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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805500/chitin-receptor-mediated-activation-of-map-kinases-and-ros-production-in-rice-and-arabidopsis
#1
Tsutomu Kawasaki, Kenta Yamada, Satomi Yoshimura, Koji Yamaguchi
Rapid induction of plant immune responses is essential to inhibit colonization and invasion by pathogens. Plants can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including fungal chitin and bacterial flagellin using pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger the intracellular activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MAPK activation and ROS production play pivotal roles in the induction of robust immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801580/immune-responses-against-helicobacter-pylori-specific-antigens-differentiate-relapsing-remitting-from-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Georgios Efthymiou, Efthymios Dardiotis, Christos Liaskos, Emmanouela Marou, Vana Tsimourtou, Eirini I Rigopoulou, Thomas Scheper, Alexandros Daponte, Wolfgang Meyer, Lazaros I Sakkas, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
To assess whether Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody (ab) reactivity against individual Hp antigens is pathogenetically relevant to multiple sclerosis (MS), we systematically investigated prevalence and clinical significance of abs against 14 immunodominant and subdominant Hp antigens by ELISA and immunoblotting in 139 consecutive MS patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS, n = 102) or secondary progressive (SPMS, n = 37). Sera from 39 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 21 with Alzheimer's disease (ALZ) and 68 healthy controls (HCs), were also tested...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800172/viscous-drag-on-the-flagellum-activates-bacillus-subtilis-entry-into-the-k-state
#3
Christine Diethmaier, Ravi Chawla, Alexandra Canzoneri, Daniel B Kearns, Pushkar P Lele, David Dubnau
Bacillus subtilis flagella are not only required for locomotion but also act as sensors that monitor environmental changes. Although how the signal transmission takes place is poorly understood, it has been shown that flagella play an important role in surface sensing by transmitting a mechanical signal to control the DegS-DegU two-component system. Here we report a role for flagella in the regulation of the K-state, which enables transformability and antibiotic tolerance (persistence). Mutations impairing flagellar synthesis are inferred to increase DegU-P, which inhibits the expression of ComK, the master regulator for the K-state, and reduces transformability...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795800/prompt-and-robust-humoral-immunity-elicited-by-a-conjugated-chimeric-malaria-antigen-with-a-truncated-flagellin
#4
Fangxia Guo, Yong Dong Liu, Chun Zhang, Qi Wang, Lianyan Wang, Yuhui Gao, Jingxiu Bi, Heng Wang, Zhiguo Su
As one of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), flagellin is recently utilized as a potent adjuvant for many subunit vaccines. In this study, a truncated flagellin (tFL) with deletion of the hypervariable regions was adopted as a carrier-adjuvant by chemical conjugation with a chimeric malaria antigen M.RCAg-1 (M312) via a hetero-bifunctional PEG linker. After boosting immunization in mice without any extra adjuvants, the M312-PEG-tFL conjugates elicited 100-1,000 times higher M312-specific antibody titers than M312, and 10-100 times higher than the physical mixture of M312 and tFL...
August 10, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780192/a-novel-hpv-prophylactic-peptide-vaccine-designed-by-immunoinformatics-and-structural-vaccinology-approaches
#5
Manica Negahdaripour, Mahboobeh Eslami, Navid Nezafat, Nasim Hajighahramani, Mohammad Bagher Ghoshoon, Eskandar Shoolian, Ali Dehshahri, Nasrollah Erfani, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Younes Ghasemi
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-caused cervical cancer is the fourth common female cancer globally. Despite availability of three effective vaccines in market, development of HPV prophylactic vaccines is still pursued due to affordability issues and type-restricted protection of the marketed vaccines. Investigational second generation prophylactic HPV vaccines are mostly exploiting epitopes from the virus minor capsid protein (L2), which despite many advantages suffer from low immunogenicity, a common problem of epitope vaccines...
August 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771586/inhibition-of-caspase-1-or-gasdermin-d-enable-caspase-8-activation-in-the-naip5-nlrc4-asc-inflammasome
#6
Danielle P A Mascarenhas, Daiane M Cerqueira, Marcelo S F Pereira, Fernanda V S Castanheira, Talita D Fernandes, Graziele Z Manin, Larissa D Cunha, Dario S Zamboni
Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative, flagellated bacterium that survives in phagocytes and causes Legionnaires' disease. Upon infection of mammalian macrophages, cytosolic flagellin triggers the activation of Naip/NLRC4 inflammasome, which culminates in pyroptosis and restriction of bacterial replication. Although NLRC4 and caspase-1 participate in the same inflammasome, Nlrc4-/- mice and their macrophages are more permissive to L. pneumophila replication compared with Casp1/11-/-. This feature supports the existence of a pathway that is NLRC4-dependent and caspase-1/11-independent...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762076/the-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-is-controlled-by-the-plant-s-immune-system
#7
Ivan Baccelli, Gaétan Glauser, Brigitte Mauch-Mani
Endogenous levels of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) increase after the molecular recognition of pathogen presence. BABA is accumulated differently during resistance or susceptibility to disease. The priming molecule β-aminobutyric acid has been recently shown to be a natural product of plants, and this has provided significance to the previous discovery of a perception mechanism in Arabidopsis. BABA levels were found to increase after abiotic stress or infection with virulent pathogens, but the role of endogenous BABA in defence has remained to be established...
