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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148650/residual-effectiveness-of-permethrin-treated-clothing-for-prevention-of-mosquito-bites-under-simulated-conditions
#1
Stephanie L Richards, Jo Anne G Balanay, Jonathan W Harris, Victoria M Banks, Steven Meshnick
Biological hazards such as exposure to ticks and mosquitoes can affect health. Permethrin-treated clothing is available to the public. We don’t currently understand, however, the effects of environmental factors such as fabric type, washing, sunlight, and temperature on permethrin content in treated clothing with respect to mosquito knockdown and mortality. We evaluated the extent to which fabric type (100% cotton denim jeans, 100% polyester work shirt, 35% cotton/65% polyester work shirt), light exposure (0 or 100%), temperature (18 °C, 32 °C), and number of washes (0, 3, 12, 36) affected mosquito knockdown 2 hours post-exposure, mosquito mortality 24 hours post-exposure, and permethrin content...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#2
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147980/a-long-term-comparative-assessment-of-human-health-risk-to-leachate-contaminated-groundwater-from-heavy-metal-with-different-liner-systems
#3
Harshit Mishra, Subhankar Karmakar, Rakesh Kumar, Praneeth Kadambala
The handling and management of municipal solid waste (MSW) are major challenges for solid waste management in developing countries. Open dumping is still the most common waste disposal method in India. However, landfilling also causes various environmental, social, and human health impacts. The generation of heavily polluted leachate is a major concern to public health. Engineered barrier systems (EBSs) are commonly used to restrict potentially harmful wastes by preventing the leachate percolation to groundwater and overflow to surface water bodies...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147091/evaluation-of-the-digestibility-of-korean-hanwoo-beef-cuts-using-the-in-vitro-physicochemical-upper-gastrointestinal-system
#4
Ji-Hye Jeon, Michelle Yoo, Tae-Hwan Jung, Woo-Min Jeon, Kyoung-Sik Han
The aim of this study was to investigate the digestibility of different Korean Hanwoo beef cuts using an in vitro digestion model, in vitro physicochemical upper gastrointestinal system (IPUGS). The four most commonly consumed cuts - tenderloin, sirloin, brisket and flank, and bottom round - were chosen for this study. Beef samples (75 g) were cooked and ingested into IPUGS, which was composed of mouth, esophagus, and stomach, thereby simulating the digestion conditions of humans. Digested samples were collected every 15 min for 4 h of simulation and their pH monitored...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147021/genome-scale-modeling-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-unravel-the-redox-governed-metabolic-states-in-obligate-heterofermentative-lactic-acid-bacteria
#5
Lokanand Koduru, Yujin Kim, Jeongsu Bang, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Nam Soo Han, Dong-Yup Lee
Obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-known for their beneficial health effects in humans. To delineate the incompletely characterized metabolism that currently limits their exploitation, at systems-level, we developed a genome-scale metabolic model of the representative obligate heterofermenting LAB, Leuconostoc mesenteroides (iLME620). Constraint-based flux analysis was then used to simulate several qualitative and quantitative phenotypes of L. mesenteroides, thereby evaluating the model validity...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145878/improving-readiness-for-recruitment-through-simulated-trial-activation-the-adjuvant-steroids-in-adults-with-pandemic-influenza-asap-trial
#6
Wei Shen Lim, Garry Meakin, Clare Brittain, Thomas Bewick, Lelia Duley
BACKGROUND: Research in public health emergencies requires trials to be set up in readiness for activation at short notice and in anticipation of limited timelines for patient recruitment. We conducted a simulated activation of a hibernating pandemic influenza clinical trial in order to test trial processes and to determine the value of such simulation in maintaining trial readiness. METHODS: The simulation involved the Nottingham Clinical Trials Unit, one participating hospital, one manufacturing unit and the Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) supplier...
