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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108375/the-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-lung-sarcoidosis
#1
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Atefhe Abedini, Arda Kiani, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Infection, genetic factors, autoimmunity and an aberrant innate immune system have been explored as potential causes of sarcoidosis. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, and it is thought that it might be caused by an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed, susceptible host. Inflammation results from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures of pathogens (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and/or from reaction to tissue damage associated patterns (DAMPs) through recognition by a limited number of germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106112/a-conserved-tlr5-binding-and-activation-hot-spot-on-flagellin
#2
Wan Seok Song, Ye Ji Jeon, Byeol Namgung, Minsun Hong, Sung-Il Yoon
Flagellin is a bacterial protein that polymerizes into the flagellar filament and is essential for bacterial motility. When flagellated bacteria invade the host, flagellin is recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) as a pathogen invasion signal and eventually evokes the innate immune response. Here, we provide a conserved structural mechanism by which flagellins from Gram-negative γ-proteobacteria and Gram-positive Firmicutes bacteria bind and activate TLR5. The comparative structural analysis using our crystal structure of a complex between Bacillus subtilis flagellin (bsflagellin) and TLR5 at 2...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104890/the-receptor-kinase-fer-is-a-ralf-regulated-scaffold-controlling-plant-immune-signaling
#3
Martin Stegmann, Jacqueline Monaghan, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Hanna Rovenich, Anita Lehner, Nicholas Holton, Youssef Belkhadir, Cyril Zipfel
In plants, perception of invading pathogens involves cell-surface immune receptor kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis SITE-1 PROTEASE (S1P) cleaves endogenous RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) propeptides to inhibit plant immunity. This inhibition is mediated by the malectin-like receptor kinase FERONIA (FER), which otherwise facilitates the ligand-induced complex formation of the immune receptor kinases EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) and FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) with their co-receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1) to initiate immune signaling...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103320/correction-intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#4
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskinson, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166770.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090564/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-5-promotes-bacterial-clearance-and-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-disease
#5
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate immune dysfunction can promote chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. For example, mice lacking the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) show microbial dysbiosis and predisposition to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. The extent to which hepatocytes play a direct role in detecting bacterial products in general, or flagellin in particular, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hepatocyte TLR5 in recognizing flagellin, policing bacteria, and protecting against liver disease...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065582/bivalent-flagellin-immunotherapy-protects-mice-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-both-acute-pneumonia-and-burn-wound-models
#6
Hosein Ahmadi, Bahador Behrouz, Gholamreza Irajian, Nour Amirmozafari, Sara Naghavi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are a serious challenge to therapy because of the complex pathogenesis and paucity of new effective antibiotics, thus renewing interest in antibody-based therapeutic strategies. Immunotherapy strategies typically target selected virulence factors that are expressed by the majority of clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, particularly because virulence factors mediate infection. Type a and b flagellins (flagellin a+b) of P. aeruginosa are acute virulence factors that play a major role in the establishment of infection...
January 5, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054754/the-stce-metalloprotease-of-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-reduces-the-inner-mucus-layer-and-promotes-adherence-to-human-colonic-epithelium-ex-vivo
#7
Claire L Hews, Seav-Ly Tran, Udo Wegmann, Bernard Brett, Alistair D S Walsham, Devon Kavanaugh, Nicole J Ward, Nathalie Juge, Stephanie Schüller
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne pathogen and tightly adheres to human colonic epithelium by forming attaching/effacing lesions. To reach the epithelial surface, EHEC must penetrate the thick mucus layer protecting the colonic epithelium. In this study, we investigated how EHEC interacts with the intestinal mucus layer using mucin-producing LS174T colon carcinoma cells and human colonic mucosal biopsies. The level of EHEC binding and A/E lesion formation in LS174T cells was higher compared to mucin-deficient colon carcinoma cell lines, and initial adherence was independent of the presence of flagellin, E...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052997/human-three-dimensional-endometrial-epithelial-cell-model-to-study-host-interactions-with-vaginal-bacteria-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#8
