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Tuberculosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028800/spatial-distribution-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-patients-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#1
Thandi Kapwata, Natashia Morris, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Primrose Mpangase, Kristin N Nelson, Salim Allana, James C M Brust, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Neel R Gandhi, N Sarita Shah
BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028662/stool-xpert-mtb-rif-and-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#2
Sylvia M LaCourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS: Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates (GA) were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM )...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#3
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025965/inherited-il-12r%C3%AE-1-deficiency-in-a-child-with-bcg-adenitis-and-oral-candidiasis-a-case-report
#4
Nevin Hatipoglu, B Haluk Güvenç, Caroline Deswarte, Kaya Koksalan, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante
Tuberculosis is a major worldwide problem, and protection from it is achieved mainly by live attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which is capable of causing disease in immunocompromised host. Oral thrush is abnormal in healthy children, which suggests an underlying immunodeficiency. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a selective predisposition to weakly virulent Mycobacteria and Salmonella and also predisposition to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis...
October 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025486/using-15-dhs-surveys-to-study-epidemiological-correlates-of-tb-courtesy-stigma-and-health-seeking-behaviour
#5
E J J Rood, C Mergenthaler, M I Bakker, L Redwood, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) stigma is thought to delay or prevent the decision to seek health care, but the strength of this association and the prevalence of anticipated TB stigma in the general population in most countries is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine epidemiological, cultural and sociodemographic factors associated with TB courtesy stigma in 15 surveys across 13 countries, and its link to health seeking for cough in children under five. DESIGN: A multilevel survey weighted logistic regression model was used to analyse how individual characteristics and social contexts affect the occurrence of TB courtesy stigma...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025083/the-duration-of-protection-of-school-aged-bcg-vaccination-in-england-a-population-based-case-control-study
#6
Punam Mangtani, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Ruth H Keogh, Jonathan A C Sterne, Ibrahim Abubakar, Peter G Smith, Paul E M Fine, Emilia Vynnycky, John M Watson, David Elliman, Marc Lipman, Laura C Rodrigues
Background: Evidence of protection from childhood Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against tuberculosis (TB) in adulthood, when most transmission occurs, is important for TB control and resource allocation. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study of protection by BCG given to children aged 12-13 years against tuberculosis occurring 10-29 years later. We recruited UK-born White subjects with tuberculosis and randomly sampled White community controls...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020229/please-no-more-gastric-aspirate-to-diagnose-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children
#7
Michel Drancourt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019315/infectious-disease-screening-in-asylum-seekers-range-coverage-and-economic-evaluation-in-germany-2015
#8
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Katharina Wahedi, Stefan Noest, Joachim Szecsenyi, Oliver Razum
Screening asylum seekers for infectious diseases is widely performed, but economic evaluations of such are scarce. We performed a policy analysis and economic evaluation of such screening in Germany, and analysed the effect of screening policies on cost differences between federal states. Of the 16 states, screening was compulsory for tuberculosis (TB) in asylum seekers ≥ 16 years of age in all states as well as in children < 16 years of age and pregnant women in six states, hepatitis B and enteropathogens in three, syphilis in two and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in one state...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017219/-consensus-based-guidelines-for-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-guideline-on-behalf-of-the-german-society-for-pediatric-infectious-diseases-dgpi
#9
C Feiterna-Sperling, F Brinkmann, C Adamczick, F Ahrens, M Barker, C Berger, L D Berthold, M Bogyi, U von Both, T Frischer, W Haas, P Hartmann, D Hillemann, F W Hirsch, K Kranzer, F Kunitz, E Maritz, A Pizzulli, N Ritz, R Schlags, T Spindler, S Thee, K Weizsäcker
Recently, epidemiological data shows an increase of childhood tuberculosis in Germany. In addition to this, drug resistant tuberculosis becomes more frequent. Therefore, diagnosis, prevention and therapy in childhood and adolescence remain a challenge. Adult guidelines do not work for children, as there are age specific differences in manifestation, risk of progression and diagnostic as well as therapeutic pathways.The German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) has initiated a consensus-based (S2k) process and completed a paediatric guideline in order to improve and standardize care for children and adolescents with tuberculosis exposure, infection or disease...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991169/analysis-of-transmission-and-control-of-tuberculosis-in-mainland-china-2005-2016-based-on-the-age-structure-mathematical-model
#10
Yu Zhao, Mingtao Li, Sanling Yuan
Tuberculosis (TB), an air-borne infectious disease, is a major public-health problem in China. The reported number of the active tuberculosis cases is about one million each year. The morbidity data for 2005-2012 reflect that the difference in morbidity based on age group is significant, thus the role of age-structure on the transmission of TB needs to be further developed. In this work, based on the reported data and the observed morbidity characteristics, we propose a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model with age groupings, involving three categories: children, the middle-aged, and senior to investigate the role of age on the transmission of tuberculosis in Mainland China from 2005 to 2016...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982226/transmission-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-households-and-the-community-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Ezekiel Mupere, Allan Kizza, Philip C Hill, Christopher C Whalen
