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Hye Suk Hwang, Sao Puth, Wenzhi Tan, Vivek Verma, Kwangjoon Jeong, Shee Eun Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee
Norovirus causes acute and debilitating gastroenteritis, characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. We recently reported a recombinant GII. 4 P domain particle (Pd) vaccine adjuvanted with a flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, effectively promoting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the previous study, we found that sublingual (SL) immunization induced higher fecal secretory IgA (SIgA) responses while intranasal (IN) route provided higher amplitude of humoral and cellular immune responses in the systemic compartment...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Pailin Chiaranunt, Justin T Tometich, Junyi Ji, Timothy W Hand
Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with the dysregulation of T cells specific to Ags derived from the intestinal microbiota. How microbiota-specific T cells are regulated is not completely clear but is believed to be mediated by a combination of IgA, regulatory T cells, and type 3 innate lymphoid cells. To test the role of these regulatory components on microbiota-specific T cells, we bred CBir1 TCR transgenic (CBir1Tg) mice (specific to flagellin from common intestinal bacteria) onto a lymphopenic Rag1-/- background...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yongsheng Quan, Kerui Song, Yan Zhang, Changxin Zhu, Zhaohua Shen, Shuai Wu, Weiwei Luo, Bei Tan, Zhenyu Yang, Xiaoyan Wang
Our previous study showed that the Roseburia intestinalis (R. intestinalis), one of the dominant intestinal bacterial microbiota, was significantly decreased in Crohn's disease patients and protected colon epithelial cells from inflammatory damage. However, the roles of lncRNAs in R. intestinalis flagellin-mediated anti-inflammation remain unclear. In this study, we investigate global lncRNA expression profiles using microarray analysis of ulcerative colitis samples from DSS/Flagellin-challenged mice and identified a Flagellin-induced upregulated lncRNA (HIF1A-AS2)...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Karin Pelka, Damien Bertheloot, Elisa Reimer, Kshiti Phulphagar, Susanne V Schmidt, Anette Christ, Rainer Stahl, Nicki Watson, Kensuke Miyake, Nir Hacohen, Albert Haas, Melanie M Brinkmann, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Felix Meissner, Eicke Latz
Unc-93 homolog B1 (UNC93B1) is a key regulator of nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Loss of NA-sensing TLR responses in UNC93B1-deficient patients facilitates Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. UNC93B1 is thought to guide NA-sensing TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to their respective endosomal signaling compartments and to guide the flagellin receptor TLR5 to the cell surface, raising the question of how UNC93B1 mediates differential TLR trafficking. Here, we report that UNC93B1 regulates a step upstream of the differential TLR trafficking process...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
Jingyi Yang, Yue Zhao, Peng Li, Yi Yang, Ejuan Zhang, Maohua Zhong, Yaoming Li, Dihan Zhou, Yuan Cao, Mengji Lu, Feng Shao, Huimin Yan
The NLR apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) function as specific cytosolic receptors for bacterial ligands to form the NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasome for anti-bacterial defenses. In mice, NAIP5/6 and NAIP2 recognize bacteria flagellin and the rod protein of the type III secretion system (T3SS), respectively. However, molecular mechanism for specific ligand pattern-recognition by the NAIPs is largely unknown. Here, through extensive domain swapping and truncation analyses, three structural domains, the pre-BIR, BIR1, and HD1, in NAIP2 and NAIP5 are identified, that are important for specific recognition of their respective ligand(s)...
2018: Cell Discovery
Ziyi Zhao, Yifan Zhao, Xiang-Yu Zhuang, Wei-Chang Lo, Matthew A B Baker, Chien-Jung Lo, Fan Bai
The bacterial flagellum is a large extracellular protein organelle that extrudes from the cell surface. The flagellar filament is assembled from tens of thousands of flagellin subunits that are exported through the flagellar type III secretion system. Here, we measure the growth of Escherichia coli flagella in real time and find that, although the growth rate displays large variations at similar lengths, it decays on average as flagella lengthen. By tracking single flagella, we show that the large variations in growth rate occur as a result of frequent pauses...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Preterm birth is the primary cause of neonatal deaths and morbidities. Pathological processes causally linked to preterm birth are inflammation and infection. Pellino-1 (Peli1) has previously been found to regulate the inflammatory response in non-gestational tissues in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of labor on Peli1 expression in myometrium and fetal membranes, and the effect of Peli1 silencing by siRNA (siPELI1) on the production of pro-inflammatory and pro-labor mediators...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Donghong Niu, Ya Xiong, Maoxiao Peng, Xue Meng, Tianyi Lan, Jiale Li
The complement-like hemolysis method was used to determine the total complement-like activity of the plasma of Sinonovacula constricta. In this study, the effects of both physical and chemical conditions on complement hemolysis of S. constricta were measured. Physical conditions included proportion (S. constricta plasma: 2% rabbit red blood cells), temperature, time, and incubation, while the chemical factors consisted of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Flagellin (FLA), Zymosan, Peptidoglycan (PGN), Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), Methylamine, and Poly (I: C)...