Paweł Łaniewski, Adriana Gomez, Geoffrey Hire, Magdalene So, Melissa M Herbst-Kralovetz
Colonization of the endometrium by pathogenic bacteria, ascending from the lower female reproductive tract (FRT), is associated with many gynecologic and obstetric health complications. To study these host-microbe interactions in vitro, we developed a human three-dimensional (3-D) endometrial epithelial cell (EEC) model using the HEC-1A cell line and rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. Our model, composed of 3-D EEC aggregates, recapitulates several functional/structural characteristics of human endometrial epithelial tissue including cell differentiation, junctional complexes/desmosomes, microvilli, membrane-associated mucins and Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051349/a-suite-of-receptor-like-kinases-and-a-putative-mechano-sensitive-channel-are-involved-in-autoimmunity-and-plasma-membrane-based-defenses-in-arabidopsis
#9
Zhongqin Zhang, Chika Tateda, Shang-Chuan Jiang, Jay Shrestha, Joanna Jelenska, Dequantarius J Speed, Jean Greenberg
In plants, cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Although each PRR recognizes a specific ligand, they share common signaling outputs such as callose and other cell wall-based defenses. Several PRRs are also important for callose induction in response to the defense signal salicylic acid (SA). The extent to which common components are needed for PRR signaling outputs is not known. The gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant of ACCELERATED CELL DEATH6 (ACD6) acd6-1 shows constitutive callose production that partially depends on PRRs...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046014/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sera-gene-is-required-for-bacterial-translocation-through-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#10
Masashi Yasuda, Syouya Nagata, Satoshi Yamane, Chinami Kunikata, Yutaka Kida, Koichi Kuwano, Chigusa Suezawa, Jun Okuda
To specify critical factors responsible for Pseudomonas aeruginosa penetration through the Caco-2 cell epithelial barrier, we analyzed transposon insertion mutants that demonstrated a dramatic reduction in penetration activity relative to P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. From these strains, mutations could be grouped into five classes, specifically flagellin-associated genes, pili-associated genes, heat-shock protein genes, genes related to the glycolytic pathway, and biosynthesis-related genes. Of these mutants, we here focused on the serA mutant, as the association between this gene and penetration activity is yet unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044228/reduced-il-37-production-increases-spontaneous-chemokine-expressions-in-colon-epithelial-cells
#11
Sezin Günaltay, Mohammed Ghiboub, Olof Hultgren, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Microscopic colitis, comprising collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, is a common cause of chronic diarrhea. Previously, we showed enhanced chemokine productions in microscopic colitis patients, indicating dysregulated immune cell chemotaxis in the immunopathogenesis. We also showed decreased mRNA of IL-37, mainly regarded as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in the colonic mucosa of these patients, potentially an important factor for the chronicity of the colitis...
January 2, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018388/coronatine-inhibits-stomatal-closure-through-guard-cell-specific-inhibition-of-nadph-oxidase-dependent-ros-production
#12
Laila Toum, Pablo S Torres, Susana M Gallego, María P Benavídes, Adrián A Vojnov, Gustavo E Gudesblat
Microbes trigger stomatal closure through microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) synthesizes the polyketide toxin coronatine, which inhibits stomatal closure by MAMPs and by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanism by which coronatine, a jasmonic acid-isoleucine analog, achieves this effect is not completely clear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential second messengers in stomatal immunity, therefore we investigated the possible effect of coronatine on their production...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010742/succinyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-modified-gold-biochip-improved-seroimmunological-detection-sensitivity-for-lyme-disease
#13
Lei Ye, Na-Li Huang, Yi-Xin Du, Marion Schneider, Wei-Dong Du
Cyclodextrin (CD) is a kind of cyclic oligosaccharides, which forms host-guest interactions with hydrophobic molecules and is widely applied in capillary electrophoresis and pharmaceutical engineering. In this study, we established a succinyl-β-CD modified gold biochip for improvement of seroimmunological detection sensitivity of Lyme disease. We found that the CD modified biochip platform presented a stronger affinity property for VlsE protein in conjugation with >0.000475 μg/mL of antigen immobilization concentration, which was sensitive enough for fluorescence based assay...
February 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008697/host-cell-binding-of-the-flagellar-tip-protein-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#14
Claudia M Freitag, Karin Strijbis, Jos P M van Putten
Flagella are nanofibers that drive bacterial movement. The filaments are generally composed of thousands of tightly packed flagellin subunits with a terminal cap protein, named FliD. Here we report that the FliD protein of the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni binds to host cells. Live-cell imaging and confocal microscopy showed initial contact of the bacteria with epithelial cells via the flagella tip. Recombinant FliD protein bound to the surface of intestinal epithelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion...
