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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#1
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527472/-leaving-no-one-behind-reflections-on-the-design-of-community-based-hiv-prevention-for-migrants-in-johannesburg-s-inner-city-hostels-and-informal-settlements
#2
Fiona Scorgie, Jo Vearey, Monique Oliff, Jonathan Stadler, Emilie Venables, Matthew F Chersich, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
BACKGROUND: Unmanaged urban growth in southern and eastern Africa has led to a growth of informal housing in cities, which are home to poor, marginalised populations, and associated with the highest HIV prevalence in urban areas. This article describes and reflects on the authors' experiences in designing and implementing an HIV intervention originally intended for migrant men living in single-sex hostels of inner-city Johannesburg. It shows how formative research findings were incorporated into project design, substantially shifting the scope of the original project...
May 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527138/application-of-hyper-branched-rolling-circle-amplification-hrca-and-hrca-based-strip-test-for-the-detection-of-chattonella-marina
#3
Xiaoli Nie, Chunyun Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Changlu Guo, Jin Zhou, Guofu Chen
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are global threats to marine ecosystems, fisheries, and human health. Therefore, developing effective and accurate methods for identifying causative algae and monitoring seawater quality is urgent. However, traditional, microscopy-based methods are complex, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Here, we present a novel method for effective and sensitive detection of Chattonella marina using hyper-branched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) and HRCA-based strip test (HBST). The large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1-D2 region of C...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523366/the-effect-of-cigarette-price-increases-on-cigarette-consumption-tax-revenue-and-smoking-related-death-in-africa-from-1999-to-2013
#4
Li-Ming Ho, Christian Schafferer, Jie-Min Lee, Chun-Yuan Yeh, Chi-Jung Hsieh
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues, and reduction in smoking-caused mortality in 36 African countries. METHODS: Using panel data from the 1999-2013 Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we applied fixed-effects and random-effects regression models of panel data to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and simulate the effect of price fluctuations...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520742/experimental-outgassing-of-toxic-chemicals-to-simulate-the-characteristics-of-hazards-tainting-globally-shipped-products
#5
Lygia Therese Budnik, Nadine Austel, Sabrina Gadau, Stefan Kloth, Jens Schubert, Harald Jungnickel, Andreas Luch
Ambient monitoring analyses may identify potential new public health hazards such as residual levels of fumigants and industrial chemicals off gassing from products and goods shipped globally. We analyzed container air with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD) and assessed whether the concentration of the volatiles benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane exceeded recommended exposure limits (REL). Products were taken from transport containers and analyzed for outgassing of volatiles. Furthermore, experimental outgassing was performed on packaging materials and textiles, to simulate the hazards tainting from globally shipped goods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520199/economic-evaluation-of-strategies-for-restarting-anticoagulation-therapy-after-a-first-event-of-unprovoked-venous-thromboembolism
#6
M Monahan, J Ensor, D Moore, D Fitzmaurice, S Jowett
BACKGROUND: Following at least three months of anticoagulation therapy after a first unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism (VTE), there is uncertainty about the duration of therapy. Further anticoagulation therapy reduces the risk of having a potentially fatal recurrent VTE but at the expense of a higher risk of bleeding which can also be fatal. OBJECTIVE: An economic evaluation sought to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of using a decision rule for restarting anticoagulation therapy versus no extension of therapy in patients based on their risk of a further unprovoked VTE...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516345/performance-and-cost-evaluation-of-health-information-systems-using-micro-costing-and-discrete-event-simulation
#7
Olfa Rejeb, Claire Pilet, Sabri Hamana, Xiaolan Xie, Thierry Durand, Saber Aloui, Anne Doly, Pierre Biron, Lionel Perrier, Vincent Augusto
Innovation and health-care funding reforms have contributed to the deployment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve patient care. Many health-care organizations considered the application of ICT as a crucial key to enhance health-care management. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to assess the organizational impact of high-level Health Information System (HIS) on patient pathway. We propose an integrated performance evaluation of HIS approach through the combination of formal modeling using the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) models, a micro-costing approach for cost evaluation, and a Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) approach...
