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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637471/enhanced-humoural-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-fused-with-flagellin-in-chickens
#1
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629321/the-biocontrol-agent-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-pa23-primes-brassica-napus-defenses-through-distinct-gene-networks
#2
Kelly A Duke, Michael G Becker, Ian J Girard, Jenna L Millar, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
BACKGROUND: The biological control agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is capable of protecting Brassica napus (canola) from the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via direct antagonism. While we have elucidated bacterial genes and gene products responsible biocontrol, little is known about how the host plant responds to bacterial priming on the leaf surface, including global changes in gene activity in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. RESULTS: Application of PA23 to the aerial surfaces of canola plants reduced the number of S...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622575/protein-nanoparticle-vaccine-based-on-flagellin-carrier-fused-to-influenza-conserved-epitopes-confers-full-protection-against-influenza-a-virus-challenge
#3
Lei Deng, Jong R Kim, Timothy Z Chang, Han Zhang, Teena Mohan, Julie A Champion, Bao-Zhong Wang
Currently marketed influenza vaccines only confer protection against matching influenza virus strains. The influenza A composition of these vaccines needs to be annually updated. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle offer broad cross-protection against influenza A viruses. In our study, we investigated the specific immune responses and protective efficacy of protein nanoparticles based on fusion proteins of flagellin carrier linked to conserved influenza epitopes. We designed fusion proteins by replacing the hyperimmunogenic region of flagellin (FliC) with four tandem copies of the ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (f4M2e), H1 HA2 domain (fHApr8) or H3 HA2 domain (fHAaichi)...
June 13, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620587/a-dual-luciferase-reporter-system-for-b-burgdorferi-measures-transcriptional-activity-during-tick-pathogen-interactions
#4
Philip P Adams, Carlos Flores Avile, Mollie W Jewett
Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620360/cytr-homolog-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-controls-air-liquid-biofilm-formation-by-regulating-multiple-genes-involved-in-cellulose-production-c-di-gmp-signaling-motility-and-type-iii-secretion-system-in-response-to-nutritional-and-environmental
#5
M M Haque, M M H Oliver, Kamrun Nahar, Mohammad Z Alam, Hisae Hirata, Shinji Tsuyumu
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum [Pcc (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora)] PC1 causes soft-rot disease in a wide variety of plant species by secreting multiple pathogenicity-related traits. In this study, regulatory mechanism of air-liquid (AL) biofilm formation was studied using a cytR homolog gene deletion mutant (ΔcytR) of Pcc PC1. Compared to the wild type (Pcc PC1), the ΔcytR mutant produced fragile and significantly (P < 0.001) lower amounts of AL biofilm on salt-optimized broth plus 2% glycerol (SOBG), yeast peptone dextrose adenine, and also on King's B at 27°C after 72 h incubation in static condition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611764/interplay-of-pathogen-induced-defense-responses-and-symbiotic-establishment-in-medicago-truncatula
#6
Tao Chen, Liujian Duan, Bo Zhou, Haixiang Yu, Hui Zhu, Yangrong Cao, Zhongming Zhang
Suppression of host innate immunity appears to be required for the establishment of symbiosis between rhizobia and host plants. In this study, we established a system that included a host plant, a bacterial pathogen and a symbiotic rhizobium to study the role of innate immunity during symbiotic interactions. A pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000), was shown to cause chlorosis in Medicago truncatula A17. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Sm2011 (Sm2011) and Pst DC3000 strain alone induced similar defense responses in M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604268/mucosal-immunization-with-a-flagellin-adjuvanted-hgp44-vaccine-enhances-protective-immune-responses-in-a-murine-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-model
#7
Sao Puth, Seol Hee Hong, Mi Jin Park, Hye Hwa Lee, Youn Suhk Lee, Kwangjoon Jeong, In-Chol Kang, Jeong Tae Koh, Byounggon Moon, Sang Chul Park, Joon Haeng Rhee, Shee Eun Lee
Chronic periodontitis is caused by interactions between the oral polymicrobial community and host factors. Periodontal diseases are associated with dysbiotic shift in oral microbiota. Vaccination against periodontopathic bacteria could be a fundamental therapeutic to modulate polymicrobial biofilms. Because oral cavity is the site of periodontopathic bacterial colonization, mucosal vaccines should provide better protection than vaccines administered systemically. We previously reported that bacterial flagellin is an excellent mucosal adjuvant...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602841/a-unique-role-of-flagellar-function-in-aliivibrio-salmonicida-pathogenicity-not-related-to-bacterial-motility-in-aquatic-environments
#8
Simen Foyn Nørstebø, Erik Paulshus, Ane Mohn Bjelland, Henning Sørum
Aliivibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold-water vibriosis, a septicemia of farmed salmonid fish. The mechanisms of disease are not well described, and few virulence factors have been identified. However, a requirement for motility in the pathogenesis has been reported. Al. salmonicida is motile by the means of lophotrichous polar flagella, consisting of multiple flagellin subunits that are expressed simultaneously. Here we show that flagellin subunit FlaA, but not FlaD, is of major importance for motility in Al...
