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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714174/immunological-properties-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-single-mycobacterial-antigen-displayed-on-polyhydroxybutyrate-beads
#1
Patricia Rubio-Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, Bryce M Buddle, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.4 million deaths worldwide. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the vaccine available against TB, but it is insufficient for global TB control. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv1626 in mice while assessing the effect of co-delivering either Cpe30 (immunostimulatory peptide), CS.T3378-395 (promiscuous T helper epitope) or flagellin (TLR5 agonist) or a combination of all three immunostimulatory agents...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713368/the-sptransformer-gene-family-formerly-sp185-333-in-the-purple-sea-urchin-and-the-functional-diversity-of-the-anti-pathogen-rsptransformer-e1-protein
#2
REVIEW
L Courtney Smith, Cheng Man Lun
The complex innate immune system of sea urchins is underpinned by several multigene families including the SpTransformer family (SpTrf; formerly Sp185/333) with estimates of ~50 members, although the family size is likely variable among individuals of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The genes are small with similar structure, are tightly clustered, and have several types of repeats in the second of two exons and that surround each gene. The density of repeats suggests that the genes are positioned within regions of genomic instability, which may be required to drive sequence diversification...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710392/comparative-study-of-arabidopsis-pbs1-and-a-wheat-pbs1-homolog-helps-understand-the-mechanism-of-pbs1-functioning-in-innate-immunity
#3
Jianhang Sun, Guozhong Huang, Fenggui Fan, Shuangfeng Wang, Yingying Zhang, Yufang Han, Yanmin Zou, Dongping Lu
Arabidopsis AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE1 (PBS1) serves as a "decoy" in activating RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE5 (RPS5) upon cleavage by Pseudomonas phaseolicola B (AvrPphB), a Pseudomonas syringae effector. The SEMPH motif in PBS1 was thought to allow it to be distinguished by RPS5 from the closely related Arabidopsis kinases. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a wheat PBS1 homolog, TaPBS1. Although this plasma membrane-localized kinase could be cleaved by AvrPphB and could associate with RPS5, it failed to trigger RPS5-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in a transient assay...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710253/dual-immunization-with-sseb-flagellin-provides-enhanced-protection-against-salmonella-infection-mediated-by-circulating-memory-cells
#4
Seung-Joo Lee, Joseph Benoun, Brian S Sheridan, Zachary Fogassy, Oanh Pham, Quynh-Mai Pham, Lynn Puddington, Stephen J McSorley
The development of a subunit Salmonella vaccine has been hindered by the absence of detailed information about antigenic targets of protective Salmonella-specific T and B cells. Recent studies have identified SseB as a modestly protective Ag in susceptible C57BL/6 mice, but the mechanism of protective immunity remains undefined. In this article, we report that simply combining Salmonella SseB with flagellin substantially enhances protective immunity, allowing immunized C57BL/6 mice to survive for up to 30 d following challenge with virulent bacteria...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698136/dynamic-g-protein-alpha-signaling-in-arabidopsis-innate-immunity
#5
Lahong Xu, Xinran Yao, Nannan Zhang, Ben-Qiang Gong, Jian-Feng Li
Heterotrimeric G proteins composed of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits are evolutionarily conserved signaling modules involved in diverse biological processes in plants and animals. The role and action of Gα remain largely enigmatic in plant innate immunity. We have recently demonstrated that Arabidopsis Gα (GPA1) is a key component of a new immune signaling pathway activated by bacteria-secreted proteases. Here we show that GPA1 is also involved in the signaling network of Arabidopsis in response to the bacterial flagellin epitope flg22...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698128/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-analyses-of-tlrs-in-yesso-scallop-patinopecten-yessoensis-provide-insight-into-the-disparity-of-responses-to-acidifying-exposure-in-bivalves
#6
Qiang Xing, Huan Liao, Xiaogang Xun, Jing Wang, Zhengrui Zhang, Zujing Yang, Xiaoting Huang, Zhenmin Bao
