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Flagellin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909432/volatile-mediated-effects-predominate-in-paraburkholderia-phytofirmans-growth-promotion-and-salt-stress-tolerance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Thomas Ledger, Sandy Rojas, Tania Timmermann, Ignacio Pinedo, María J Poupin, Tatiana Garrido, Pablo Richter, Javier Tamayo, Raúl Donoso
Abiotic stress has a growing impact on plant growth and agricultural activity worldwide. Specific plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been reported to stimulate growth and tolerance to abiotic stress in plants, and molecular mechanisms like phytohormone synthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination are usual candidates proposed to mediate these bacterial effects. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is able to promote growth of several plant hosts, and improve their tolerance to chilling, drought and salinity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908640/flagellin-enhances-the-immunoprotection-of-formalin-inactivated-edwardsiella-tarda-vaccine-in-turbot
#2
Xiaohong Liu, Hua Zhang, Chenglong Jiao, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Jingfan Xiao
Edwardsiella tarda is an important fish pathogen that causes extensive losses in farmed fish around the world. Various types of vaccines have been developed against E. tarda infection, such as inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine and subunit vaccine. However, inactivated vaccine exhibits poor immune protection against edwardsiellosis in some reports. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of formalin-killed cells (FKC) against E. tarda with flagellin, FlgD, as an adjuvant in turbot...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907005/intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#3
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskins, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
Burn injury is associated with a loss of gut barrier function, resulting in systemic dissemination of gut-derived bacteria and their products. The bacterial protein and TLR5 agonist, flagellin, induces non-specific innate immune responses. Because we detected flagellin in the serum of burn patients, we investigated whether gut-derived flagellin was a primary or secondary contributor to intestinal dysfunction and systemic inflammation following burn injury. The apical surface of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), Caco-2BBe, were exposed to 50 or 500 ng of purified flagellin and 1 x 105 of an intestinal E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902430/lateral-typed-flagellin-responsible-for-formation-of-a-polar-flagellum-but-not-of-lateral-flagella-in-sphingomonas-sp-strain-a1
#4
Masahiro Kobayashi, Hidenori Konishi, Yukie Maruyama, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Alginate-assimilating Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 is the gram-negative bacterium first identified to form a single polar flagellum containing lateral-typed flagellin (p6) in the filament. In addition to the p6 flagellin, two polar-typed flagellins (p5 and p5') are also included in the flagellum. Here we show the significant role of p6 as well as p5/p5' in flagellum formation and cell motility toward alginate. A p6 gene disruptant significantly reduced flagellum formation, and it showed no cell motility, whereas each mutant with a disruption in the p5 or p5' gene exhibited cell motility through the formation of a polar flagellum containing p6...
October 24, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888719/treponema-pallidum-flagellin-flaa2-induces-il-6-secretion-in-thp-1-cells-via-the-toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-pathway
#5
Yafeng Xie, Man Xu, Yongjian Xiao, Zhuoran Liu, Chuanhao Jiang, Xingxing Kuang, Chuan Wang, Haiying Wu, Jing Peng, Chun Li, Yu Wang, Huaming Liu, Bin Liu, Xiaotuan Zhang, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Shuangquan Liu, Yimou Wu
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), one of the key proinflammatory cytokines, by human monocytic THP-1 cells when these cells are treated with T. pallidum flagellin FlaA2 was investigated. Stimulation with flagellin FlaA2 can induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes and augment the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but has no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887202/serological-markers-in-diagnosis-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-as-predictors-for-early-tumor-necrosis-factor-blocker-therapy
#6
Christine Olbjørn, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Espen Thiis-Evensen, Britt Nakstad, Morten Harald Vatn, Gøri Perminow
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of serological markers in newly diagnosed treatment-naïve pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), their utility in differentiating Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and symptomatic non-IBD patients and whether serological markers are associated with early TNF blocker treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-six children and adolescents <18 years, 58 with IBD and 38 symptomatic non-IBD controls were included...
November 25, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884939/regulation-of-sugar-transporter-activity-for-antibacterial-defense-in-arabidopsis
#7
Kohji Yamada, Yusuke Saijo, Hirofumi Nakagami, Yoshitaka Takano
Microbial pathogens strategically acquire metabolites from their hosts during infection. Here we show that the host can intervene to prevent such metabolite loss to pathogens. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of sugar transporter 13 (STP13) is required for antibacterial defense in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana STP13 physically associates with the flagellin receptor flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2) and its co-receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). BAK1 phosphorylates STP13 at threonine 485, which enhances its monosaccharide uptake activity to compete with bacteria for extracellular sugars...
