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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345580/differential-roles-of-caspase-1-and-caspase-11-in-infection-and-inflammation
#1
Si Ming Man, Rajendra Karki, Benoit Briard, Amanda Burton, Sebastien Gingras, Stephane Pelletier, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Caspase-1, also known as interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-converting enzyme (ICE), regulates antimicrobial host defense, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, metabolism and membrane biogenesis. On activation within an inflammasome complex, caspase-1 induces pyroptosis and converts pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 into their biologically active forms. "ICE(-/-)" or "Casp1(-/-)" mice generated using 129 embryonic stem cells carry a 129-associated inactivating passenger mutation on the caspase-11 locus, essentially making them deficient in both caspase-1 and caspase-11...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337196/salmonella-typhi-porins-ompc-and-ompf-are-potent-adjuvants-for-t-dependent-and-t-independent-antigens
#2
Marisol Pérez-Toledo, Nuriban Valero-Pacheco, Rodolfo Pastelin-Palacios, Cristina Gil-Cruz, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Mario A Moreno-Eutimio, Ingeborg Becker, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Adam F Cunningham, Armando Isibasi, Laura C Bonifaz, Constantino López-Macías
Several microbial components, such as bacterial DNA and flagellin, have been used as experimental vaccine adjuvants because of their inherent capacity to efficiently activate innate immune responses. Likewise, our previous work has shown that the major Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF (porins) are highly immunogenic protective antigens that efficiently stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants. Moreover, S. Typhi porins induce the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells through toll-like receptor canonical signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333279/inhibition-of-pim1-kinase-attenuates-inflammation-induced-pro-labour-mediators-in-human-fetal-membranes-in-vitro
#3
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
STUDY QUESTION: Does proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemic virus (PIM)1 kinase play a role in regulating the inflammatory processes of human labour and delivery? SUMMARY ANSWER: PIM1 kinase plays a critical role in fetal membranes in regulating pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infection and inflammation have strong causal links to preterm delivery by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and collagen degrading enzymes, which can lead to rupture of membranes...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330899/il-24-promotes-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis-in-c57bl-6-mouse-corneas
#4
Bing X Ross, Nan Gao, Xinhan Cui, Theodore J Standiford, Jianjiang Xu, Fu-Shin X Yu
The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and functions of IL-24 in C57BL/6 mouse corneas in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Among IL-20R cytokines, only IL-24 was induced at both mRNA and protein levels by infection at early time points. The upregulation of IL-24 was dampened by flagellin pretreatment, which protects the corneas from microbial infection. Time course studies revealed bimodal early and later peaks of IL-24 expression, a pattern shared with suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 but not IL-1β or IL-6...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325746/dietary-emulsifiers-directly-alter-human-microbiota-composition-and-gene-expression-ex-vivo-potentiating-intestinal-inflammation
#5
Benoit Chassaing, Tom Van de Wiele, Jana De Bodt, Massimo Marzorati, Andrew T Gewirtz
OBJECTIVE: The intestinal microbiota plays a central role in the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases including IBD and metabolic syndrome. Administration of substances that alter microbiota composition, including the synthetic dietary emulsifiers polysorbate 80 (P80) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), can promote such inflammatory disorders. However, that inflammation itself impacts microbiota composition has obfuscated defining the extent to which these compounds or other substances act directly upon the microbiota versus acting on host parameters that promote inflammation, which subsequently reshapes the microbiota...
March 21, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323577/mitigation-of-radiation-induced-epithelial-damage-by-the-tlr5-agonist-entolimod-in-a-mouse-model-of-fractionated-head-and-neck-irradiation
#6
Ilia A Toshkov, Anatoli S Gleiberman, Vadim L Mett, Alan D Hutson, Anurag K Singh, Andrei V Gudkov, Lyudmila G Burdelya
Radiation treatment of head and neck cancer frequently causes severe collateral damage to normal tissues including mouth mucosa, salivary glands and skin. This toxicity limits the radiation dose that can be delivered and affects the patient's quality of life. Previous studies in mice and nonhuman primates showed that entolimod, a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist derived from bacterial flagellin, effectively reduced radiation damage to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues in both total-body and local irradiation scenarios, with no protection of tumors...