November 16, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143853/sex-specific-risk-assessment-of-pfhxs-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#7
Sook-Jin Kim, Hwajin Shin, Yong-Bok Lee, Hea-Young Cho
Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), which belongs to the group of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), has been extensively used in industry and subsequently detected in the environment. Its use may be problematic, as PFHxS is known to induce neuronal cell death, and has been associated with early onset menopause in women and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Due to these impending issues, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PFHxS in male and female rats, and apply this to a human health risk assessment...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143637/impact-of-malaria-interventions-on-child-mortality-in-endemic-african-settings-comparison-and-alignment-between-list-and-spectrum-malaria-model
#8
Eline Korenromp, Matthew Hamilton, Rachel Sanders, Guy Mahiané, Olivier J T Briët, Thomas Smith, William Winfrey, Neff Walker, John Stover
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic countries, malaria prevention and treatment are critical for child health. In the context of intervention scale-up and rapid changes in endemicity, projections of intervention impact and optimized program scale-up strategies need to take into account the consequent dynamics of transmission and immunity. METHODS: The new Spectrum-Malaria program planning tool was used to project health impacts of Insecticide-Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) and effective management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CMU), among other interventions, on malaria infection prevalence, case incidence and mortality in children 0-4 years, 5-14 years of age and adults...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142029/routine-use-of-quantitative-disease-activity-measurements-among-us-rheumatologists-implications-for-treat-to-target-management-strategies-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Jeffrey R Curtis, Lang Chen, Maria I Danila, Kenneth G Saag, Kathy L Parham, John J Cush
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine why real-world practices and attitudes regarding quantitative measurements of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have received limited attention. METHODS: An e-mail survey asked US rheumatologists to self-report on their use of quantitative measurements (metric). RESULTS: Among 439 respondents, metric rheumatologists (58%) were more likely to be in group practice and to use tumor necrosis factor inhibitors...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141737/nursing-students-and-medication-errors-why-don-t-they-question
#10
Tonya Schneidereith
In health care, efforts have been aimed at reducing medication errors rates; yet, medication errors continue to affect approximately 5% of hospitalized patients. In health care education, simulation provides nursing students a safe opportunity for hands-on medication administration, often including dosage calculation. However, the safety checks associated with medication administration-including the Five Rights-are frequently overlooked. Although the efforts aimed toward increasing medication safety include external factors (such as environmental measures and electronic resources), recent observations in simulation suggest a different problem...
November 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141153/using-observational-data-to-calibrate-simulation-models
#11
Eleanor J Murray, James M Robins, George R Seage, Sara Lodi, Emily P Hyle, Krishna P Reddy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Individual-level simulation models are valuable tools for comparing the impact of clinical or public health interventions on population health and cost outcomes over time. However, a key challenge is ensuring that outcome estimates correctly reflect real-world impacts. Calibration to targets obtained from randomized trials may be insufficient if trials do not exist for populations, time periods, or interventions of interest. Observational data can provide a wider range of calibration targets but requires methods to adjust for treatment-confounder feedback...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141044/high-dimensional-linear-state-space-models-for-dynamic-microbial-interaction-networks
#12
Iris Chen, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Yu Gu, Jie Zhou, Xing Qiu, Hulin Wu
Medical researchers are increasingly interested in knowing how the complex community of micro-organisms living on human body impacts human health. Key to this is to understand how the microbes interact with each other. Time-course studies on human microbiome indicate that the composition of microbiome changes over short time periods, primarily as a consequence of synergistic and antagonistic interactions of the members of the microbiome with each other and with the environment. Knowledge of the abundance of bacteria-which are the predominant members of the human microbiome-in such time-course studies along with appropriate mathematical models will allow us to identify key dynamic interaction networks within the microbiome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140632/grain-entrapment-pressure-on-the-torso-can-you-breathe-while-buried-in-grain
#13
Kevin G Moore, Carol L Jones
The pressure applied to the chest and back of a simulated grain entrapment victim was measured. Pressure sensors were attached to the chest and back of a manikin that was buried in grain in the vertical position. Measurements were made in four grain types at four grain depths ranging from the top of the manikin's shoulders to 0.61 m (24 in.) over the head. The pressure ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 kPa (0.23 to 0.57 psi). Based on available physiological information, this amount of pressure is unlikely to limit the respiration of an otherwise healthy adult male victim...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140616/comparisons-of-agricultural-seating-for-paraplegia
#14
Carla Sue Wilhite, William E Field, Mark Jaramillo, Kevin Sullivan
People with spinal cord injury/paraplegia are operating agricultural machinery despite the lack of research evidence to support seating interventions. These operators represent a vulnerable population in the agricultural workforce, and information to support their health in the workplace is urgently warranted. This research compared a group of subjects with paraplegia on different intervention cushion conditions during a simulated tractor driving task. Numerical data acquired from a pressure-mapping instrument were explored for statistical relationships within a small cohort of people with paraplegia participating in a feasibility study that was previously reported for clinical results...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139001/the-assessment-for-disinvestment-of-intramuscular-interferon-beta-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-in-brazil
#15
REVIEW
Livia Lovato Pires de Lemos, Augusto Afonso Guerra Júnior, Marisa Santos, Carlos Magliano, Isabela Diniz, Kathiaja Souza, Ramon Gonçalves Pereira, Juliana Alvares, Brian Godman, Marion Bennie, Ivan Ricardo Zimmermann, Vânia Crisitna Canuto Dos Santos, Clarice Alegre Pretramale, Francisco de Assis Acurcio
In Brazil, inclusion and exclusion of health technologies within the Unified Health System (SUS) is the responsibility of the National Committee for Health Technology Incorporation (CONITEC). A recent Cochrane systematic review demonstrated that intramuscular interferon beta 1a (IFN-β-1a-IM) was inferior to the other beta interferons (IFN-βs) for multiple sclerosis (MS). As a result, CONITEC commissioned an analysis to review possible disinvestment within SUS. The objective of this paper is to describe the disinvestment process for IFN-β-1a-IM in Brazil...