June 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599020/isg15-in-host-defense-against-candida-albicans-infection-in-a-mouse-model-of-fungal-keratitis
#9
Chen Dong, Nan Gao, Bing X Ross, Fu-Shin X Yu
Purpose: ISG15, a di-ubiquitin-like protein, is critical for controlling certain viral and bacterial infections. We sought to determine if ISG15 plays a role in corneal innate immunity against Candida albicans (C. albicans) using a C57BL/6 (B6) mouse model of human fungal keratitis. Methods: Scarified corneas of adult B6 mice were pretreated with TLR5 ligand flagellin and then inoculated with C. albicans. The expression of ISG15 and other genes involved in ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) was determined by real-time PCR...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595359/intracellular-ca2-is-important-for-flagellin-triggered-defense-in-arabidopsis-and-involves-inositol-polyphosphate-signaling
#10
Yi Ma, Yichen Zhao, Gerald A Berkowitz
Cytosolic Ca2+ increase is a crucial and early step of plant immunity evoked by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flagellin (flg). Components responsible for this increase are still not uncovered, although current models of plant immune signaling portray extracellular Ca2+ influx as paramount to flg activation of defense pathways. Work presented here provides new insights into cytosolic Ca2+ increase associated with flg-induced defense responses. We show that extracellular Ca2+ contributes more to immune responses evoked by plant elicitor peptide (Pep3) than that evoked by flg, indicating an intracellular Ca2+ source responsible for immune responses evoked by flg...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583420/the-boosting-potential-of-bacteria-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
David C Binder, Derek A Wainwright
Salmonella Typhimurium, engineered to express flagellin B, recently demonstrated unprecedented tumor control through a TLR-dependent mechanism. Here, we review new observations that support the potential of utilizing modified bacteria to enhance antitumor immunity. We also discuss the implications of these findings for clinical applications, including immune checkpoint blockade therapies.
June 2, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581271/helicobacter-pylori-antigens-inducing-early-immune-response-in-infants
#12
Ji Hyun Seo, Jong Hyuk Youn, Eun A Kim, Jin Su Jun, Ji Sook Park, Jung Sook Yeom, Jae Young Lim, Hyang Ok Woo, Hee Shang Youn, Gyung Hyuck Ko, Jin Sik Park, Seung Chul Baik, Woo Kon Lee, Myung Je Cho, Kwang Ho Rhee
To identify the Helicobacter pylori antigens operating during early infection in sera from infected infants using proteomics and immunoblot analysis. Two-dimensional (2D) large and small gel electrophoresis was performed using H. pylori strain 51. We performed 2D immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody immunoblotting using small gels on sera collected at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 4-11-month-old infants confirmed with H. pylori infection by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571979/impact-of-high-fat-diet-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-small-intestinal-physiology-before-and-after-the-onset-of-obesity
#13
REVIEW
João Ricardo Araújo, Julie Tomas, Christiane Brenner, Philippe J Sansonetti
The modulation of the intestinal microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has a major impact on both immunological and metabolic functions of the host. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this contribution is to review the impact of HFD on microbiota profile and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. Evidence from animal studies suggest that before the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications, HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis - encompassing changes in composition balance and massive redistribution with bacteria occupying intervillous spaces and crypts - associated with early physiopathological changes, predominantly in the ileum, such as low-grade inflammation, decreased antimicrobial peptides expression, impaired mucus production, secretion and layer's thickness, and decreased expression of tight junction proteins...
