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Positive youth development

Jesse T Fischer, H Julia Hannay, Candice A Alfano, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
OBJECTIVE: This prospective longitudinal study investigated sleep disturbance (SD) and internalizing problems after traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial/bodily injury (EI) in children and adolescents, relative to typically developing (TD) children. We also examined longitudinal relations between SD and internalizing problems postinjury. METHOD: Participants (N = 87) ages 8-15 included youth with TBI, EI, and TD children. Injury groups were recruited from a Level 1 trauma center after sustaining vehicle-related injuries...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Nora Maria Raschle, Willeke Martine Menks, Lynn Valérie Fehlbaum, Martin Steppan, Areti Smaragdi, Karen Gonzalez-Madruga, Jack Rogers, Roberta Clanton, Gregor Kohls, Anne Martinelli, Anka Bernhard, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Christine M Freitag, Graeme Fairchild, Stephane A De Brito, Christina Stadler
Callous-unemotional traits are characterized by a lack of empathy, a disregard for others' feelings and shallow or deficient affect, such as a lack of remorse or guilt. Neuroanatomical correlates of callous-unemotional traits have been demonstrated in clinical samples (i.e., adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders). However, it is unknown whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with neuroanatomical correlates within normative populations without clinical levels of aggression or antisocial behavior...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Steffie V Gundersen, Robert Goodman, Lars Clemmensen, Martin K Rimvall, Anja Munkholm, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Anne Mette Skovgaard, Jim Van Os, Pia Jeppesen
AIM: Valid instruments for the early identification of psychotic experiences (PE) and symptoms in youths are urgently needed for large-scale preventive interventions. A new section of The-Development-and-Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) measuring child self-reported PE has yet to be validated. The current study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of DAWBA-based self-reported PE (PE-S) with regard to interview-based measures of PE (PE-I). METHODS: Participants were 1571 (47...
March 8, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Ryan N Moran, Tracey Covassin, R J Elbin, Dan Gould, Sally Nogle
BACKGROUND: The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) measure is a newly developed vestibular and ocular motor symptom provocation screening tool for sport-related concussions. Baseline data, psychometric properties, and reliability of the VOMS are needed to further understand the applications of this tool, especially in the youth population, where research is scarce. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish normative data and document the internal consistency and false-positive rate of the VOMS in a sample of nonconcussed youth athletes...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Kathryn Abramoski, Jennifer Pierce, Corinne Hauck, Sarah Stoddard
Purpose in life (PIL) promotes positive development and is associated with decreased substance use. However, to our knowledge, researchers have not investigated how different categories of PIL are associated with substance use behavior among youth. Therefore, we sought to explore categories of PIL and how they are related to substance use in a sample of adolescents. Ninth through 12th-grade students from a high school in a Midwest suburban community completed a paper-and-pencil survey ( n = 408, Mage = 15.36, SD = 1...
April 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Melanie A Blair, George Nitzburg, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
Psychotic like experiences (PLE's) are common in the general population, particularly during adolescence, which has generated interest in how PLE's emerge, and the extent to which they reflect either risk for, or resilience to, psychosis. The "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) model is one effort to model the effect of risk factors on PLEs. The ADC model proposes attachment insecurity as an early environmental insult that can contribute to altered neurodevelopment, increasing the likelihood of PLE's and psychosis...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Meredith McGinley
While previous research has established links among multiple aspects of parenting, empathy, and prosocial behaviors in youth, little is known regarding the relations between helicopter parenting, a particular type of parental over control, and empathy and prosocial behaviors (Padilla-Walker, 2014). Because helicopter parenting could undermine empathic and prosocial outcomes by negatively impacting self-regulatory behaviors and promoting narcissistic tendencies (Padilla-Walker, 2014; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, Bauer, & Murphy, 2012; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, & Montgomery, 2013), the author sought to examine potential relationships among these constructs...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Merrian Brooks, Elizabeth Miller, Kaleab Abebe, Edward Mulvey
BACKGROUND: Future orientation (FO), an essential construct in youth development, encompassing goals, expectations for life, and ability to plan for the future. This study uses a multidimensional measure of future orientation to assess the relationship between change in future orientation and change in substance use over time. METHODS: Data were from the Pathways to Desistence study. Justice involved youth (n = 1,354), ages 14 to 18 at time of recruitment, completed interviews every six months for three years...
March 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Johanna Olson-Kennedy, Jonathan Warus, Vivian Okonta, Marvin Belzer, Leslie F Clark
Importance: Transmasculine youth, who are assigned female at birth but have a gender identity along the masculine spectrum, often report considerable distress after breast development (chest dysphoria). Professional guidelines lack clarity regarding referring minors (defined as people younger than 18 years) for chest surgery because there are no data documenting the effect of chest surgery on minors. Objective: To examine the amount of chest dysphoria in transmasculine youth who had had chest reconstruction surgery compared with those who had not undergone this surgery...