August 1, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750075/cbirtox-is-a-selective-antigen-specific-agonist-of-the-treg-iga-microbiota-homeostatic-pathway
#8
Katie L Alexander, Jannet Katz, Charles O Elson
Cultivating an environment of mutualism between host cells and the microbiota is vital, and dysregulation of this relationship is associated with multiple immune disorders including metabolic and skin diseases, asthma, allergy, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). One prominent mechanism for maintaining homeostasis is the protective regulatory T cell (Treg)- Immunoglobulin A (IgA) pathway toward microbiota antigens, in which Tregs maintain homeostasis and provide critical survival factors to IgA+ B cells. In order to amplify the Treg-IgA pathway, we have generated a fusion protein, CBirTox, comprised of a portion of the carboxy terminus of CBir1, a microbiota flagellin, genetically coupled to Cholera Toxin B subunit (CTB) via the A2 linker of CT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744636/nlr2-and-tlr3-tlr4-tlr5-ligands-injected-in-vivo-improve-after-1-h-the-efficiency-of-cloning-and-proliferative-activity-of-bone-marrow-multipotent-stromal-cells-and-reduce-the-content-of-osteogenic-multipotent-stromal-cells-in-cba-mice
#9
Yu F Gorskaya, A I Tukhvatulin, V G Nesterenko
Ligands NLR2 (muramyldipeptide) and TLR (bacterial LPS, flagellin, CpG-dinucleotide, and Poly I:C) and S. typhimurium antigenic complex by 1.5-3-fold increase the efficiency of cloning and content of multipotent stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow of CBA mice as soon as 1 h postinjection. The counts of large colonies (150-500 cells) increased by 2.5-3.3 times in comparison with intact bone marrow cultures at the expense of a decrease in the number of smaller colonies, which attests to enhanced proliferation of stromal cells in the colonies...
July 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740382/dual-linker-gold-nanoparticles-as-adjuvanting-carriers-for-multivalent-display-of-recombinant-influenza-hemagglutinin-trimers-and-flagellin-improve-the-immunological-responses-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Chao Wang, Wandi Zhu, Bao-Zhong Wang
Vaccination is the most cost-effective means of infectious disease control. Although current influenza vaccines are effective in battling closely matched strains, such vaccines have major limitations such as the requirement to produce new vaccines every season, an egg-dependent production system, long production periods, uncertainty in matching the vaccine to circulating strains, and the inability to react to new influenza pandemics resulting from genetic drift or shift. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of the conventional influenza vaccine, we have designed dual-linker gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with both recombinant trimetric A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), hemagglutinin (HA) and TLR5 agonist flagellin (FliC) as a novel vaccine approach...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739413/production-of-recombinant-flagellin-to-develop-elisa-based-detection-of-salmonella-enteritidis
#11
Seyed Ali Mirhosseini, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Jafar Amani, Hamid Sedighian
Food-borne diseases, caused by the pathogenic bacteria, are highly prevalent in the world. Salmonella is one of the most important bacterial genera responsible for this. Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the non-typhoid Salmonellae that can be transmitted to human from poultry products, water, and contaminated food. In recent years, new and rapid detection methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed. In this study, recombinant FliC (rFliC) was produced to be used as an antigen...