May 29, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567654/detection-and-analyses-of-endocytosis-of-plant-receptor-kinases
#14
Jenna Loiseau, Silke Robatzek
Genetic dissection has led to a sophisticated understanding of receptor kinases in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is essential to identify the (sub)cellular locations of resting and signaling receptor kinases that trigger molecular events in plant cells upon ligand perception. In this regard, the internalization of plasma membrane-localized FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) into endosomes induced by its ligand flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, is a model system for studying activation status-dependent and endosomal receptor kinase trafficking routes and can be used in screens to identify pathogen effectors that target these trafficking routes for virulence promotion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550434/flagellin-fljb-as-an-adjuvant-to-the-recombinant-adenovirus-rabies-glycoprotein-vaccine-increases-immune-responses-against-rabies-in-mice
#15
Xingxing Xiao, Yun Zhang, Qiaolin Wei, Xiangping Yin
Rabies virus (RABV) causes an acute progressive viral encephalitis. Although currently licensed vaccines have an excellent safety and efficacy record, the development of a safer and more cost-effective vaccine is still being sought. An E1-deleted, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) vector expressing RABV glycoprotein (HAd5-G) is thought to be a promising candidate vaccine for immune prophylaxis against rabies. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) flagellin is a well-known immune adjuvant...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550060/surface-sensing-for-flagellar-gene-expression-on-solid-media-in-paenibacillus-sp-naist15-1
#16
Kazuo Kobayashi, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
A rhizosphere Gram-positive bacterial isolate, Paenibacillus sp. NAIST15-1, exhibits intriguing motility behavior on hard agar media. Paenibacillus sp. shows increased transcription of flagellar genes and hyperflagellation when transferred from liquid to solid media. Hyperflagellated cells form wandering colonies that are capable of moving around on the surface of media containing ≥1.5% agar. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify genes critical for motility. In addition to flagellar genes, this mutagenesis identified five non-flagellar structural genes that were important for motility...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545919/molecular-diagnosis-of-salmonella-typhi-and-its-virulence-in-suspected-typhoid-blood-samples-through-nested-multiplex-pcr
#17
Solai Ramatchandirane Prabagaran, Vellingiri Kalaiselvi, Naganathan Chandramouleeswaran, Krishnan Nair Geetha Deepthi, Kootallur Narayanan Brahmadathan, Mariappa Mani
A nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was developed for the detection of virulent Salmonella typhi in the blood specimens from patients suspected for typhoid fever. After the Widal test, two pairs of primers were used for the detection of flagellin gene (fliC) of S. typhi. Among them, those positive for fliC alone were subjected to identification of genes in Via B operon of Salmonella Pathogenesity Island (SPI-7) where four primer pairs were used to detect tviA and tviB genes. Among 250 blood samples tested, 115 were positive by fliC PCR; 22 of these were negative for tviA and tviB...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542573/development-of-real-time-pcr-and-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assays-for-the-differential-detection-of-digital-dermatitis-associated-treponemes
#18
Kelly Anklam, Megan Kulow, Wataru Yamazaki, Dörte Döpfer
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a severe infectious cause of lameness in cattle worldwide, with important economic and welfare consequences. There are three treponeme phylogroups (T. pedis, T. phagedenis, and T. medium) that are implicated in playing an important causative role in DD. This study was conducted to develop real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection and differentiation of the three treponeme phylogroups associated with DD. The real-time PCR treponeme phylogroup assays targeted the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic space (ITS) for T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538155/structure-and-intermolecular-interactions-between-l-type-straight-flagellar-filaments
#19
Daniel Louzon, Avi Ginsburg, Walter Schwenger, Tom Dvir, Zvonimir Dogic, Uri Raviv
Bacterial mobility is powered by rotation of helical flagellar filaments driven by rotary motors. Flagellin isolated from the Salmonella Typhimurium SJW1660 strain, which differs by a point mutation from the wild-type strain, assembles into straight filaments in which flagellin monomers are arranged in a left-handed helix. Using small-angle x-ray scattering and osmotic stress methods, we investigated the structure of SJW1660 flagellar filaments as well as the intermolecular forces that govern their assembly into dense hexagonal bundles...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535267/the-plasma-and-mucosal-igm-iga-and-igg-responses-to-the-vibrio-cholerae-o1-protein-immunome-in-adults-with-cholera-in-bangladesh
#20
Richelle C Charles, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Al Jasinskas, Amanda Berger, Daniel T Leung, Meagan Kelly, Peng Xu, Pavol Kovác, Samantha R Giffen, James D Harbison, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I Khan, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Jason B Harris, Philip L Felgner, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
Background.: Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. Methods.: We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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