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B Gerber, F Brandenberger-Schenk, E Rothenanger, C Müller
In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
J P Lulich, A C Berent, L G Adams, J L Westropp, J W Bartges, C A Osborne
In an age of advancing endoscopic and lithotripsy technologies, the management of urolithiasis poses a unique opportunity to advance compassionate veterinary care, not only for patients with urolithiasis but for those with other urinary diseases as well. The following are consensus-derived, research and experience-supported, patient-centered recommendations for the treatment and prevention of uroliths in dogs and cats utilizing contemporary strategies. Ultimately, we hope that these recommendations will serve as a foundation for ongoing and future clinical research and inspiration for innovative problem solving...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Joseph W Bartges
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Uroliths occur commonly in the bladder and/or urethra of cats and can be lifethreatening if urethral obstruction occurs. Calcium oxalate accounts for 40-50% of urocystoliths and these stones are not amenable to medical dissolution; therefore, removal by surgery or minimally invasive techniques is required if uroliths must be treated. Medical protocols for prevention involve decreasing urine saturation for minerals that form uroliths. ETIOPATHOGENESIS: Formation of uroliths is not a disease, but rather a complication of several disorders...
September 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
D Petrini, M Di Giuseppe, G Deli, C De Caro Carella
A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge...
2016: Open veterinary journal
Keijiro Mizukami, Karthik Raj, Carl Osborne, Urs Giger
Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA) reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus) with COLAuria and cystine calculi...
2016: PloS One
B Ruggerone, S P Marelli, P Scarpa, M Polli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2016: Veterinary Record
Norbert Laube, Florian Klein, Falk Bernsmann
It is routinely observed that persons with increased urinary stone risk factors do not necessarily form uroliths. Furthermore, stone formers can present with urinalyses that do not reflect the clinical picture. We explain this discrepancy by differences in crystallization kinetics. In 1162 urines, crystallization of Ca-oxalate was induced according to the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) method. The urine's relative light transmissivity (RLT) was recorded from 100 % at start of titration to 95 % due to nuclei formation and crystal growth...
June 21, 2016: Urolithiasis
Cornelia Rückert, Roswitha Siener, Martin Ganter, Manfred Coenen, Ingrid Vervuert
AIM: Reduction of urolithic potential by means of increased water intake and urine dilution through supplementation of sodium chloride (NaCl) or decrease of urine pH by supplementation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen female, 6-month-old dwarf rabbits received the following three feeding regimens in a random order: complete feed without supplements = control; complete feed + 10 g NaCl/kg feed = NaCl; complete feed + 2.5 g NH4Cl/kg feed = NH4Cl...
August 17, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Mike Davies
In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Badrinathan Sridharan, Yogita Mehra, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh, Pragasam Viswanathan
The objective of this study is to check the regulation of crystal matrix proteins and inflammatory mediators by citrus bioflavonoids (CB) and Lemon peel (LP) extract in hyperoxaluric rats. The animals were divided into six groups with 6 animals each. Group 1: Control, Group 2: Urolithic (Ethylene glycol (EG)-0.75%); Group 3 & 5: Preventive study (EG + CB (20 mg/kg body weight) and LP (100 mg/kg body weight) extract administration from 0th-7th week) respectively; Group 4 & 6: Curative study (EG + CB and LP extract administration from 4th-7th week) respectively by oral administration...
August 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A Martel-Arquette, C Mans
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment and outcome of chinchillas diagnosed with urolithiasis. METHODS: Medical records of 15 chinchillas diagnosed with urolithiasis were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: All animals were male with a median age of 30 months (range: 11 to 132 months). Haematuria, pollakiuria and stranguria were the most common presenting complaints. Of 15 animals, 12 had abnormal physical abdominal examination, including pain and palpable cystic calculi...
May 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Badrinathan Sridharan, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh, Pragasam Viswanathan
The study explores calcium oxalate crystal inhibiting characteristic of polyacrylic acid (pAA), an anionic polymer in in vitro and in vivo. Animals were divided into 5 groups where group 1 served as control, group 2 were made hyperoxaluric by supplementing with Ethylene glycol (EG) 0.75% (v/v) for 30 days. Group 3, 4 & 5 were also given with EG and treated simultaneously with 2.5, 5 & 10 mg of pAA/kg of body weight, respectively. Urine, serum and tissue analyses along with histological studies were performed at the end of the 30 days study...