March 21, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323523/rapid-dna-vaccination-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei-flagellin-by-tattoo-or-intranasal-application
#7
Jacqueline M Lankelma, Alex Wagemakers, Emma Birnie, Bastiaan W Haak, Jos J A Trentelman, Tassili A F Weehuizen, Jasmin Ersöz, Joris J T H Roelofs, Joppe W Hovius, W Joost Wiersinga, Adriaan D Bins
Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of melioidosis. Here, we explore the use of rapid plasmid DNA vaccination against B. pseudomallei flagellin for protection against respiratory challenge. We tested three flagellin DNA vaccines with different subcellular targeting designs...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320877/functional-analysis-of-the-alternative-sigma-28-factor-flia-and-its-anti-sigma-factor-flgm-of-the-non-flagellated-legionella-species-l-oakridgensis
#8
Hana Tlapák, Kerstin Rydzewski, Tino Schulz, Dennis Weschka, Eva Schunder, Klaus Heuner
Legionella oakridgensis is causing the Legionnaires' disease but is known to be less virulent than Legionella pneumophilaL. oakridgensis is one of the Legionella species that is non-flagellated. The genes of the flagellar regulon are absent; except the alternative sigma-28 factor (FliA) and its anti-sigma-28 factor (FlgM). Similar to L. oakridgensis, Legionella adelaidensis and Legionella londiniensis, located in the same phylogenetic clade, they have no flagellar regulon, although both are positive for fliA and flgM Herein, we investigated the role and function of both genes to better understand the role of FliA, the positive regulator of flagellin expression, in non-flagellated strains...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295924/flagellin-phase-dependent-swimming-on-epithelial-cell-surfaces-contributes-to-productive-salmonella-gut-colonization
#10
Julia A Horstmann, Erik Zschieschang, Theresa Truschel, Juana de Diego, Michele Lunelli, Manfred Rohde, Tobias May, Till Strowig, Theresia Stradal, Michael Kolbe, Marc Erhardt
The flagellum is a sophisticated nanomachine and an important virulence factor of many pathogenic bacteria. Flagellar motility enables directed movements towards host cells in a chemotactic process and near surface swimming on cell surfaces is crucial for selection of permissive entry sites. The long external flagellar filament is made of tens of thousands subunits of a single protein, flagellin, and many Salmonella serovars alternate expression of antigenically distinct flagellin proteins, FliC and FljB. However, the role of the different flagellin variants during gut colonization and host cell invasion remains elusive...
March 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293226/cronobacter-sakazakii-atcc-29544-autoaggregation-requires-flic-flagellation-not-motility
#11
Jennifer L Hoeflinger, Michael J Miller
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic nosocomial and foodborne pathogen that causes severe infections with high morbidity and mortality rates in neonates, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Little is known about the pathogenesis mechanism of this pathogen and if there are any consequences of C. sakazakii colonization in healthy individuals. In this study, we characterized the mechanisms of autoaggregation in C. sakazakii ATCC 29544 (CS29544). Autoaggregation in CS29544 occurred rapidly, within 30 min, and proceeded to a maximum of 70%...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291719/immunization-with-outer-membrane-proteins-oprf-and-opri-and-flagellin-b%C3%A2-protects-mice-from-pulmonary-infection-with-mucoid-and-nonmucoid-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Ramadan Hassan, Wael El-Naggar, Abeer M Abd El-Aziz, Mona Shaaban, Hany I Kenawy, Youssif M Ali
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterium, which considered as a common cause of nosocomial infection and life-threatening complications in immunocompromized and cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we evaluate the protective effect of recombinant vaccines composed of outer membrane proteins OprF and OprI alone or in combination with flagellin B against mucoid and nonmucoid pseudomonas infection. METHODS: BALB/C mice were immunized subcutaneous using OprF and OprI with or without flagellin B and antibody titers were determined...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288861/biotechnology-approaches-to-produce-potent-self-adjuvanting-antigen-adjuvant-fusion-protein-subunit-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Peter Michael Moyle
Traditional vaccination approaches (e.g. live attenuated or killed microorganisms) are among the most effective means to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These approaches, nevertheless, have failed to yield successful vaccines against many important pathogens. To overcome this problem, methods have been developed to identify microbial components, against which protective immune responses can be elicited. Subunit antigens identified by these approaches enable the production of defined vaccines, with improved safety profiles...
