative bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was found to be associated with the highest interferon beta (IFNβ) and IL-33 levels in the nasal pharyngeal fluids (NPF). IL33R-ST2 was found induced in the blood of asthmatic children with additional Gram + bacteria in the nasopharynx (Gr+/-)...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257578/amelioration-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice-by-interferon-beta-gene-therapy-using-a-long-term-expression-plasmid-vector
#13
Atsushi Hamana, Yuki Takahashi, Akane Tanioka, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Repeated injections of the interferon-β (IFN-β) protein are required for relapse prevention therapy in patients with MS. IFN-β gene transfer can be an alternative treatment that continuously supplies IFN-β protein to the patient without requiring repeated injections. In a previous study, we constructed a novel long-term IFN-β-expressing plasmid vector (pMx-IFN-β). In the present study, we examined whether gene transfer of pMx-IFN-β could be effective for the treatment of MS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247239/effect-of-fingolimod-on-brain-volume-loss-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Nicola De Stefano, Diego G Silva, Michael H Barnett
Brain atrophy occurs at a faster rate in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than in healthy individuals. In three randomized, controlled, phase III trials, fingolimod reduced the annual rate of brain volume loss (BVL) in patients with relapsing MS (RMS) by approximately one-third relative to that in individuals receiving placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a. Analysis of brain volume changes during study extensions has shown that this reduced rate of BVL is sustained in patients with RMS receiving fingolimod continuously...
February 28, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245725/brain-structural-changes-in-patients-in-the-early-stages-of-multiple-sclerosis-with-depression
#15
J I Rojas, F Sanchez, L Patrucco, J Miguez, C Besada, E Cristiano
Some studies suggest an inflammatory mechanism associated with the presence of depression in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, there is little data concerning these findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of brain structural changes in patients with MS and depression and to compare them with patients suffering from MS without depression and healthy controls. METHODS: A case-control study that included patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) defined by validated criteria, over 18 years of age, with less than three years from disease onset, EDSS ≤ 3, with no history of previous depression and under immunomodulatory treatment with interferon beta, if any...
March 1, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243843/dynamic-gene-expression-analysis-in-a-h1n1-influenza-virus-mouse-pneumonia-model
#16
Yanyan Bao, Yingjie Gao, Yujing Shi, Xiaolan Cui
H1N1, a major pathogenic subtype of influenza A virus, causes a respiratory infection in humans and livestock that can range from a mild infection to more severe pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Understanding the dynamic changes in the genome and the related functional changes induced by H1N1 influenza virus infection is essential to elucidating the pathogenesis of this virus and thereby determining strategies to prevent future outbreaks. In this study, we filtered the significantly expressed genes in mouse pneumonia using mRNA microarray analysis...
February 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243692/intratumoral-administration-of-cgamp-transiently-accumulates-potent-macrophages-for-anti-tumor-immunity-at-a-mouse-tumor-site
#17
Takayuki Ohkuri, Akemi Kosaka, Kei Ishibashi, Takumi Kumai, Yui Hirata, Kenzo Ohara, Toshihiro Nagato, Kensuke Oikawa, Naoko Aoki, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis, Hiroya Kobayashi
Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) spontaneously contributes to anti-tumor immunity by inducing type I interferons (IFNs) following sensing of tumor-derived genomic DNAs in the tumor-bearing host. Although direct injection of STING ligands such as cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic [G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] (cGAMP) into the tumor microenvironment exerts anti-tumor effects through strong induction of type I IFNs and activation of innate and adaptive immunity, the precise events caused by STING in the tumor microenvironment remain to be elucidated...
February 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241019/affordability-of-medicines-in-the-european-union
#18
Tomasz Zaprutko, Dorota Kopciuch, Krzysztof Kus, Piotr Merks, Monika Nowicka, Izabela Augustyniak, Elżbieta Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices. METHODS: The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU) countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214639/congenital-glioblastoma-with-distinct-clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#19
Masahiro Kameda, Yoshihiro Otani, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Akira Shimada, Koichi Ichimura, Isao Date
BACKGROUND: The molecular diagnosis of brain tumors is important in classifying tumors and determining appropriate treatment. Congenital glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rare tumor that occurs in infants, and the prognosis is poor. Approximately 60 patients diagnosed as congenital GBM have been reported. However, few reports have conducted molecular analyses of congenital GBM. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe two congenital GBM patients treated in our hospital, and report results of immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), direct sequencing, and methylation analyses...
February 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211024/comparative-effectiveness-research-of-disease-modifying-therapies-for-the-management-of-multiple-sclerosis-analysis-of-a-large-health-insurance-claims-database
#20
Aaron Boster, Jacqueline Nicholas, Ning Wu, Wei-Shi Yeh, Monica Fay, Michael Edwards, Ming-Yi Huang, Andrew Lee
INTRODUCTION: Limited data are available on the real-world effectiveness of newer oral disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the real-world effectiveness of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), fingolimod, teriflunomide, and injectable DMTs in routine clinical practice based on US claims data. METHODS: Patients newly-initiating DMF, interferon beta (IFNβ), glatiramer acetate (GA), teriflunomide, or fingolimod in 2013 were identified in the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims Databases (N = 6372)...
February 16, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
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