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Vaccine adjuvant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944998/enhanced-immune-response-induced-by-p5-her2-neu-derived-peptide-pulsed-dendritic-cells-as-a-preventive-cancer-vaccine
#1
Zahra Gholizadeh, Jalil Tavakkol-Afshari, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Seyed Amir Jalali, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Dendritic cells are special and powerful antigen-presenting cells that can induce primary immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. They can present antigens via both MHC-I and MHC-II, so they have the ability to stimulate both cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T helper cells. Furthermore, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes require activation by CD4(+) T cells. This requires a CD4(+) T cell activator molecule, of which PADRE is one of the best. We chose an approach to use both of these important arms of the immune system...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943194/intradermal-vaccination-with-hollow-microneedles-a-comparative-study-of-various-protein-antigen-and-adjuvant-encapsulated-nanoparticles
#2
Guangsheng Du, Rania M Hathout, Maha Nasr, M Reza Nejadnik, Jing Tu, Roman I Koning, Abraham J Koster, Bram Slütter, Alexander Kros, Wim Jiskoot, Joke A Bouwstra, Juha Mönkäre
In this study, we investigated the potential of intradermal delivery of nanoparticulate vaccines to modulate the immune response of protein antigen using hollow microneedles. Four types of nanoparticles covering a broad range of physiochemical parameters, namely poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles, liposomes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were compared. The developed nanoparticles were loaded with a model antigen (ovalbumin (OVA)) with and without an adjuvant (poly(I:C)), followed by the characterization of size, zeta potential, morphology, and loading and release of antigen and adjuvant...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942175/evaluation-of-immunological-responses-to-recombinant-porin-a-protein-rpoa-from-native-strains-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroups-a-and-b-using-omv-as-an-adjuvant-in-balb-c-mice
#3
Parviz Afrough, Saeid Bouzari, Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Farzam Vaziri, Abolfazl Fateh, Ava Behrouzi, Mohammadali Malekan, Seyed Davar Siadat
Neisseria meningitidis is one of the main causes of sepsis and meningitis, which are two serious life-threatening diseases in both children and adolescents. Porin A (porA) from both serogroup A and B were cloned into the pET28a plasmid and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected three times with 25 μg of the recombinant PorA. Specific total IgG antibodies and isotypes were evaluated using ELISA assay...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942173/identification-and-characterization-of-cd4-t-cell-epitopes-on-manganese-transport-protein-c-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Wei Yu, Lizi Wang, Mengyao Wang, Shuo Liu, Wanyu Li, Xintong Wang, Xiaoting Li, Simiao Yu, Di Yao, Jinzhu Ma, Liquan Yu, Jing Chen, Zhenyue Feng, Yudong Cui
Manganese transport protein C (MntC) of Staphylococcus aureus represents an excellent vaccine-candidate antigen. The important role of CD4(+) T cells in effective immunity against S. aureus infection was shown; however, CD4(+) T cell-specific epitopes on S. aureus MntC have not been well identified. Here, we used bioinformatics prediction algorithms to evaluate and identify nine candidate epitopes within MntC. Our results showed that peptide M8 emulsified in Freund's adjuvant induced a much higher cell-proliferation rate as compared with controls...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942130/biosynthesis-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-the-lipid-a-family-of-glycolipids
#5
REVIEW
Xirui Xiao, Karthik Sankaranarayanan, Chaitan Khosla
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a potent elicitor of innate immune responses in mammals. A typical LPS molecule is composed of three different structural domains: a polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and Lipid A. Lipid A is the amphipathic glycolipid moiety of LPS. It stimulates the immune system by tightly binding to Toll-like receptor 4. More recently, Lipid A has also been shown to activate intracellular caspase-4 and caspase-5...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941991/conservation-in-gene-encoding-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen-rv2660-and-a-high-predicted-population-coverage-of-h56-multistage-vaccine-in-south-africa
#6
Angy P Perez-Martinez, Edison Ong, Lixin Zhang, Carl F Marrs, Yongqun He, Zhenhua Yang
H56/AERAS-456+IC31 (H56), composed of two early secretion proteins, Ag85B and ESAT-6, and a latency associated protein, Rv2660, and the IC31 Intercell adjuvant, is a new fusion subunit vaccine candidate designed to induce immunity against both new infection and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Efficacy of subunit vaccines may be affected by the diversity of vaccine antigens among clinical strains and the extent of recognition by the diverse HLA molecules in the recipient population. Although a previous study showed the conservative nature of Ag85B- and ESAT-6-encoding genes, genetic diversity of Rv2660c that encodes RV2660 is largely unknown...