March 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268194/a-bioluminescent-caspase-1-activity-assay-rapidly-monitors-inflammasome-activation-in-cells
#14
Martha O'Brien, Danielle Moehring, Raúl Muñoz-Planillo, Gabriel Núñez, Justin Callaway, Jenny Ting, Mike Scurria, Tim Ugo, Laurent Bernad, James Cali, Dan Lazar
Inflammasomes are protein complexes induced by diverse inflammatory stimuli that activate caspase-1, resulting in the processing and release of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis, an immunogenic form of cell death. To provide a homogeneous method for detecting caspase-1 activity, we developed a bioluminescent, plate-based assay that combines a substrate, Z-WEHD-aminoluciferin, with a thermostable luciferase in an optimized lytic reagent added directly to cultured cells. Assay specificity for caspase-1 is conferred by inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the lytic reagent and by use of a caspase-1 inhibitor to confirm activity...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263922/citrulline-and-monocyte-derived-macrophage-reactivity-prior-to-conditioning-predict-acute-graft-verus-host-disease
#15
Thomas Hueso, Valérie Coiteux, Marie Joncquel Chevalier Curt, Julien Labreuche, Thierry Jouault, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, David Seguy
During conditioning, intestinal damage induces microbial translocation, which primes macrophage reactivity and leads to donor-derived T cell stimulation. Little is known about the role of intestinal health and macrophage reactivity prior to conditioning regarding the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We assessed (i) citrulline, a surrogate marker of functional enterocyte mass and (ii) circulating monocyte-derived macrophage reactivity, before allo-HCT...
March 2, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262480/presence-of-borrelia-in-different-populations-of-ixodes-pararicinus-from-northwestern-argentina
#16
Maria N Saracho Bottero, Patrick S Sebastian, Luis A Carvalho, Leonor Guardia Claps, Mariano Mastropaolo, Atilio J Mangold, José M Venzal, Santiago Nava
This work was performed to evaluate the presence of Borrelia in different populations of Ixodes pararicinus from northwestern Argentina (Jujuy, Salta and Tucumán provinces). Questing adults and nymphs of I. pararicinus were collected from vegetation, and I. pararicinus nymphs were also collected on birds. Eighty-two ticks were tested for Borrelia presence by PCR targeting the gene flagellin and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region. Pools of ticks positive to Borrelia were formed by two nymphs collected on Turdus rufiventris in Tucumán, one nymph collected on Syndactyla rufosuperciliata in Jujuy, one nymph collected on Turdus nigriceps in Tucumán, three nymphs collected on T...
February 27, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262091/bacterial-flagella-grow-through-an-injection-diffusion-mechanism
#17
Thibaud T Renault, Anthony O Abraham, Tobias Bergmiller, Guillaume Paradis, Simon Rainville, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Călin C Guet, Yuhai Tu, Keiichi Namba, James P Keener, Tohru Minamino, Marc Erhardt
The bacterial flagellum is a self-assembling nanomachine. The external flagellar filament, several times longer than a bacterial cell body, is made of a few tens of thousands subunits of a single protein: flagellin. A fundamental problem concerns the molecular mechanism of how the flagellum grows outside the cell, where no discernible energy source is available. Here, we monitored the dynamic assembly of individual flagella using in situ labelling and real-time immunostaining of elongating flagellar filaments...
March 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261564/legionella-pneumophila-strain-130b-evades-macrophage-cell-death-independent-of-the-effector-sidf-in-the-absence-of-flagellin
#18
Mary Speir, Adam Vogrin, Azadeh Seidi, Gilu Abraham, Stéphane Hunot, Qingqing Han, Gerald W Dorn, Seth L Masters, Richard A Flavell, James E Vince, Thomas Naderer
The human pathogen Legionella pneumophila must evade host cell death signaling to enable replication in lung macrophages and to cause disease. After bacterial growth, however, L. pneumophila is thought to induce apoptosis during egress from macrophages. The bacterial effector protein, SidF, has been shown to control host cell survival and death by inhibiting pro-apoptotic BNIP3 and BCL-RAMBO signaling. Using live-cell imaging to follow the L. pneumophila-macrophage interaction, we now demonstrate that L. pneumophila evades host cell apoptosis independent of SidF...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260991/detection-of-lyme-disease-bacterium-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-in-blacklegged-ticks-collected-in-the-grand-river-valley-ontario-canada
#19
John D Scott, Janet E Foley, John F Anderson, Kerry L Clark, Lance A Durden
We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259778/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-toll-like-receptors-5-and-22-from-natural-triploid-carassius-auratus
#20
Jie Zhang, Li Wang, Yanjing Zhao, Xianghui Kong, Fan Wu, Xianliang Zhao
Innate immunity, as the most primitive and universal host defense in fish, constitutes an efficient first line of defense to combat invading microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential roles in the innate immunity, and TLR5 and TLR22 are two important TLRs that can recognize flagellin and double stranded RNA (dsRNA), respectively. In this study, we identified and characterized two TLRs genes of Qihe crucian carp (Carassius auratus) (designated as CaTLR5 and CaTLR22). The full-length cDNA sequence of CaTLR5 was cloned with 2972 bp including a 140 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 183 bp 3'-UTR, and a 2649 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a deduced protein with 882 amino acids...
March 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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