July 7, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714174/immunological-properties-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-single-mycobacterial-antigen-displayed-on-polyhydroxybutyrate-beads
#12
Patricia Rubio-Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, Bryce M Buddle, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.4 million deaths worldwide. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the vaccine available against TB, but it is insufficient for global TB control. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv1626 in mice while assessing the effect of co-delivering either Cpe30 (immunostimulatory peptide), CS.T3378-395 (promiscuous T helper epitope) or flagellin (TLR5 agonist) or a combination of all three immunostimulatory agents...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713368/the-sptransformer-gene-family-formerly-sp185-333-in-the-purple-sea-urchin-and-the-functional-diversity-of-the-anti-pathogen-rsptransformer-e1-protein
#13
REVIEW
L Courtney Smith, Cheng Man Lun
The complex innate immune system of sea urchins is underpinned by several multigene families including the SpTransformer family (SpTrf; formerly Sp185/333) with estimates of ~50 members, although the family size is likely variable among individuals of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The genes are small with similar structure, are tightly clustered, and have several types of repeats in the second of two exons and that surround each gene. The density of repeats suggests that the genes are positioned within regions of genomic instability, which may be required to drive sequence diversification...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710392/comparative-study-of-arabidopsis-pbs1-and-a-wheat-pbs1-homolog-helps-understand-the-mechanism-of-pbs1-functioning-in-innate-immunity
#14
Jianhang Sun, Guozhong Huang, Fenggui Fan, Shuangfeng Wang, Yingying Zhang, Yufang Han, Yanmin Zou, Dongping Lu
Arabidopsis AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE1 (PBS1) serves as a "decoy" in activating RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE5 (RPS5) upon cleavage by Pseudomonas phaseolicola B (AvrPphB), a Pseudomonas syringae effector. The SEMPH motif in PBS1 was thought to allow it to be distinguished by RPS5 from the closely related Arabidopsis kinases. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a wheat PBS1 homolog, TaPBS1. Although this plasma membrane-localized kinase could be cleaved by AvrPphB and could associate with RPS5, it failed to trigger RPS5-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in a transient assay...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710253/dual-immunization-with-sseb-flagellin-provides-enhanced-protection-against-salmonella-infection-mediated-by-circulating-memory-cells
#15
Seung-Joo Lee, Joseph Benoun, Brian S Sheridan, Zachary Fogassy, Oanh Pham, Quynh-Mai Pham, Lynn Puddington, Stephen J McSorley
The development of a subunit Salmonella vaccine has been hindered by the absence of detailed information about antigenic targets of protective Salmonella-specific T and B cells. Recent studies have identified SseB as a modestly protective Ag in susceptible C57BL/6 mice, but the mechanism of protective immunity remains undefined. In this article, we report that simply combining Salmonella SseB with flagellin substantially enhances protective immunity, allowing immunized C57BL/6 mice to survive for up to 30 d following challenge with virulent bacteria...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698136/dynamic-g-protein-alpha-signaling-in-arabidopsis-innate-immunity
#16
Lahong Xu, Xinran Yao, Nannan Zhang, Ben-Qiang Gong, Jian-Feng Li
Heterotrimeric G proteins composed of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits are evolutionarily conserved signaling modules involved in diverse biological processes in plants and animals. The role and action of Gα remain largely enigmatic in plant innate immunity. We have recently demonstrated that Arabidopsis Gα (GPA1) is a key component of a new immune signaling pathway activated by bacteria-secreted proteases. Here we show that GPA1 is also involved in the signaling network of Arabidopsis in response to the bacterial flagellin epitope flg22...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698128/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-analyses-of-tlrs-in-yesso-scallop-patinopecten-yessoensis-provide-insight-into-the-disparity-of-responses-to-acidifying-exposure-in-bivalves
#17
Qiang Xing, Huan Liao, Xiaogang Xun, Jing Wang, Zhengrui Zhang, Zujing Yang, Xiaoting Huang, Zhenmin Bao
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity by recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including lipoproteins, lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, dsRNA, ssRNA and CpG DNA motifs. Although significant effects of TLRs on immunity have been reported in most vertebrates and some invertebrates, the complete TLR superfamily has not been systematically characterized in scallops. In this study, 18 TLR genes were identified from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) using whole-genome scanning...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698126/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analyses-of-toll-like-receptor-5-induced-by-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-antigens-in-pacific-red-snapper
#18
Martha Reyes-Becerril, Erika Alamillo, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Felipe Ascencio, M Angeles Esteban, Carlos Angulo
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a member of TLRs family responsible for the bacterial flagellin recognition in vertebrates. Herein, the TLR5M gene structure of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) was characterized. The full-length cDNA of LpTLR5M comprises an open reading frame (ORF) of 2715 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 904 amino acids including 9 LRRs (residues 119-562) and one LRR-CT domain (residues 593-646) at the extracellular region, and a TIR domain (residues 710-904) in the cytoplasmic region. The amino acid sequence in L...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696348/relationship-of-triamine-biocide-tolerance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-senftenberg-to-antimicrobial-susceptibility-serum-resistance-and-outer-membrane-proteins
#19
Bożena Futoma-Kołoch, Bartłomiej Dudek, Katarzyna Kapczyńska, Eva Krzyżewska, Martyna Wańczyk, Kamila Korzekwa, Jacek Rybka, Elżbieta Klausa, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska
A new emerging phenomenon is the association between the incorrect use of biocides in the process of disinfection in farms and the emergence of cross-resistance in Salmonella populations. Adaptation of the microorganisms to the sub-inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants is not clear, but may result in an increase of sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics, depending on the biocide used and the challenged Salmonella serovar. Exposure of five Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg (S...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687648/host-specificity-of-segmented-filamentous-bacteria-sfb-flagellins-affects-their-interaction-patterns-with-mouse-ileal-mucosal-proteins
#20
Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Yanling Wang, Xin Wang, Charlie Xiang
Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are known modulators of the mammalian immune system. Currently, the technology for investigating SFB culture in vitro is immature, and as a result, the mechanisms of SFB colonization and immune regulation are not yet fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the gene diversity and host specificity of SFB flagellin genes. The flic1 and flic2 genes are relatively conserved, while the flic3 and flic4 genes are more variable, especially at the central and C-terminal regions...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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