March 5, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Henry R Cowan, Dan P McAdams, Vijay A Mittal
Cognitive theory posits that core beliefs play an active role in developing and maintaining symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This study sought to comprehensively examine core beliefs, their dimensionality, and their relationships to depression, anxiety, and attenuated psychotic symptoms in two groups of community youth: a group at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR; n = 73, M age = 18.7) and a matched healthy comparison group (HC; n = 73, M age = 18.1). UHR youth reported significantly more negative beliefs about self and others, and significantly less positive beliefs about self and others...
March 6, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Gabriele Mascherini, Cristian Petri, Vittorio Bini, Piergiuseppe Calà, Giorgio Galanti
OBJECTIVES: to assess physical activity and overweight in a young population as factors associated with well-being. DESIGN: cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: data collection was performed in primary and secondary schools of a district located in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) by a validated questionnaire; 1,776 subjects were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: physical activity levels and overweight...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Helena Huerga, Gilles Van Cutsem, Jihane Ben Farhat, Adrian Puren, Malika Bouhenia, Lubbe Wiesner, Linda Dlamini, David Maman, Tom Ellman, Jean-François Etard
BACKGROUND: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has developed an ambitious strategy to end the AIDS epidemic. After eight years of antiretroviral therapy (ART) program we assessed progress towards the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Mbongolwane and Eshowe, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional household-based community survey using a two-stage stratified cluster probability sampling strategy. Persons aged 15-59 years were eligible...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Takahiro Tamura
The present study examined the effect of the perceived parent-child relationship in childhood on resilience in youth. It recruited 268 university students majoring in education and college students majoring in welfare science to investigate the relationship between their perception of parent-child relationship in their childhood and their current resilience by their responses on the Adolescent Resilience Scale and the Children's Perceived Affiliation for Parents Scale. The results indicated that female's positive perception of their relationship with their mothers in childhood had a positive influence on their resilience...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Terry L Jernigan, Sandra A Brown
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Nicholas J K Breitborde, Letitia Labrecque, Aubrey Moe, Tad Gary, Mike Meyer
Growing evidence suggests that specialized, multicomponent intervention provided early in the course of a psychotic disorder may have a positive effect in ameliorating the morbidity and mortality associated with these disorders. This column describes the development of the Institute for Mental Health Research Early Psychosis Intervention Center, which leverages the unique strengths of a community and academic partnership to provide such specialty care in a youth-friendly, stigma-free environment. Since it opened in 2016, the program has had numerous successes, including securing increased reimbursements rates and performance-based incentives for the treatment of first-episode psychosis...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Rebecca Hodes, Jenny Doubt, Elona Toska, Beth Vale, Nompumelelo Zungu, Lucie Cluver
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) commit to strengthening collaborations between governments and civil society. Adolescents are among the key target populations for global development initiatives, but research studies and programmes rarely include their direct perspectives on how to promote health and wellbeing. This article explores how both the methods and the findings of participatory research provide insights into adolescents' aspirations across the domains of health and social development...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Hayley S Gleeson, Carlo André Oliveras Rodriguez, Luann Hatane, Doortje't Hart
INTRODUCTION: This commentary by authors from the Adolescent HIV Treatment Coalition calls for action to improve advocacy and service delivery for young people by leveraging the interlinkages between HIV and the broader development agenda. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes target 3.3 on ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, and along with the 2016 Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS, this has led to a global renewal of political commitment to the HIV response. However, young people are still being left behind, and to provide an equitable and sustainable response to HIV we must ensure that we are meeting the needs of the 3...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Nicole A Anderson, Amy M Bohnert, Amy Governale
Research examining factors that predict youth's involvement in organized activities is very limited, despite associations with positive outcomes. Using data from 1043 youth (49% female; 46.4% Hispanic, 35.4% African American, 14.0% Caucasian, and 4.2% other) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this study examined how characteristics of parents (supervision, warmth) and neighborhoods (perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy) predict patterns of adolescents' involvement in organized activities concurrently (i...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Nóra Bunford, Autumn Kujawa, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
The neural bases of emotion are commonly measured using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal and the late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential (ERP) component, but rarely together in the same individuals. Despite evidence of developmental changes in processing socio-emotional signals (e.g., faces) as reflected by both BOLD and LPP indices of brain maturation, the literature on the correspondence between these measures is limited to healthy adults, leaving questions regarding such correspondence across development and in clinical populations unaddressed...
February 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Heita Goto, John G Morris, Mary E Nevill
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of biological maturity on match performance in elite youth male soccer players. The participants were 80 Premier League Academy outfield players (8-16 years old). Biological maturity was determined by calculating estimated chronological age at peak height velocity. The U9 and U10 squads played 6-a-side and the U11-U16 squads played 11-a-side inter-academy matches. All matches were analyzed using a 1 Hz Global Positioning System (SPI elite, GPSport, Australia) with squad specific speed zones which were calculated based on 5 m flying sprint speed in the last 5 m of 10 m sprint test...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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