May 17, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514203/cost-effectiveness-of-mr-imaging-guided-strategies-for-detection-of-prostate-cancer-in-biopsy-naive-men
#8
Shivani Pahwa, Nicholas K Schiltz, Lee E Ponsky, Ziang Lu, Mark A Griswold, Vikas Gulani
Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiparametric diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination followed by MR imaging-guided biopsy strategies in the detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naive men presenting with clinical suspicion of cancer for the first time. Materials and Methods A decision-analysis model was created for biopsy-naive men who had been recommended for prostate biopsy on the basis of abnormal digital rectal examination results or elevated prostate-specific antigen levels (age groups: 41-50 years, 51-60 years, and 61-70 years)...
May 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513175/effect-of-voc-emissions-from-vegetation-on-air-quality-in-berlin-during-a-heatwave
#9
Galina Churkina, Friderike Kuik, Boris Bonn, Axel Lauer, Rüdiger Grote, Karolina Tomiak, Tim M Butler
The potential of emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone and particulate matter has long been recognized. This potential increases with rising temperatures and may lead to severe problems with air quality in densely populated areas during heat waves. Here, we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds from urban/suburban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone and particulate matter. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) with emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation simulated with MEGAN to quantify some of these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany, during the heat wave in 2006...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511641/network-based-regularization-for-high-dimensional-snp-data-in-the-case-control-study-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Jie Ren, Tao He, Ye Li, Sai Liu, Yinhao Du, Yu Jiang, Cen Wu
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been steadily increasing around the world. Despite large efforts devoted to better understand the genetic basis of the disease, the identified susceptibility loci can only account for a small portion of the T2D heritability. Some of the existing approaches proposed for the high dimensional genetic data from the T2D case-control study are limited by analyzing a few number of SNPs at a time from a large pool of SNPs, by ignoring the correlations among SNPs and by adopting inefficient selection techniques...
May 16, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508815/bluetooth-low-energy-peripheral-android-health-app-for-educational-and-interoperability-testing-purposes
#11
Matthias Frohner, Philipp Urbauer, Stefan Sauermann
Based on recent telemonitoring activities in Austria for enabling integrated health care, the communication interfaces between personal health devices (e.g. blood pressure monitor) and personal health gateway devices (e.g. smartphone, routing received information to wide area networks) play an important role. In order to ease testing of the Bluetooth Low Energy interface functionality of the personal health gateway devices, a personal health device simulator was developed. Based on specifications from the Bluetooth SIG a XML software test configuration file structure is defined that declares the specific features of the personal health devices simulated...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508797/a-web-based-tool-to-evaluate-data-quality-of-reused-health-data-assets
#12
Christopher Wendl, Georg Duftschmid, Deniz Gezgin, Niki Popper, Florian Miksch, Christoph Rinner
BACKGROUND: Data from the health care domain is often reused to create and parameterize simulation models for example to support life science business in the evaluation of new products. Data quality assessments play an important part to help model users in interpreting simulation results by showing deficiencies in the raw data used in the model building and offers model builders a comparison of data quality amongst the used data assets. OBJECTIVES: Assess data quality in raw data prior to creating simulation models and prepare results for model users...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505278/cost-effectiveness-of-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-a-simulation-modelling-approach
#13
A Vargas-Palacios, D M Meads, M Twiddy, C Czoski Murray, C Hulme, E D Mitchell, A Gregson, P Stanley, J Minton
Objectives: In the UK, patients who require intravenous antimicrobial (IVA) treatment may receive this in the community through outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) services. Services include: IVA administration at a hospital outpatient clinic (HO); IVA administration at home by a general nurse (GN) or a specialist nurse (SN); or patient self-administered (SA) IVA administration following training. There is uncertainty regarding which OPAT services represent value for money; this study aimed to estimate their cost-effectiveness...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505041/the-potential-return-on-public-investment-in-detecting-adverse-drug-effects
#14
Krista F Huybrechts, Rishi J Desai, Moa Park, Joshua J Gagne, Mehdi Najafzadeh, Jerry Avorn
BACKGROUND: Many countries lack fully functional pharmacovigilance programs, and public budgets allocated to pharmacovigilance in industrialized countries remain low due to resource constraints and competing priorities. OBJECTIVE: Using 3 case examples, we sought to estimate the public health and economic benefits resulting from public investment in active pharmacovigilance programs to detect adverse drug effects. RESEARCH DESIGN: We assessed 3 examples in which early signals of safety hazards were not adequately recognized, resulting in continued exposure of a large number of patients to these drugs when safer and effective alternative treatments were available...
