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M S Ferrer, L M J Miller
Antisperm antibodies (ASAs) have been associated with infertility in stallions. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of ASA-positive semen samples in satisfactory and non-satisfactory breeder stallions, the association between ASA binding and semen quality, and factors that may affect the diagnosis. Breeding soundness examinations were performed in 21 stallions and the percentage of IgG- and IgA-bound spermatozoa was evaluated using flow cytometry. Median IgG and IgA binding did not differ between the first and second ejaculates...
June 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Suvi Heinimäki, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Rotavirus (RV) inner capsid VP6 protein is a potential non-live vaccine candidate due to high degree of conservation and immunogenicity, and ability to self-assemble into oligomeric structures, including nanotubes. These VP6 structures induce strong humoral and T cell immunity and protect mice against RV challenge. It has been suggested that intracellular neutralization by IgA antibody and VP6-specific CD4+ T cells mediate protection. We investigated generation of diverse CD4+ T cell subsets by intradermal and intranasal delivery of recombinant VP6 (rVP6) nanotubes in BALB/c mice...
June 20, 2018: Antiviral Research
Mary Meehan, Stephen Murchan, Patrick Gavin, Richard J Drew, Robert Cunney
OBJECTIVES: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for mild to very severe disease. The epidemiology of an upsurge in invasive GAS (iGAS) infections in Ireland, 2012-2015 was investigated. METHODS: Epidemiological typing of iGAS (n=473) isolates was performed and compared to non-invasive (n=517) isolates. Clinical data of notified iGAS was obtained from the national infectious disease information system. RESULTS: Annual incidences of iGAS cases (n=561) were 2...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Infection
Larissa R Bosqui, Priscilla D Marques, Gessica B de Melo, Maria do Rosário F Gonçalves-Pires, Fernanda M Malta, Wander R Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Julia M Costa-Cruz, Fabiana M Paula, Idessania N Costa
INTRODUCTION: Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae is particularly challenging because only a small number of larvae are released into the feces, regardless of infection stage. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to apply conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to the detection of S. stercoralis DNA in feces samples to evaluate its performance in samples of patients with strongyloidiasis and compare results with those of immunodiagnosis. METHODS: Stool, serum, and saliva samples were collected from each individual (n = 48) at the clinic hospital of the State University of Londrina, Brazil, for parasitological, immunological, and molecular tests...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Jürgen Floege, Mohamed R Daha
Glomerular complement deposition is common in IgA nephropathy, and recent genome-wide association studies point to a role of complement factor H and complement factor H-related proteins in disease susceptibility. A number of recent studies have now documented elevated levels of some factor H-related proteins in IgA nephropathy, which might contribute to enhanced complement activation.
July 2018: Kidney International
Alana A S Gonçalves, Camila A de Lopes, Henrique T Gonzaga, Ana Lúcia R Gonçalves, Marcelo A Levenhagen, Luiz Carlos M de Oliveira, Julia M Costa-Cruz
Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitosis that is considered a public health problem. Early diagnosis of this infection is extremely important in immunocompromised patients (i.e. subjects with alcoholism). This study aimed to evaluate anti-Strongyloides immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA), assess levels of circulating immune complexes (IC) and determine IgG avidity in serum samples from alcoholic and nonalcoholic individuals. A total of 140 blood samples were collected from male individuals (70 alcoholic and 70 nonalcoholic subjects)...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Y Liu, G-M-Y Zhang, X Peng, Y Wen, W Ye, K Zheng, X Li, H Sun, L Chen
AIM: To evaluate renal fibrosis in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled. DKI was performed on a clinical 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, and region-of-interest measurements were conducted to determine mean kurtosis (K), mean diffusivity (D), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the kidney cortex. Renal biopsy specimens were scored based on the severity of renal fibrosis...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Laura Martinez-Prat, Michael J Nissen, Céline Lamacchia, Chelsea Bentow, Laura Cesana, Pascale Roux-Lombard, Cem Gabay, Michael Mahler