September 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941620/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-heterologous-prime-boost-immunization-with-viral-vectored-malaria-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-matrix-m%C3%A2
#7
Navin Venkatraman, Nicholas Anagnostou, Carly Bliss, Georgina Bowyer, Danny Wright, Karin Lövgren-Bengtsson, Rachel Roberts, Ian Poulton, Alison Lawrie, Katie Ewer, Adrian V S Hill
The use of viral vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens to induce potent T cell responses in addition to humoral immunity is a promising vaccination strategy in the fight against malaria. We conducted an open-label, first-in-human, controlled Phase I study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Matrix-M adjuvanted vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63) prime followed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost eight weeks later, both encoding the malaria ME-TRAP antigenic sequence (a multiple epitope string fused to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein)...
September 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940186/an-r848-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccine-promotes-early-activation-of-b-cells-in-the-draining-lymph-node-of-nonhuman-primate-neonates
#8
Beth C Holbrook, S Tyler Aycock, Emily Machiele, Elene Clemens, Danielle Gries, Matthew J Jorgensen, Mallinath B Hadimani, S Bruce King, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Impaired immune responsiveness is a significant barrier to vaccination of neonates. By way of example, the low seroconversion observed following influenza vaccination has led to restriction of its use to infants over 6 months of age, leaving younger infants vulnerable to infection. Our previous studies using a nonhuman primate neonate model demonstrated that the immune response elicited following vaccination with inactivated influenza virus could be robustly increased by inclusion of the TLR agonist flagellin or R848, either delivered individually or in combination...
September 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939395/preformulation-studies-with-the-escherichia-coli-double-mutant-heat-labile-toxin-adjuvant-for-use-in-an-oral-vaccine
#9
Jessica A White, Candace Haghighi, Johanna Brunner, Marcus Estrada, Manjari Lal, Dexiang Chen
Double mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) is a promising adjuvant for oral vaccine administration. The aims of our study were to develop sensitive methods to detect low concentrations of dmLT and to use the assays in preformulation studies to determine whether dmLT remains stable under conditions encountered by an oral vaccine. We developed a sandwich ELISA specific for intact dmLT and a sensitive SDS-PAGE densitometry method, and tested stability of dmLT in glass and plastic containers, in saliva, at the pH of stomach fluid, and in high-osmolarity buffers...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937963/ki67-and-lymphocytes-in-the-pretherapeutic-core-biopsy-of-primary-invasive-breast-cancer-positive-markers-of-therapy-response-prediction-and-superior-survival
#10
REVIEW
Claus M Schlotter, Lothar Tietze, Ulf Vogt, Carlos Villena Heinsen, Antje Hahn
Background Core needle biopsy plays a crucial role as diagnostic tool for BC. Both Ki67 and likely tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the near future are determining the kind of systemic therapy. The role of TILs in BC is still an issue for clinical research, albeit preliminary results of neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical studies already now highlight the crucial impact of TILs on therapy response and survival. Methods Evaluation of related publications (pubmed) and meeting abstracts (ASCO, SABCS). Results The monoclonal antibody Ki67 recognizing a nuclear antigene in proliferating cells is a positive marker of therapy response and superior survival...
September 22, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937879/advax4-delta-inulin-combination-adjuvant-together-with-ecmx-a-fusion-construct-of-three-protective-mtb-antigens-induces-a-potent-th1-immune-response-and-protects-mice-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Bruno de Paula Oliveira Santos, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Renato Beilner Machado, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes, André Kipnis, Nikolai Petrovsky, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a main public health concern and 10.4 million new cases occurred in 2015 around the world. BCG is the only approved vaccine against TB, but has variable efficacy and new vaccines are needed. We developed two new mTB vaccine candidates based on the recombinant fusion proteins, rCMX and rECMXformulated with Advax4, a new combination adjuvant combining delta inulin, CpG oligonucleotide and murabutide. When BALB/c mice were immunized three times intramuscularly with these vaccine formulationsInjection of Advax4 alone increased the percentage of lymphatic endothelial cells and activated macrophages (F480/CD11b(+)) in the draining lymph nodes consistent with a chemotactic adjuvant effect...
September 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936557/adjuvant-activity-of-saponins-from-kazakhstani-plants-on-the-immune-responses-to-subunit-influenza-vaccine
#12
A S Turmagambetova, P G Alexyuk, A P Bogoyavlenskiy, I A Zaitseva, E S Omirtaeva, M S Alexyuk, N S Sokolova, V E Berezin
In recent years, there have been a number of reports on the successful use of immunostimulatory complexes with saponins and viral glycoproteins as veterinary vaccines and in clinical trials for human medicine. The saponins Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan were isolated and purified by HPLC from Allochrusa gypsophiloides, Saponaria officinalis and Gypsophila paniculata plants in Kazakhstan and they proved to have low toxicity in experiments with mice, chickens and chicken embryos. Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan can be used to create immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) similar to saponin-Quil-A-containing ISCOMs both in structure and in immunostimulatory efficiency...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936523/mesoporous-zno-nanocapsules-for-the-induction-of-enhanced-antigen-specific-immunological-responses
#13
Sumbul Afroz, Himadri Medhi, Somedutta Maity, Gillipsie Minhas, Srikanth Battu, Jeevan Giddaluru, Koushi Kumar, Pradip Paik, Nooruddin Khan
The application of nanotechnology in vaccinology has fuelled rapid advancement towards the design and development of nanovaccines. Nanoparticles have been found to enhance vaccine efficacy through the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen delivery to secondary lymphoid organs and antigen-presentation by Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) synchronized with stimulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Metal based nanoparticles (MNPs) have been extensively engineered for the generation of nanovaccines owing to their intrinsic adjuvant-like properties and immunomodulatory functions...