November 24, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880834/overexpressed-proteins-in-hypervirulent-clade-8-and-clade-6-strains-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-compared-to-e-coli-o157-h7-edl933-clade-3-strain
#8
Natalia Amigo, Qi Zhang, Ariel Amadio, Qunjie Zhang, Wanderson M Silva, Baiyuan Cui, Zhongjian Chen, Mariano Larzabal, Jinlong Bei, Angel Cataldi
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and predominantly affects children under 5 years. The major virulence traits are Shiga toxins, necessary to develop HUS and the Type III Secretion System (T3SS) through which bacteria translocate effector proteins directly into the host cell. By SNPs typing, E. coli O157:H7 was separated into nine different clades. Clade 8 and clade 6 strains were more frequently associated with severe disease and HUS. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in two strains of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877080/established-population-of-blacklegged-ticks-with-high-infection-prevalence-for-the-lyme-disease-bacterium-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-on-corkscrew-island-kenora-district-ontario
#9
John D Scott, Janet E Foley, Kerry L Clark, John F Anderson, Lance A Durden, Jodi M Manord, Morgan L Smith
We document an established population of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario, Canada. Primers of the outer surface protein A (OspA) gene, the flagellin (fla) gene, and the flagellin B (flaB) gene were used in the PCR assays to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the Lyme disease bacterium. In all, 60 (73%) of 82 adult I. scapularis, were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. As well, 6 (43%) of 14 unfed I. scapularis nymphs were positive for B. burgdorferi s...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872237/flagellin-mediated-protection-against-intestinal-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-infection-does-not-require-interleukin-22
#10
Rémi Porte, Laurye Van Maele, Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Benoit Foligné, Laure Dumoutier, Julien Tabareau, Delphine Cayet, Pierre Gosset, Nicolas Jonckheere, Isabelle Van Seuningen, A José Chabalgoity, Michel Simonet, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Jean-Claude Sirard, Christophe Carnoy
Signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs), the main receptors in innate immunity, is essential for the defense of mucosal surfaces. It was previously shown that systemic TLR5 stimulation by bacterial flagellin induces an immediate, transient interleukin-22 (IL-22)-dependent antimicrobial response to bacterial or viral infections of the mucosa. This process was dependent on the activation of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of flagellin treatment in a murine model of oral infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (an invasive, Gram-negative, enteropathogenic bacterium that targets the small intestine)...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861593/neutrophil-and-monocyte-function-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-undergoing-antiviral-therapy-with-regimens-containing-protease-inhibitors-with-and-without-interferon
#11
Martina Gambato, Noelia Caro-Pérez, Patricia González, Nuria Cañete, Zoe Mariño, Sabela Lens, Martín Bonacci, Concepció Bartres, José-María Sánchez-Tapias, José A Carrión, Xavier Forns, Manel Juan, Sofía Pérez-Del-Pulgar, María-Carlota Londoño
Real-life data showed an increased incidence of bacterial infections in patients with advanced liver disease receiving a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing antiviral regimen against hepatitis C (HCV). However, the causes of this event are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs might impair innate immune responses through the inhibition of proteases participating in the anti-bacterial functions of neutrophils and monocytes. The aims of the study were to assess phagocytic and oxidative burst capacity in neutrophils and monocytes obtained from patients receiving a PI containing-antiviral regimen, and to determine cytokine secretion after neutrophil stimulation with flagellin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855208/swimming-motility-mediates-the-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induced-by-flagellated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Madison Floyd, Matthew Winn, Christian Cullen, Payel Sil, Benoit Chassaing, Dae-Goon Yoo, Andrew T Gewirtz, Joanna B Goldberg, Linda L McCarter, Balázs Rada
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections often characterized by robust neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophils provide the first line of defense against P. aeruginosa. Aside from their defense conferred by phagocytic activity, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to immobilize bacteria. Although NET formation is an important antimicrobial process, the details of its mechanism are largely unknown. The identity of the main components of P. aeruginosa responsible for triggering NET formation is unclear...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852951/a-cysteine-rich-protein-kinase-associates-with-a-membrane-immune-complex-and-is-required-for-cell-death
#13
Koste Abdissa Yadeta, James Mitch Elmore, Athena Y Creer, Baomin Feng, Jessica Y Franco, Jose Sebastian Rufian, Ping He, Brett S Phinney, Gitta Laurel Coaker
Membrane localized proteins perceive and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. We performed quantitative proteomics on plasma membrane-enriched samples from Arabidopsis treated with bacterial flagellin. We identified multiple receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) changing in abundance, including cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) that are upregulated upon perception of flagellin. CRKs possess extracellular cysteine-rich domains and comprise a gene family consisting of 46 members in Arabidopsis. Single T-DNA insertion lines in CRK28 and CRK29, two CRKs induced in response to flagellin perception, did not exhibit robust alterations in immune responses...
