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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-high-deletion-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#1
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with isolates from other parts of Washington, and from a different crow spp., 7000 miles away, in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter was isolated from 61% and 69 % of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of about 1400 bp...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329785/a-relapsing-fever-group-borrelia-sp-is-widely-distributed-among-wild-deer-in-japan
#2
Yumi Kumagai, Kozue Sato, Kyle R Taylor, Aya Zamoto-Niikura, Koichi Imaoka, Shigeru Morikawa, Makoto Ohnishi, Hiroki Kawabata
A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. was detected from the blood of wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan. The Borrelia sp. was distributed nationwide among deer with an overall prevalence of 26% in blood samples. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in fawns (48.4%) compared to adult deer (23.6%). Sequencing analysis reveals that this Borrelia sp. belongs to the hard tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, and that it forms a single lineage based on sequences of the flagellin and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase genes...
December 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325713/the-interaction-of-tak1-and-tab1-enhances-lps-induced-cytokine-release-via-modulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-larimichthys-crocea
#3
Shi-Yuan Bao, Qing-Xue Sun, Cui-Luan Yao
Transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1) is triggered by foreign pathogenic infection and involves in proinflammatory response through the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is specifically regulated by TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1). However, the expression and regulatory characterizations of TAK1 and TAB1 in fish immune response remain largely unknown. In the present study, the cDNA sequences of TAK1 (LcTAK1) and TAB1 (LcTAB1) were identified from large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea...
January 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313529/bad-germs-are-trapped
#4
Liman Zhang, Hao Wu
Activation of the NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes initiates inflammatory responses against bacterial invasion. Two recent reports described the cryo-EM structure of the flagellin/NAIP5 complex, providing important insights into the mechanism of bacterial sensing by innate immunity.
January 9, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311425/phylogeny-and-putative-virulence-gene-analysis-of-bartonella-bovis
#5
Sun Tee Tay, Kai Ling Kho, Siew Fen Lye, Yun Fong Ngeow
Bartonella bovis is a small Gram-negative bacterium recognized as an etiological agent for bacteremia and endocarditis in cattle. As few reports are available on the taxonomic position of B. bovis and its mechanism of virulence, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of B. bovis and investigate putative virulence genes based on whole genome sequence analysis. Genome-wide comparisons based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and orthologous genes were performed in this study for phylogenetic inference of 27 Bartonella species...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311232/context-dependent-requirements-for-fimh-and-other-canonical-virulence-factors-in-gut-colonization-by-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Colin W Russell, Brittany A Fleming, Courtney A Jost, Alexander Tran, Alan T Stenquist, Morgan A Wambaugh, Mary P Bronner, Matthew A Mulvey
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) act as commensals within the mammalian gut, but can induce pathology upon dissemination to other host environments such as the urinary tract and bloodstream. ExPEC genomes are likely shaped by evolutionary forces encountered within the gut where the bacteria spend much of their time, provoking the question of how their extraintestinal virulence traits arose. The principle of coincidental evolution, in which a gene that evolved in one niche happens to be advantageous in another, has been used to argue that ExPEC virulence factors originated in response to selective pressures within the gut ecosystem...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300825/the-arabidopsis-thaliana-non-specific-phospholipase-c2-is-involved-in-the-response-to-pseudomonas-syringae-attack
#7
Zuzana Krcková, Daniela Kocourková, Michal Danek, Jitka Brouzdová, Premysl Pejchar, Martin Janda, Igor Pokotylo, Peter G Ott, Olga Valentová, Jan Martinec
Background and Aims: The non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) is a new member of the plant phospholipase family that reacts to abiotic environmental stresses, such as phosphate deficiency, high salinity, heat and aluminium toxicity, and is involved in root development, silicon distribution and brassinolide signalling. Six NPC genes (NPC1-NPC6) are found in the Arabidopsis genome. The NPC2 isoform has not been experimentally characterized so far. Methods: The Arabidopsis NPC2 isoform was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296826/tlr5-signaling-in-murine-bone-marrow-induces-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-aids-survival-from-radiation
#8
Benyue Zhang, Damilola Oyewole-Said, Jun Zou, Ifor R Willliams, Andrew T Gewirtz
Administration of the bacterial protein flagellin to mice activates innate immune signaling that protects against an array of challenges, including ionizing radiation. Herein, we define the underlying mechanism for this protection. We report that flagellin treatment induces proliferation and mobilization of bone marrow cells that aid survival following irradiation. Specifically, treatment of mice or bone marrow cells ex vivo with flagellin induced Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-dependent and NOD-like receptor C4-independent proliferation of Lin-Sca-1+Kit+ (LSK) cells, which includes both hematopoietic stem cells that provide long-term repopulation (LTR) and multipotent progenitor cells (MPPs) that transiently proliferate and differentiate into a range of blood cell types...