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity by recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including lipoproteins, lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, dsRNA, ssRNA and CpG DNA motifs. Although significant effects of TLRs on immunity have been reported in most vertebrates and some invertebrates, the complete TLR superfamily has not been systematically characterized in scallops. In this study, 18 TLR genes were identified from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) using whole-genome scanning...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698126/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analyses-of-toll-like-receptor-5-induced-by-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-antigens-in-pacific-red-snapper
#7
Martha Reyes-Becerril, Erika Alamillo, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Felipe Ascencio, M Angeles Esteban, Carlos Angulo
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a member of TLRs family responsible for the bacterial flagellin recognition in vertebrates. Herein, the TLR5M gene structure of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) was characterized. The full-length cDNA of LpTLR5M comprises an open reading frame (ORF) of 2715 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 904 amino acids including 9 LRRs (residues 119-562) and one LRR-CT domain (residues 593-646) at the extracellular region, and a TIR domain (residues 710-904) in the cytoplasmic region. The amino acid sequence in L...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696348/relationship-of-triamine-biocide-tolerance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-senftenberg-to-antimicrobial-susceptibility-serum-resistance-and-outer-membrane-proteins
#8
Bożena Futoma-Kołoch, Bartłomiej Dudek, Katarzyna Kapczyńska, Eva Krzyżewska, Martyna Wańczyk, Kamila Korzekwa, Jacek Rybka, Elżbieta Klausa, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska
A new emerging phenomenon is the association between the incorrect use of biocides in the process of disinfection in farms and the emergence of cross-resistance in Salmonella populations. Adaptation of the microorganisms to the sub-inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants is not clear, but may result in an increase of sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics, depending on the biocide used and the challenged Salmonella serovar. Exposure of five Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg (S...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687648/host-specificity-of-segmented-filamentous-bacteria-sfb-flagellins-affects-their-interaction-patterns-with-mouse-ileal-mucosal-proteins
#9
Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Yanling Wang, Xin Wang, Charlie Xiang
Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are known modulators of the mammalian immune system. Currently, the technology for investigating SFB culture in vitro is immature, and as a result, the mechanisms of SFB colonization and immune regulation are not yet fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the gene diversity and host specificity of SFB flagellin genes. The flic1 and flic2 genes are relatively conserved, while the flic3 and flic4 genes are more variable, especially at the central and C-terminal regions...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684545/macrolides-protect-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-via-inhibition-of-inflammasomes
#10
Li-Chao Fan, Jie-Lu Lin, Jia-Wei Yang, Bei Mao, Hai-Wen Lu, Bao-Xue Ge, Augustine M K Choi, Jinfu Xu
Background Macrolides antibiotics have been used effectively in many chronic diseases, especially with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of macrolides in these diseases remain poorly understood. Methods We established a mouse model of chronic lung infection using P. aeruginosa agar-beads, with azithromycin treatment or placebo. Lung injury, bacterial clearance and inflammasome-related proteins were measured. In vitro, the inflammasomes activation induced by flagellin or ATP were assessed in LPS-primed macrophages with or without macrolides treatment...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676442/a-biochip-based-combined-immunoassay-for-detection-of-serological-status-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-in-lyme-borreliosis
#11
Na-Li Huang, Lei Ye, Hui Lv, Yi-Xin Du, Marion Schneider, Li-Bin Fan, Wei-Dong Du
BACKGROUND: Dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) modified gold surface biochip were used as a combined immunoassay platform for concurrently detecting immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) sensu lato antigens, flagellin, outer surface protein C, variable major protein-like sequence proteins, and 3 VlsE protein IR6 peptides. The peptides represented intrinsic Borrelia genospecies: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, respectively. METHODS: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to validate the surface chemical characteristics on the modified gold surface...