Introduction: The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on a combined approach that includes serological markers such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA). The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of several RF and ACPA immunoassays for the diagnosis of RA, as well as the diagnostic value of a combinatory approach with these markers. Methods: The study cohort included 1,655 patients from the Swiss Clinical Quality Management registry with sera from 968 patients with RA and 687 disease controls, including patients with axial spondyloarthritis ( n  = 450) and psoriatic arthritis ( n  = 237)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Claudio Foschi, Valeria Gaspari, Paola Sgubbi, Melissa Salvo, Antonietta D'Antuono, Antonella Marangoni
PURPOSE: We assessed the prevalence and predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseriagonorrhoeae and Mycoplasmagenitalium rectal infections in a population of 'men having sex with men' (MSM). METHODOLOGY: From January to November 2017, 165 MSM attending a STI outpatients clinic in Bologna (Italy) and reporting unsafe anal intercourses were enrolled. An ano-rectal swab was collected from each patient: chlamydial and gonococcal infections were diagnosed by a commercial NAAT, whereas an in-house quantitative PCR was used for M...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Serra E Elliott, Sarah Kongpachith, Nithya Lingampalli, Julia Z Adamska, Bryan J Cannon, Rong Mao, Lisa K Blum, William H Robinson
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), nevertheless, the origin, specificity, and functional properties of ACPAs remain poorly understood. To characterize the evolution of ACPAs, we sequenced the plasmablast antibody repertoire at serial timepoints in subjects with established RA. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained at up to four timepoints from eight anti-CCP+ individuals with established RA. We single-cell sorted CD19+CD3-IgD-CD14-CD20-CD27+CD38++ plasmablasts and co-stained with citrullinated-peptide tetramers to identify ACPA-expressing plasmablasts...
June 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Joseph J Otto, Crystal L Daniels, Lindsay N Schambeau, Brittany N Williams, Jana M Rocker, Lewis K Pannell
A promising approach capitalizing on the specific and highly sensitive characteristics of the body's own immune system is demonstrated in the context of revealing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer (PDAC). IgA from a local biofluid called gastrointestinal lavage fluid (GLF) is used to investigate glycan reactivity to show the potential of this approach. IgA antibody responses, just as with IgG, result in amplification of a small signal which aids in detecting changes from a healthy state. IgA from GLF was screened against glycan arrays containing 609 glycan structures to investigate differential binding patterns associated with the disease...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yuki Kakio, Haruhito Adam Uchida, Masashi Kitagawa, Yuka Arata, Ayako Kato, Akiko Inoue-Torii, Norikazu Hinamoto, Ayu Ogawa-Akiyama, Hitoshi Sugiyama, Jun Wada
Renal involvement is occasionally observed in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT). It has been reported that galactose-deficient IgA is a closely linked to IgA nephropathy (IgAN), suggesting that patients with XLT/WAS associated with reduced galactosylation on serum IgA are susceptible to IgAN. It is necessary to pay more attention to patients with IgAN due to the potential complication with XLT/WAS. We here present a patient of XLT complicated with mild IgAN who underwent tonsillectomy combined with steroid pulse therapy to achieve complete clinical remission...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Jennifer L J Heaney, John P Campbell, Gulnaz Iqbal, David Cairns, Alex Richter, J Anthony Child, Walter Gregory, Graham Jackson, Martin Kaiser, Roger Owen, Faith Davies, Gareth Morgan, Janet Dunn, Mark T Drayson
We measured immunosuppression at myeloma diagnosis and assessed the impact on survival in 5826 UK myeloma trial patients. Polyclonal immunoglobulin levels were below normal in 85% of patients and above normal in only 0.4% of cases for IgA, 0.2% for IgM and no cases for IgG. Immunoparesis had a greater impact in recent trials: median overall survival (OS) was up to 3 years longer for patients without immunoparesis compared to the old trials, less than 1 year longer. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 39%, 36% and 57% longer for patients with normal IgG, IgA and IgM levels, respectively...