September 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288009/borrelia-persica-infection-in-rock-hyraxes
#9
Gabriela Kleinerman, Roni King, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia and characterized by recurrent episodes of fever. Borrelia persica, the causative agent of this disease in Israel, is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros tholozani. There is little information about the maintenance and possible vertebrate reservoirs of B. persica in nature, but the tick O. tholozani is known to feed on animals that enter its habitat in caves, rock crevices and shady environments...
December 9, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284022/a-transcriptomics-approach-uncovers-novel-roles-for-poly-adp-ribosyl-ation-in-the-basal-defense-response-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Amy G Briggs, Lori C Adams-Phillips, Brian D Keppler, Sophia G Zebell, Kyle C Arend, April A Apfelbaum, Joshua A Smith, Andrew F Bent
Pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or loss of Arabidopsis thaliana PARG1 (poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase) disrupt a subset of plant defenses. In the present study we examined the impact of altered poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation on early gene expression induced by the microbe-associate molecular patterns (MAMPs) flagellin (flg22) and EF-Tu (elf18). Stringent statistical analyses and filtering identified 178 genes having MAMP-induced mRNA abundance patterns that were altered by either PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) or PARG1 knockout...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282568/development-of-a-sensitive-pcr-dot-blot-assay-to-supplement-serological-tests-for-diagnosing-lyme-disease
#11
J S Shah, I D' Cruz, S Ward, N S Harris, R Ramasamy
Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is difficult and presently dependent on detecting Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibodies in patient serum with the disadvantage that the immune response to B. burgdorferi can be weak or variable, or alternatively, the slow and inefficient culture confirmation of B. burgdorferi. PCR tests have previously shown poor sensitivity and are not routinely used for diagnosis. We developed a sensitive and specific Lyme Multiplex PCR-dot blot assay (LM-PCR assay) applicable to blood and urine samples to supplement western blot (WB) serological tests for detecting B...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280425/characterization-of-invasive-salmonella-serogroup-c1-infections-in-mali
#12
Fabien J Fuche, Sunil Sen, Jennifer A Jones, Joseph Nkeze, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Milagritos D Tapia, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Aliou Touré, Uma Onwuchekwa, Mamadou Sylla, Karen L Kotloff, Sharon M Tennant
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide and a major cause of bloodstream infections in infants and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) and Salmonella Enteritidis (serogroup D) are the most common serovars in this region. However, data describing rarer invasive NTS serovars, particularly those belonging to serogroups C1 and C2, circulating in SSA are lacking. We previously conducted systematic blood culture surveillance on pediatric patients in Bamako, Mali, from 2002 to 2014, and the results showed that serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis accounted for 32% and 36% of isolates, respectively...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259090/slc6a14-is-a-genetic-modifier-of-cystic-fibrosis-that-regulates-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-attachment-to-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#13
Michelle Di Paola, Amber J Park, Saumel Ahmadi, Elyse J Roach, Yu-Sheng Wu, Michaela Struder-Kypke, Joseph S Lam, Christine E Bear, Cezar M Khursigara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene and is associated with progressive and ultimately fatal infectious lung disease. There can be considerable variability in disease severity among individuals with the same CFTR mutations, and recent genome-wide association studies have identified secondary genetic factors that contribute to this. One of these modifier genes is SLC6A14, which encodes an amino acid transporter. Importantly, variants of this gene have been associated with age at first acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In this study, we aimed to determine the function of SLC6A14 in airway epithelia and how it might affect colonization by P...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258714/bacterial-flagellins-does-size-matter
#14
REVIEW
Nicholas M Thomson, Florian M Rossman, Josie L Ferreira, Teige R Matthews-Palmer, Morgan Beeby, Mark J Pallen
The bacterial flagellum is the principal organelle of motility in bacteria. Here, we address the question of size when applied to the chief flagellar protein flagellin and the flagellar filament. Surprisingly, nature furnishes multiple examples of 'giant flagellins' greater than a thousand amino acids in length, with large surface-exposed hypervariable domains. We review the contexts in which these giant flagellins occur, speculate as to their functions, and highlight the potential for biotechnology to build on what nature provides...