July 1, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665716/a-study-on-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-through-commercial-broiler-production-chains-in-thailand-antimicrobial-resistance-the-characterization-of-dna-gyrase-subunit-a-mutation-and-genetic-diversity-by-flagellin-a-gene-restriction-fragment-length
#12
Thotsapol Thomrongsuwannakij, Patrick J Blackall, Niwat Chansiripornchai
Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. During September 2014 and February 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. Five commercial breeder flocks (Breeder Flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (Hatcheries A and B), and five broiler flocks (Broiler Flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. Campylobacter colonization of both breeder and broiler flocks was determined from cloacal swabs and environmental samples (pan feeders, footwear, darkling beetles, flies, feed, and water)...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659885/importance-of-campylobacter-jejuni-flis-and-fliw-in-flagella-biogenesis-and-flagellin-secretion
#13
Katarzyna A Radomska, Marc M S M Wösten, Soledad R Ordoñez, Jaap A Wagenaar, Jos P M van Putten
Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649238/clostridium-chauvoei-an-evolutionary-dead-end-pathogen
#14
Lorenz Rychener, Saria InAlbon, Steven P Djordjevic, Piklu R Chowdhury, Rosangela E Ziech, Agueda C de Vargas, Joachim Frey, Laurent Falquet
Full genome sequences of 20 strains of Clostridium chauvoei, the etiological agent of blackleg of cattle and sheep, isolated from four different continents over a period of 64 years (1951-2015) were determined and analyzed. The study reveals that the genome of the species C. chauvoei is highly homogeneous compared to the closely related species C. perfringens, a widespread pathogen that affects human and many animal species. Analysis of the CRISPR locus is sufficient to differentiate most C. chauvoei strains and is the most heterogenous region in the genome, containing in total 187 different spacer elements that are distributed as 30 - 77 copies in the various strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637471/enhanced-humoural-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-fused-with-flagellin-in-chickens
#15
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629321/the-biocontrol-agent-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-pa23-primes-brassica-napus-defenses-through-distinct-gene-networks
#16
Kelly A Duke, Michael G Becker, Ian J Girard, Jenna L Millar, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
BACKGROUND: The biological control agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is capable of protecting Brassica napus (canola) from the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via direct antagonism. While we have elucidated bacterial genes and gene products responsible biocontrol, little is known about how the host plant responds to bacterial priming on the leaf surface, including global changes in gene activity in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. RESULTS: Application of PA23 to the aerial surfaces of canola plants reduced the number of S...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622575/protein-nanoparticle-vaccine-based-on-flagellin-carrier-fused-to-influenza-conserved-epitopes-confers-full-protection-against-influenza-a-virus-challenge
#17
Lei Deng, Jong R Kim, Timothy Z Chang, Han Zhang, Teena Mohan, Julie A Champion, Bao-Zhong Wang
Currently marketed influenza vaccines only confer protection against matching influenza virus strains. The influenza A composition of these vaccines needs to be annually updated. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle offer broad cross-protection against influenza A viruses. In our study, we investigated the specific immune responses and protective efficacy of protein nanoparticles based on fusion proteins of flagellin carrier linked to conserved influenza epitopes. We designed fusion proteins by replacing the hyperimmunogenic region of flagellin (FliC) with four tandem copies of the ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (f4M2e), H1 HA2 domain (fHApr8) or H3 HA2 domain (fHAaichi)...
June 13, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620587/a-dual-luciferase-reporter-system-for-b-burgdorferi-measures-transcriptional-activity-during-tick-pathogen-interactions
#18
Philip P Adams, Carlos Flores Avile, Mollie W Jewett
Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620360/cytr-homolog-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-controls-air-liquid-biofilm-formation-by-regulating-multiple-genes-involved-in-cellulose-production-c-di-gmp-signaling-motility-and-type-iii-secretion-system-in-response-to-nutritional-and-environmental
#19
M M Haque, M M H Oliver, Kamrun Nahar, Mohammad Z Alam, Hisae Hirata, Shinji Tsuyumu
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum [Pcc (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora)] PC1 causes soft-rot disease in a wide variety of plant species by secreting multiple pathogenicity-related traits. In this study, regulatory mechanism of air-liquid (AL) biofilm formation was studied using a cytR homolog gene deletion mutant (ΔcytR) of Pcc PC1. Compared to the wild type (Pcc PC1), the ΔcytR mutant produced fragile and significantly (P < 0.001) lower amounts of AL biofilm on salt-optimized broth plus 2% glycerol (SOBG), yeast peptone dextrose adenine, and also on King's B at 27°C after 72 h incubation in static condition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611764/interplay-of-pathogen-induced-defense-responses-and-symbiotic-establishment-in-medicago-truncatula
#20
Tao Chen, Liujian Duan, Bo Zhou, Haixiang Yu, Hui Zhu, Yangrong Cao, Zhongming Zhang
Suppression of host innate immunity appears to be required for the establishment of symbiosis between rhizobia and host plants. In this study, we established a system that included a host plant, a bacterial pathogen and a symbiotic rhizobium to study the role of innate immunity during symbiotic interactions. A pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000), was shown to cause chlorosis in Medicago truncatula A17. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Sm2011 (Sm2011) and Pst DC3000 strain alone induced similar defense responses in M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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