April 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Meng Wu, Liang Guo, Ke-Cheng Zhu, Hua-Yang Guo, Bo Liu, Shi-Gui Jiang, Dian-Chang Zhang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the immune response. Here two Toll-like receptors from golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus), ToTLR1 and ToTLR2, were characterized, the full-length cDNAs were 3126 bp and 7430 bp, and the deduced proteins consisted of 801 and 825 amino acids, respectively. ToTLR1 and ToTLR2 both contained the typical TLR domain architecture including signal peptide, leucine rich repeat (LRR), C-terminal LRR domain at the extracellular region and Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) domain in the cytoplasmic region...
April 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qiong Xing, Ke Shi, Athina Portaliou, Paolo Rossi, Anastassios Economou, Charalampos G Kalodimos
The flagellum and the injectisome enable bacterial locomotion and pathogenesis, respectively. These nanomachines assemble and function using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Exported proteins are delivered to the export apparatus by dedicated cytoplasmic chaperones for their transport through the membrane. The structural and mechanistic basis of this process is poorly understood. Here we report the structures of two ternary complexes among flagellar chaperones (FliT and FliS), protein substrates (the filament-capping FliD and flagellin FliC), and the export gate platform protein FlhA...
May 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Xiaojiang Zheng, Seock Kang, Yanping Jing, Zhijie Ren, Legong Li, Jian-Min Zhou, Gerald Berkowitz, Jisen Shi, Aigen Fu, Wenzhi Lan, Fugeng Zhao, Sheng Luan
The plant elicitor peptides (Peps), a family of damage/danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are perceived by two receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, and contribute to plant defense against pathogen attack and abiotic stress. Here we show that the Peps-PEPR signaling pathway functions in stomatal immunity by activating guard cell anion channels in Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutant plants lacking both PEPR1 and PEPR2 (pepr1 pepr2) displayed enhanced bacterial growth after being sprayed with Pseudomonas syringae pv...
April 30, 2018: Plant Cell
L A Stepanova, R Y Kotlyarov, M A Shuklina, E A Blochina, M V Sergeeva, M V Potapchuk, A A Kovaleva, N V Ravin, L M Tsybalova
The ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e) and the conserved fragment of the second subunit of hemagglutinin (HA2) are promising candidates for broadly protective vaccines. In this paper, we report on the design of chimeric constructs with differing orders of linkage of four tandem copies of M2e and the conserved fragment of HA2 (76-130) from phylogenetic group II influenza A viruses to the C-terminus of flagellin. The 3D-structure of two chimeric proteins showed that interior location of the M2e tandem copies (Flg-4M2e-HA2) provides partial α-helix formation nontypical of native M2e on the virion surface...
January 2018: Acta Naturae
Almudena González-Mula, Julien Lang, Catherine Grandclément, Delphine Naquin, Mohammed Ahmar, Laurent Soulère, Yves Queneau, Yves Dessaux, Denis Faure
Agrobacterium tumefaciens constructs an ecological niche in its host plant by transferring the T-DNA from its Ti plasmid into the host genome and by diverting the host metabolism. We combined transcriptomics and genetics for understanding the A. tumefaciens lifestyle when it colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana tumors. Transcriptomics highlighted: a transition from a motile to sessile behavior that mobilizes some master regulators (Hfq, CtrA, DivK and PleD); a remodeling of some cell surface components (O-antigen, succinoglucan, curdlan, att genes, putative fasciclin) and functions associated with plant defense (Ef-Tu and flagellin pathogen-associated molecular pattern-response and glycerol-3-phosphate and nitric oxide signaling); and an exploitation of a wide variety of host resources, including opines, amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and iron...