November 16, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842516/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-flagellin-glycosylation-island-of-the-gram-positive-thermophile-geobacillus
#14
Pieter De Maayer, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: Protein glycosylation involves the post-translational attachment of sugar chains to target proteins and has been observed in all three domains of life. Post-translational glycosylation of flagellin, the main structural protein of the flagellum, is a common characteristic among many Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea. Several distinct functions have been ascribed to flagellin glycosylation, including stabilisation and maintenance of the flagellar filament, motility, surface recognition, adhesion, and virulence...
November 14, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837097/cml8-an-arabidopsis-calmodulin-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-pseudomonas-syringae-plant-immunity
#15
Xiaoyang Zhu, Eugénie Robe, Lucile Jomat, Didier Aldon, Christian Mazars, Jean-Philippe Galaud
Calcium is a universal second messenger involved in various cellular processes including plant development and stress responses. Its conversion into biological responses requires the presence of calcium sensor relays such as calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs). While the role of CaM is well described, CML functions remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis CML8 expression is strongly and transiently induced by Pseudomonas syringae and reverse genetic approaches indicated that the over-expression of CML8 confers on plants a better resistance to pathogenic bacteria compared to wild type, knock-down and knock-out lines indicating that CML8 participates as a positive regulator in plant immunity...
November 10, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836582/antibodies-raised-against-divalent-type-b-flagellin-and-pilin-provide-effective-immunotherapy-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-of-mice-with-burn-wounds
#16
Mahmood Saffari, Somayeh Behbood, Gholamreza Irajian, Ahmad Khorshidi, Rezvan Moniri, Bahador Behrouz
Burn wound infections caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are a serious challenge to therapy because of the complex pathogenesis and paucity of new effective antibiotics. Therefore, there is renewed interest in developing antibody-based therapeutic strategies. Immunotherapy strategies typically target selected virulence factors that are expressed by the majority of clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, particularly because virulence factors mediate infection. Here we used a murine model of burn wound infection to evaluate the efficacy of antibodies raised against the divalent type b flagellin and PilA (flagellin b + PilA), as acute virulence factors, to prevent and treat infection...
November 8, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835071/detection-of-borrelia-genomospecies-2-in-ixodes-spinipalpis-ticks-collected-from-a-rabbit-in-canada
#17
John Donald Scott, Kerry L Clark, Janet E Foley, John F Anderson, Lance A Durden, Jodi M Manord, Morgan L Smith
Lyme disease is a serious health problem with many patients requiring in-depth clinical assessment and extended treatment. In the present study, we provide the first records of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus, and Ixodes spinipalpis parasitizing eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus. We also documented a triple co-infestation of 3 tick species (Ixodes angustus, I. pacificus, I. spinipalpis) feeding on an eastern cottontail. Notably, we discovered a unique member of the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827003/sinorhizobium-fredii-hh103-invades-lotus-burttii-by-crack-entry-in-a-nod-factor-and-surface-polysaccharides-dependent-manner
#19
Sebastian Acosta-Jurado, Dulce N Rodríguez-Navarro, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Juan Fernández-Perea, Antonio Gil-Serrano, Haojie Jin, Qi An, Miguel A Rodriguez-Carvajal, Stig U Andersen, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard, Jose M Vinardell, Jose Enrique Ruiz-Sainz
Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-Rifr, a broad host-range rhizobial strain, induces nitrogen-fixing nodules in Lotus burttii but ineffective nodules in L. japonicus. Confocal microscopy studies showed that Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and S. fredii HH103-Rifr invade L. burttii roots through infection threads or epidermal cracks, respectively. Infection threads in root hairs were not observed in L. burttii plants inoculated with S. fredii HH103-Rifr. A S. fredii HH103-Rifr nodA mutant failed to nodulate L. burttii, demonstrating that Nod-factors are strictly necessary for this crack-entry mode and a noeL mutant was also severely impaired in L...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822215/of-men-not-mice-bactericidal-permeability-increasing-protein-expressed-in-human-macrophages-acts-as-a-phagocytic-receptor-and-modulates-entry-and-replication-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#20
Arjun Balakrishnan, Markus Schnare, Dipshikha Chakravortty
Macrophages as immune cells prevent the spreading of pathogens by means of active phagocytosis and killing. We report here the presence of an antimicrobial protein, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in human macrophages, which actively participates in engulfment and killing of Gram-negative pathogens. Our studies revealed increased expression of BPI in human macrophages during bacterial infection and upon stimulation with various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, viz., LPS and flagellin...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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