December 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250804/nonredundant-functions-of-arabidopsis-lecrk-v-2-and-lecrk-vii-1-in-controlling-stomatal-immunity-and-jasmonate-mediated-stomatal-closure
#15
Shweta Yekondi, Fu-Chun Liang, Eiji Okuma, Amandine Radziejwoski, Hsien-Wei Mai, Swadhin Swain, Prashant Singh, Mathieu Gauthier, Hsiao-Chiao Chien, Yoshiyuki Murata, Laurent Zimmerli
Stomatal immunity restricts bacterial entry to leaves through the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and downstream abscisic acid and salicylic acid signaling. Through a reverse genetics approach, we characterized the function of the L-type lectin receptor kinase-V.2 (LecRK-V.2) and -VII.1 (LecRK-VII.1). Analyses of interactions with the PRR FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) were performed by co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation and whole-cell patch-clamp analyses were used to evaluate guard cell Ca2+ -permeable cation channels...
December 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247997/the-nlrc4-inflammasome
#16
REVIEW
Joseph A Duncan, Scott W Canna
15 years ago, the fundamental biology of an inflammatory signaling complex eventually dubbed "the inflammasome" began to unravel in chronologic parallel with the discovery that many inflammatory diseases were associated with its hyperactivity. Though the genetic origins of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF, caused my mutations in MEFV) were discovered first, it would take nearly two decades before the mechanistic connections to a PYRIN inflammasome were made. In the interim, the intensive study of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and the diseases associated with its hyperactivation, have largely dictated the paradigm of inflammasome composition and function...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247203/host-species-adaptation-of-tlr5-signalling-and-flagellin-recognition
#17
Amin Tahoun, Kirsty Jensen, Yolanda Corripio-Miyar, Sean McAteer, David G E Smith, Tom N McNeilly, David L Gally, Elizabeth J Glass
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognition of flagellin instigates inflammatory signalling. Significant sequence variation in TLR5 exists between animal species but its impact on activity is less well understood. Building on our previous research that bovine TLR5 (bTLR5) is functional, we compared human and bovine TLR5 activity and signalling in cognate cell lines. bTLR5 induced higher levels of CXCL8 when expressed in bovine cells and reciprocal results were found for human TLR5 (hTLR5) in human cells, indicative of host cell specificity in this response...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230364/complete-genome-sequence-and-comparative-genomics-of-the-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus-pathogen-vibrio-harveyi-strain-qt520
#18
Zhigang Tu, Hongyue Li, Xiang Zhang, Yun Sun, Yongcan Zhou
Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium that is an opportunistic pathogen of commercially farmed marine vertebrate species. To understand the pathogenicity of this species, the genome of V. harveyi QT520 was analyzed and compared to that of other strains. The results showed the genome of QT520 has two unique circular chromosomes and three endogenous plasmids, totaling 6,070,846 bp with a 45% GC content, 5,701 predicted ORFs, 134 tRNAs and 37 rRNAs. Common virulence factors, including ACF, IlpA, OmpU, Flagellin, Cya, Hemolysin and MARTX, were detected in the genome, which are likely responsible for the virulence of QT520...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228176/screening-and-identification-of-immunoactive-flab-protein-fragments-of-treponema-pallidum-for-the-serodiagnosis-of-syphilis
#19
Manyi Tan, Man Xu, Yongjian Xiao, Yafeng Xie, Chuanhao Jiang, Kang Zheng, Qian Chen, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Yimou Wu
Flagellin is a classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern that can evoke robust immune response. We have demonstrated previously that three full-length flagellins of Treponema pallidum, namely FlaB1, FlaB2 and FlaB3, did have diagnostic value in serodiagnosis of syphilis. Here, we selected and constructed three recombinant fragments of each complete FlaB, both the conserved N-terminal and the C-terminal region, and the middle variable part, with the goal of exploring fragment unique to Treponema pallidum for use as antigen target in a fragment based serological test...
December 5, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225287/lysogenisation-of-shiga-toxin-encoding-bacteriophage-represses-cell-motility
#20
Shoichi Mitsunaka, Naoki Sudo, Yasuhiko Sekine
Bacteriophages are genetic elements that play key roles in the evolution and diversification of bacterial genomes. The Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phage plays an important role in the horizontal transfer of the stx gene. However, the influence of the Stx phage integration on the physiological properties and gene expression pattern of the host have not been clearly resolved. In this study, we constructed the Sp5 lysogen through lysogenisation of E. coli K-12 by Sp5, an Stx2 phage in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 Sakai, and examined the effect of the resulting lysogen on cell motility under various growth conditions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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