The individual- and population-level impact of household tuberculosis exposure on transmission is unclear but may have implications for the effectiveness and implementation of control interventions. We systematically searched for and included studies in which latent tuberculosis infection was assessed in 2 groups: children exposed and unexposed to a household member with tuberculosis. We also extracted data on the smear and culture status of index cases, the age and bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination status of contacts, and study design characteristics...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977322/tuberculosis-in-pediatric-patients-how-has-the-diagnosis-been-made
#12
Ana Paula Ghussn Cano, Mariana Tresoldi Neves Romaneli, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Antonia Teresinha Tresoldi
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, radiological, epidemiological, and microbiological characteristics of pediatric patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis in a period of 15 years. METHODS: Retrospective study including children and adolescents younger than 18 years diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Clinical Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas in São Paulo State, Brazil. Active tuberculosis was defined by the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, microscopy, or histopathological examination...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975470/infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-returning-travelers-and-immigrants
#13
REVIEW
Haley Thompson, Kiran Thakur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights current knowledge in travel-related neuroinfectious diseases, providing insight on approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in travelers and immigrants. RECENT FINDINGS: Updates on travel vaccine recommendations including vaccine-specific interactions with immunosuppressive agents, advances in Zika virus and dengue virus vaccine development, new diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, updates on treatment approaches for tuberculosis meningitis...
October 3, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964291/hiv-status-and-hearing-loss-among-children-between-6-and-12-years-of-age-at-a-large-urban-health-facility-in-south-western-uganda
#14
Doreen Nakku, Victoria Nyaiteera, Evelyn Llowet, Dennis Nanseera, Gladys Nakalema, Brian Westerberg, Francis Bajunirwe
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study at two tertiary health facilities in south western Uganda...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956144/does-diverting-ileostomy-improve-the-outcome-in-children-with-tuberculous-small-bowel-obstruction-requiring-surgical-intervention
#15
Rizwan Ahmad Khan, Shagufta Wahab, Imran Ghani
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal tuberculosis is fairly common in children. The most common clinical presentation is bowel obstruction. Depending upon the presentation, the intestinal obstruction can be either managed conservatively or by operative intervention. There are various options in patients who undergo operative treatment. This study was undertaken to analyze the results of operative intervention with and without ileostomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study carried out over a period of 10 years on 32 children who were operated for small bowel obstruction due to abdominal tuberculosis...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954364/-the-practice-of-bcg-vaccination-in-1930-s-china
#16
R S Shi
Wang Liang introduced Bacille-Calmatte-Guerin(BCG) to China in 1933 in order to prevent tuberculosis. He established a BCG laboratory and make BCG strains by himself in Chongqing, and vaccinated children around, until he was forced to stop doing it by the government in November, 1937. In 1938 Shanghai Pasteur Institute was established, and they built a BCG laboratory to promote BCG vaccination in Shanghai, and these actions were insisted during 1940s. But in 1930s the medical profession all over the world was skeptical to BCG efficacy, which impeded the promotion of BCG vaccination in China...
July 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936787/multifocal-tuberculosis-revealed-by-spinal-tuberculosis-in-an-eleven-year-old-guianese-child
#17
L Desnos, R Kom-Tchameni, H Razafindrakoto, I Fryder, M Janoyer, N Elenga
Multifocal tuberculosis in a child is rare event. Here we report a case of multifocal tuberculosis revealed by spinal tuberculosis in an eleven-year-old French Guianese girl. This observation underlines the difficulties, the consequences of delay, and the necessity of an early diagnosis of this disease for children.
October 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936054/patterns-of-intermediate-uveitis-in-children-presenting-at-a-tertiary-eye-care-center-in-south-india
#18
Radha Annamalai, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To study the patterns of intermediate uveitis in the pediatric age group in a referral eye care center in South India. METHODS: This is a study of twenty consecutive patients under 16 years of age with intermediate uveitis, conducted at a tertiary referral center. Numerous variables were assessed, including age and gender distribution, laboratory data, the presence of systemic diseases, onset and course of ocular inflammation, clinical features, their complications, therapeutic strategies with their outcomes, remission, final visual acuity (VA), and characteristics associated with poor visual outcome...
April 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932979/tuberculous-meningitis-in-children-and-adults-new-insights-for-an-ancient-foe
#19
REVIEW
Alyssa Mezochow, Kiran Thakur, Christopher Vinnard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is the most devastating manifestation of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents a medical emergency. Approximately one half of tuberculous meningitis patients die or suffer severe neurologic disability. The goal of this review will be to review the pathogenic, clinical, and radiologic features of tuberculous meningitis and to highlight recent advancements in translational and clinical science. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacologic therapy includes combination anti-tuberculosis drug regimens and adjunctive corticosteroids...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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