November 14, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138584/repeated-intermittent-ulipristal-acetate-in-the-treatment-of-uterine-fibroids-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#16
Kirk Geale, Ertan Saridogan, Matthieu Lehmann, Pablo Arriagada, Marcus Hultberg, Martin Henriksson
There are limited treatment options available for women with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids (UFs) who wish to avoid surgery. For these women, treatment with standard pharmaceuticals such as contraceptives is often insufficient to relieve symptoms, and patients may require surgery despite their wish to avoid it. Clinical trials demonstrate that ulipristal acetate 5 mg (UPA) is an effective treatment for this patient group, but its cost-effectiveness has not been assessed in this population. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate a cohort of patients in this population under treatment with UPA followed by surgery as needed compared to treatment with iron and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) followed by surgery as needed (best supportive care, BSC)...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137627/prevalence-of-current-patterns-and-predictive-trends-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-in-sudan
#17
Ayman A Elshayeb, Abdelazim A Ahmed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussien
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136791/a-flow-injection-procedure-using-layered-double-hydroxide-for-on-line-pre-concentration-of-fluoride
#18
Diego P Rocha, Gabriel C Terra, Thaís S Nery, Jairo Tronto, Frederico G Pinto, Sidnei G Silva, Nívia M M Coelho
This work showed a flow system designed with solenoid valves for preconcentration of fluoride using SPADNS method in water samples. The analyte was preconcentrated in a mini-column coated with Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) used as adsorbent. Then, the fluoride ions were eluted with 0.5molL(-1) sodium hydroxide and determined by spectrophotometry. The variables that affect the system such adsorbent mass, type of eluent, solutions flow rate, reagent concentration and pH effect were critically evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit, coefficient of variation, linear range and preconcentration factor were estimated at 15µgL(-1) (99...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136493/systems-thinking-and-simulation-modeling-to-inform-childhood-obesity-policy-and-practice
#19
Kenneth E Powell, Debra L Kibbe, Rachel Ferencik, Chris Soderquist, Mary Ann Phillips, Emily Anne Vall, Karen J Minyard
OBJECTIVES: In 2007, 31.7% of Georgia adolescents in grades 9-12 were overweight or obese. Understanding the impact of policies and interventions on obesity prevalence among young people can help determine statewide public health and policy strategies. This article describes a systems model, originally launched in 2008 and updated in 2014, that simulates the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. METHODS: In 2008, using information from peer-reviewed reports and quantitative estimates by experts in childhood obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and health economics and policy, a group of legislators, legislative staff members, and experts trained in systems thinking and system dynamics modeling constructed a model simulating the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034...
November 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136109/using-ecological-propensity-score-to-adjust-for-missing-confounders-in-small-area-studies
#20
Yingbo Wang, Monica Pirani, Anna L Hansell, Sylvia Richardson, Marta Blangiardo
Small area ecological studies are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the impact of area level risk factors on health outcomes when data are only available in an aggregated form. However, the resulting estimates are often biased due to unmeasured confounders, which typically are not available from the standard administrative registries used for these studies. Extra information on confounders can be provided through external data sets such as surveys or cohorts, where the data are available at the individual level rather than at the area level; however, such data typically lack the geographical coverage of administrative registries...
November 9, 2017: Biostatistics
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