June 20, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Emilia Metryka, Karina Chibowska, Izabela Gutowska, Anna Falkowska, Patrycja Kupnicka, Katarzyna Barczak, Dariusz Chlubek, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka
The human immune system is constantly exposed to xenobiotics and pathogens from the environment. Although the mechanisms underlying their influence have already been at least partially recognized, the effects of some factors, such as lead (Pb), still need to be clarified. The results of many studies indicate that Pb has a negative effect on the immune system, and in our review, we summarize the most recent evidence that Pb can promote inflammatory response. We also discuss possible molecular and biochemical mechanisms of its proinflammatory action, including the influence of Pb on cytokine metabolism (interleukins IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-1b, IL-6), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α); the activity and expression of enzymes involved in the inflammatory process (cyclooxygenases); and the effect on selected acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M Jack Borrok, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Nurten Beyaz, Gabriela M Marchetti, Arnita S Barnes, Kristen J Lekstrom, Sandrina S Phipps, Michael P McCarthy, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua, Ping Tsui, Ruchi Gupta
IgG antibodies are abundantly present in the vasculature but to a much lesser extent in mucosal tissues. This contrasts with antibodies of the IgA and IgM isotype that are present at high concentration in mucosal secretions due to active delivery by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). IgG is the preferred isotype for therapeutic mAb development due to its long serum half-life and robust Fc-mediated effector function, and it is utilized to treat a diverse array of diseases with antigen targets located in the vasculature, serosa, and mucosa...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Jin Dong, Tianhao Peng, Jing Gao, Xingwang Jia, Guangtao Yan, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal-change disease (MCD) are three common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Pathological diagnosis based on renal biopsy is the criterion and the golden standard for diagnosing the sub-types of primary or secondary glomerulonephritis. Immunoglobulin and complements might be used in the differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis without renal biopsies. However, the relationship between IF intensities of immune proteins and the corresponding serum levels remained unclear, and seldom studies combine histopathological examination results and blood tests together for a predictive purpose...
June 20, 2018: BMC Immunology
Harsha Mysore Rajagopal, Srikanta Belagihalli Manjegowda, Chandraprakash Serkad, Shylaja Mallaiah Dharmesh
Antiulcer potency of structurally defined low molecular weight modified pectin from turmeric (MTrPP) including inhibitory effects on H. pylori has been demonstrated previously by us. Given that ulcer is a disorder characterized by inflammatory responses leading to initiation, aggravation and perpetuation of disease conditions, the present study aims to understand the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms through which MTrPP delivered antiulcer effects. Rats triggered with early phase gastric inflammation (LPS) followed by ulcer induction (swim-stress) were pretreated with MTrPP (150 mg/kg b...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Taila Yuri Siqueira Machado, Milvia Maria Simões E Silva Enokihara, Tatiana Miyuki Iida, Adriana Maria Porro
Linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis is a rare autoimmune disease that usually has an excellent prognosis in childhood; however, its control is more difficult in adults. It presents heterogeneous clinical manifestations and is frequently confused with other bullous diseases such as bullous pemphigoid and Duhring's dermatitis herpetiformis. Dermatologists' awareness of this disease contributes to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We thus report three cases of linear immunoglobulin A dermatosis in adults...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Jae-Hoon Ko, Hyeri Seok, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Yae-Jean Kim, Jin Kyeong Park, Chi Ryang Chung, Eun-Suk Kang, Duck Cho, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song, Kyong Ran Peck
BACKGROUND: The effects of convalescent plasma (CP) infusion, one of treatment options for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections, have not yet been evaluated. METHODS: Serologic responses of CP-infused MERS patients during the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak at a tertiary care center were evaluated. Serologic activity was evaluated with anti-MERS-CoV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG, ELISA IgA, immunofluorescence assay IgM, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
June 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Wenwen Sun, Na Zhang, Yujie Zhang, Zonghong Shao, Lu Gong, Wei Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate consistency of lymphocyte immunophenotype between labial gland and peripheral blood in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Seventy-one pSS patients and 35 patients with maxillofacial trauma were included in the study. Based on the ratio of CD20 to CD3 in labial gland from 71 pSS patients, they were divided into the high and (n = 48) and low CD20 expression group (n = 23). Lymphocyte immunophenotypes in labial glands, course of disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin, and complement levels were analyzed...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
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