May 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Susan G Wynn, Angela L Witzel, Joseph W Bartges, Tamberlyn S Moyers, Claudia A Kirk
Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria...
2016: PeerJ
Albrecht Hesse, Jenni Hoffmann, Helmut Orzekowsky, Reto Neiger
This study reports a retrospective evaluation of epidemiological data from cystine stones of dogs submitted to the Urinary Stone Analysis Center Bonn, Germany, over a period of 35 years. Of the 20 316 uroliths submitted from 1979 to 2013, 1760 were cystine stones. In total, 109 breeds were affected with 16 breeds having an odds ratio > 1.0. Most of the cystine uroliths were retrieved from male dogs, with only 19 female dogs (1.1%) being affected. Percentage of submitted cystine stones amongst all stones decreased significantly over 35 years from 38...
March 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Doreen M Houston, Nick P Vanstone, Andrew E P Moore, Heather E Weese, J Scott Weese
This study reports emerging trends in feline urolithiasis in Canada during the past 16.8 y, evaluates associations of breed and gender with urolith types, and reports on feline submissions from outside of Canada. Struvite and calcium oxalate uroliths comprised > 90% of all uroliths submitted. In cats, oxalate submissions outnumbered struvite submissions from Canada, Hong Kong, Denmark, and the United Arab Emirates, while Australian struvite submissions outnumbered calcium oxalate submissions. In Canada, the majority of urolith submissions were from domestic cats followed by Himalayan, Persian, and Siamese cats...
February 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Yingtao Liu, Jilan Yan, Liuji Li
The main characteristics of stranguria in the Zhu bing yuan hou lun (Treatise on the Pathogenesis and Manifestations of All Diseases) include the following: it first proposes stranguria to be discussed in different chapters, promoting the idea "heat of the bladder and kidney deficiency", which exerted profound influnce on the later generations, and discerning bloody stranguria and hematuria with different symptoms and etiology of underlying viscera; while its Daoyin method recorded being of reference value to modern clinical treatment...
July 2015: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Ammon B Peck, Benjamin K Canales, Cuong Q Nguyen
Renal urolithiasis is a pathological condition common to a multitude of genetic, physiological and nutritional disorders, ranging from general hyperoxaluria to obesity. The concept of quickly dissolving renal uroliths via chemolysis, especially calcium-oxalate kidney stones, has long been a clinical goal, but yet to be achieved. Over the past 25 years, there has been a serious effort to examine the prospects of using plant and microbial oxalate-degrading enzymes known to catabolize oxalic acid and oxalate salts...
February 2016: Urolithiasis
Yasutsugu Miwa, Kurt K Sladky
Small mammal surgical procedures are a part of clinical veterinary practice and are performed with regularity. Anesthetic and analgesic techniques are important components of any successful small mammal surgical procedure. Many basic surgical principles used in dogs and cats can be directly applied to small mammals, but tissues tend to be smaller and thinner, and hemostasis is critical with small patients due to risk of death with minimal blood loss. Common surgical procedures in small mammals include integumentary mass and abscess excision, reproductive procedures, gastrointestinal foreign body removal, urolith removal, prolapsed tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract, intra-abdominal mass excision, and hepatic surgery...
January 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Balázs Bende, Krisztina Borbála Kovács, Norbert Solymosi, Tibor Németh
The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of canine urolithiasis in Hungary in order to determine the annual incidence of urolithiasis and to identify breeds at risk for different types of urolithiasis. Data of a total of 2,543 canine uroliths analysed in the laboratory of the Budapest Urolith Centre were evaluated retrospectively from 2001 to 2012. Logistic regression was used to assess odds ratios for the proportion of each affected breed compared to those of crossbreeds. The annual incidence of urolithiasis was evaluated by the number of submissions compared to the estimated number of dogs in the population from which the samples originated...
September 2015: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
E Furman, E H Hooijberg, E Leidinger, C Zedinger, U Giger, J Leidinger
A 2-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with a history of hematuria, stranguria and intermittent urethral obstruction. Urine sediment showed hematuria, pyuria, and yellow-brown, amorphous and spherical crystals. Upon surgical correction of the obstructed urethra by perineal urethrostomy, many dark yellow to grey, irregular, gravel-like to millet grain-sized uroliths, consisting of 100% xanthine by crystallography were found. The urinary xanthine concentration was high. The cat subsequently developed bilateral nephroliths, recurrent urinary tract infection, and chronic kidney failure...
November 1, 2015: Comparative Clinical Pathology
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