September 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936479/surface-coating-of-nanoparticles-reduces-background-inflammatory-activity-while-increasing-particle-uptake-and-delivery
#14
Brittany A Moser, Rachel C Steinhardt, Aaron P Esser-Kahn
In the study of host-pathogen interactions, vaccines and drug delivery, particulate delivery system are widely used to mimic pathogen size, pattern recognition receptor agonist presentation, and target cells or organs. However, some of the polymeric systems used in particulate delivery have inherent inflammatory properties that are variable and nonspecific. These properties enhance their adjuvant activity, but confound the analysis of signaling mechanisms. Here, we present a method for particle coating with minimal background immune activation via passivation of the surface with silica-silane...
February 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936360/robust-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-induced-by-p-falciparum-csp-adsorbed-to-cationic-liposomal-adjuvant-caf09-confer-sterilizing-immunity-against-experimental-rodent-malaria-infection
#15
Diego A Espinosa, Dennis Christensen, Christian Muñoz, Sanjay Singh, Emily Locke, Peter Andersen, Fidel Zavala
Despite several decades of extensive research, the development of a highly efficacious malaria vaccine has yet to be accomplished. While the RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate shows the potential to prevent a substantial number of clinical malaria cases, significant improvements in protective efficacy are still needed. Multiple studies have shown that RTS,S induces protective antibody and CD4(+) T-cell responses, but limited or negligible CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective capacity of full-length recombinant P...
2017: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934770/seasonal-influenza-and-vaccination-strategies-is-a-paradigm-shift-needed-a-synopsis-of-the-3rd-new-zealand-influenza-symposium-november-2016
#16
Nadia A Charania, Diana Murfitt, Nikki Turner
Influenza continues to be a global public health problem despite the availability of preventive vaccines and public health vaccination programmes. This paper presents a synopsis of the 3rd New Zealand Influenza Symposium (NZiS) that was hosted by the Immunisation Advisory Centre (IMAC) in November 2016. Experts and service providers convened to discuss current issues in the prevention and management of influenza. One of the key topics discussed was the use of novel vaccines, such as adjuvanted and high-dose vaccines, and antiviral prophylaxis to protect young children and the elderly...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934456/cross-reactive-antibody-responses-to-novel-h5nx-influenza-viruses-following-homologous-and-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccination-with-a-prepandemic-stockpiled-a-h5n1-vaccine-in-humans
#17
Min Z Levine, Crystal Holiday, Feng Liu, Stacie Jefferson, Eric Gillis, Abbie R Bellamy, Terrence Tumpey, Jacqueline M Katz
Recently, novel highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses (clade 2.3.4.4) caused outbreaks in US poultry. We evaluated the potential of a stockpiled A(H5N1) A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) vaccine to elicit cross-reactive antibody responses to these emerging viruses. Sera from subjects who received 2 doses of MF59-adjuvanted A/Anhui/1/2005, or 1 dose of MF59-adjuvanted A/Anhui/1/2005 following priming with a clade 1 vaccine were characterized by microneutralization assays and modified hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934453/an-adjuvanted-a-h5n1-subvirion-vaccine-elicits-virus-specific-antibody-response-and-improves-protection-against-lethal-influenza-viral-challenge-in-mouse-model-of-protein-energy-malnutrition
#18
Enitra N Jones, Samuel Amoah, Weiping Cao, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Shivaprakash Gangappa
Background: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including influenza infection, but no studies have addressed the potential influences of PEM on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of avian influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. Methods: We investigated the role of PEM on vaccine-mediated protection after a lethal challenge with recombinant A(H5N1) virus using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18% protein) or very low protein (VLP; 2% protein) in an established murine model of influenza vaccination...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934441/2-dose-schedule-of-as04-adjuvanted-human-papillomavirus-types-16-18-vaccine
#19
Dimitri Poddighe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933759/lactic-acid-bacteria-and-their-bacteriocins-classification-biosynthesis-and-applications-against-uropathogens-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Mduduzi Paul Mokoena
Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from the Lactobacillus genera have been applied in food preservation, partly due to their antimicrobial properties. Their application in the control of human pathogens holds promise provided appropriate strains are scientifically chosen and a suitable mode of delivery is utilized. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a global problem, affecting mainly diabetic patients and women. Many uropathogens are developing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. There is a need for more research on the ability of LAB to inhibit uropathogens, with a view to apply them in clinical settings, while adhering to strict selection guidelines in the choice of candidate LAB...
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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