December 22, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008334/transcriptome-analysis-highlights-defense-and-signaling-pathways-mediated-by-rice-pi21-gene-with-partial-resistance-to-magnaporthe-oryzae
#15
Yu Zhang, Jianhua Zhao, Yali Li, Zhengjie Yuan, Haiyan He, Haihe Yang, Haiyan Qu, Chenyan Ma, Shaohong Qu
Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. The pi21 gene confers partial and durable resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of resistance mediated by the loss-of-function of Pi21. In this study, comparative transcriptome profiling of the Pi21-RNAi transgenic rice line and Nipponbare with M. oryzae infection at different time points (0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi) were investigated using RNA sequencing. The results generated 43,222 unique genes mapped to the rice genome...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004809/characterization-of-the-relationship-between-polar-and-lateral-flagellar-structural-genes-in-the-deep-sea-bacterium-shewanella-piezotolerans-wp3
#16
Huahua Jian, Han Wang, Xianping Zeng, Lei Xiong, Fengping Wang, Xiang Xiao
Bacteria with a dual flagellar system, which consists of a polar flagellum (PF) and several lateral flagella (LF), have been identified in diverse environments. Nevertheless, whether and how these two flagellar systems interact with each other is largely unknown. In the present study, the relationship between the structural genes for the PF and LF of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was investigated by genetic, phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The mutation of PF genes induced the expression of LF genes and the production of LF in liquid medium, while the defective LF genes led to a decrease in PF gene transcription...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999148/inflammasome-biology-taught-by-legionella-pneumophila
#17
REVIEW
Danielle P A Mascarenhas, Dario S Zamboni
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that assemble in the cytosol of many types of cells, including innate immune cells. The inflammasomes can be activated in response to infection or in response to stress signals that induce damage in the host cell membranes. These platforms trigger inflammatory processes, cell death, and the control of microbial replication. Many inflammasomes have been described so far, including NLRP3, NAIP/NLRC4, caspase-11, and AIM2. The ligand for NLRP3 is still unidentified, but the efflux of K(+) is essential for NLRP3 activation...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981729/the-flagellar-master-operon-flhdc-is-a-pleiotropic-regulator-involved-in-motility-and-virulence-of-the-fish-pathogen-yersinia-ruckeri
#18
Anna K Snyder Jozwick, Joerg Graf, Timothy J Welch
AIMS: To investigate the function of the master flagellar operon flhDC in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri and compare the effect of a constructed flhD mutation to a naturally occurring fliR mutation causing loss-of-motility in emergent biotype 2 (BT2) strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Y. ruckeri flhD and fliR mutants were constructed in a motile strain. Both mutations caused loss-of-motility, ablation of flagellin synthesis and phospholipase secretion, similar to naturally occurring BT2 strains...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974393/temperature-regulated-expression-of-type-vi-secretion-systems-in-fish-pathogen-pseudomonas-plecoglossicida-revealed-by-comparative-secretome-analysis
#19
Zhen Tao, Tao Zhou, Suming Zhou, Guoliang Wang
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a facultative fish pathogen. Recent studies showed that P. plecoglossicida infection in fish was associated with temperature. The aim of this study was to compare the secretomes of P. plecoglossicida cultured in vitro at representative temperatures for pathogenic (20°C) and less pathogenic (30°C) phenotypes. Thirteen proteins in the culture supernatants of P. plecoglossicida showed significant difference in abundance at 20 vs. 30°C. Four proteins were strongly increased at 20°C, including two hemolysin co-regulated proteins (Hcp) that are part of the bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS), flagellin and an unknown protein...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965643/the-minor-flagellin-of-campylobacter-jejuni-flab-confers-defensive-properties-against-bacteriophage-infection
#20
Lukas Lis, Ian F Connerton
A screen of bacteriophages infecting a panel of Campylobacter jejuni PT14 gene knock-out mutants identified a role for the minor flagellin encoded by the flaB gene, in the defense of the host against CP8unalikevirus bacteriophage CP_F1 infection. Inactivation of the flaB gene resulted in an increase in the susceptibility of PT14 cultures to infection by CP_F1 and an increase in bacteriophage yields. Infection of wild type PT14 with CP_F1 produces turbid plaques in bacterial lawns, from which 78% of the resistant isolates recovered exhibit either attenuation or complete loss of motility...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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