June 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503870/correcting-hazard-ratio-estimates-for-outcome-misclassification-using-multiple-imputation-with-internal-validation-data
#15
Jiayi Ni, Aaron Leong, Kaberi Dasgupta, Elham Rahme
OBJECTIVE: Outcome misclassification may occur in observational studies using administrative databases. We evaluated a two-step multiple imputation approach based on complementary internal validation data obtained from two subsamples of study participants to reduce bias in hazard ratio (HR) estimates in Cox regressions. METHODS: We illustrated this approach using data from a surveyed sample of 6247 individuals in a study of statin-diabetes association in Quebec...
May 15, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503225/self-reported-and-actual-involvement-of-community-pharmacists-in-patient-counseling-a-cross-sectional-and-simulated-patient-study-in-gondar-ethiopia
#16
Abdrrahman S Surur, Eyob Getachew, Ebsa Teressa, Bisrat Hailemeskel, Nurahmed S Getaw, Daniel A Erku
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists play a crucial role in reducing medication related health problems and improving the patient's overall wellbeing. Evidence suggests that community pharmacist led counseling services result in a better clinical and self-reported outcome, including a higher level of satisfaction and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to document self-reported and actual levels of community pharmacists' involvement in the provision of patient counseling and barriers that limit their involvement in such services...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502603/alcohol-consumption-for-simulated-driving-performance-a-systematic-review
#17
Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh, Payman Salamati, Mahdi Ramezani-Binabaj, Mina Saeidnejad, Mansoureh Rousta, Farhad Shokraneh, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption can lead to risky driving and increase the frequency of traffic accidents, injuries and mortalities. The main purpose of our study was to compare simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers, one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed, using a systematic review. METHODS: In this systematic review, electronic resources and databases including Medline via Ovid SP, EMBASE via Ovid SP, PsycINFO via Ovid SP, PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) via EBSCOhost were comprehensively and systematically searched...
April 14, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502247/assessing-the-costs-and-benefits-of-insuring-psychological-services-as-part-of-medicare-for-depression-in-canada
#18
Helen-Maria Vasiliadis, Anne Dezetter, Eric Latimer, Martin Drapeau, Alain Lesage
OBJECTIVE: The study estimated costs and effects associated with increasing access to publicly funded psychological services for depression in a public health care system. METHODS: Discrete event simulation modeled clinical events (relapse, recovery, hospitalizations, suicide attempts, and suicide), health service use, and cost outcomes over 40 years in a population with incident depression. Parameters included epidemiologic and economic data from the literature and data from a secondary analysis of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey on mental health...
May 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501349/potential-health-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-drug-therapy-for-prehypertension
#19
Tao Chen, Dahai Yu, Victoria Cornelius, Rui Qin, Yamei Cai, Zhixin Jiang, Zhanzheng Zhao
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that pharmacologic interventions with candesartan or ramipril could reduce the risk of hypertension among prehypertensive subjects free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), however, the cost-effectiveness and long-term cardiovascular risk of drug treatment among these population is unclear. METHOD: A Markov state-transition model was developed to simulate a hypothetical cohort of Chinese adults with high-range prehypertension (130-139/85-89mmHg) but without CVD...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500949/human-health-risks-for-legionella-and-mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-from-potable-and-non-potable-uses-of-roof-harvested-rainwater
#20
Kerry A Hamilton, Warish Ahmed, Simon Toze, Charles N Haas
A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila (LP) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was undertaken for various uses of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) reported in Queensland, Australia to identify appropriate usages and guide risk management practices. Risks from inhalation of aerosols due to showering, swimming in pools topped up with RHRW, use of a garden hose, car washing, and toilet flushing with RHRW were considered for LP while both ingestion (drinking, produce consumption, and accidental ingestion from various activities) and inhalation risks were considered for MAC...
April 5, 2017: Water Research
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