April 27, 2018: New Phytologist
Adrian V Cioanca, Peter J McCluskey, Steven S Eamegdool, Michele C Madigan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that sense highly conserved pathogen associated antigenic determinants, triggering an innate immune response and subsequently instructing the adaptive immune system so that together, the pathogen can be eliminated. TLRs are widely distributed in human ocular tissues and cell types, and are active players in ocular inflammation. To date, the presence and function of TLRs on human choroidal melanocytes (HCMs), the most abundant choroidal cell type, have not been characterized...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Ama Szmolka, Marta Elsheimer Matulova, Ivan Rychlik
Salmonella Enteritidis is the main serovar of poultry origin in humans, but its complex interaction with certain avian cells is still not fully understood. Previously we identified several genes significantly induced in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) by the wild-type strain S. Enteritidis 11 (SE 11). In the present study, we raised the question whether virulence-attenuated mutants of this strain would induce altered expression of the newly identified fibroblast genes associated with immune and non-immune functions of CEFs...
February 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Charlotte H Hurst, Sally M Myles, Dionne Turnbull, Kerry Leslie, Nana F Keinath, Piers A Hemsley
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the largest family of proteins in plants and are responsible for perceiving the vast majority of extracellular stimuli. Thus, RLKs function in diverse processes, including sensing pathogen attacks, regulating symbiotic interactions, transducing hormone and peptide signals, and monitoring cell wall status. However, despite their fundamental role in plant biology, very few antibodies are available against RLKs, which necessitates the use of epitope tags and fluorescent protein fusions in biochemical analyses such as immunoblot analysis and intracellular visualisation...
April 23, 2018: Plant Physiology
Priyanka Goradia, Ratana Lim, Martha Lappas
Preterm birth is the primary cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammation induces a cascade of events leading to preterm birth by activating nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B). In nongestational tissues, downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) regulates NF- κ B activity. Our aims were to analyse DREAM expression in myometrium and fetal membranes obtained at term and preterm and to determine the effect of DREAM inhibition on prolabour mediators in primary myometrial and amnion cells...
2018: BioMed Research International
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Je Hyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
The present study aimed to investigate whether the incorporation of flagellin, a TLR5 agonist, in the bacterial ghosts (BGs) of Salmonella Gallinarum can enhance protective immune responses against fowl typhoid, a septicemic disease of poultry, in chickens. BGs are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria through the bacteriophage phiX174 gene E mediated lysis. In this study, the S. Gallinarum ghosts carrying flagellin were genetically constructed utilizing a lysis plasmid pJHL184-flagellin, designed for the coexpression of the flagellin and the lysis protein E...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Shuang Luo, Xiangliang Deng, Qi Liu, Zengfeng Pan, Zhongxiang Zhao, Lian Zhou, Xia Luo
Emodin is an anthraquinone compound derived from Rheum officinale Baill. Several reports showed that emodin had efficacy on acute pancreatitis, keratitis, myocarditis, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the potency of emodin on ulcerative colitis(UC) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of emodin on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Our results showed that emodin significantly alleviated the symptoms of DSS-induced UC in mice, involving prevented the loss of body weight and colon shortening, decreased the disease activity index (DAI), intestinal damages and the count of white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood...
April 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Yoshihiro Muneta, Nobuo Arai, Yoko Yakabe, Masahiro Eguchi, Tomoyuki Shibahara, Akiko Sakuma, Hiroki Shinkai, Hirohide Uenishi, Kensuke Hirose, Masato Akiba
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a pattern-recognition receptor for bacterial flagellin. We previously reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of swine TLR5, C1205T, impairs the recognition of Salmonella typhimurium (ST) flagellin and ethanol-killed Salmonella Choleraesuis (SC). Here, weaned, specific pathogen-free (SPF) Landrace piglets, which have CC, CT, or TT genotypes were orally infected with ST (L-3569 strain) to validate the effect of this specific SNP on ST infection in vivo. Eighteen ST-infected piglets (6 each with CC, CT, or TT) exhibited fever and diarrhea for 1 week after infection...
April 16, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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