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Tuberculosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633702/impact-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-the-evaluation-of-long-term-effectiveness-of-infant-mva85a-vaccination
#1
E W Bunyasi, A K K Luabeya, M Tameris, H Geldenhuys, H Mulenga, B S Landry, T J Scriba, B-M Schmidt, W A Hanekom, H Mahomed, H McShane, M Hatherill
SETTING: South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of infant modified vaccinia Ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) vaccination against tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN: We analysed data from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled Phase 2b MVA85A infant TB vaccine trial (2009-2012), with extended post-trial follow-up (2012-2014). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was provided by public health services according to national guidelines...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633701/management-of-child-mdr-tb-contacts-across-countries-in-the-who-european-region-a-survey-of-current-practice
#2
A Turkova, M Tebruegge, F Brinkmann, M Tsolia, F Mouchet, B Kampmann, J A Seddon
The World Health Organization European Region has one of the highest rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the world, resulting in many vulnerable children being exposed each year. Evidence for preventive therapy following MDR-TB exposure is limited and current guidance is conflicting. An internet-based survey was performed to determine clinical practice in this region. Seventy-two clinicians from 25 countries participated. Practices related to screening and decision-making were highly variable...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633501/epidemiology-of-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-the-united-states-1993-2014
#3
Sarah E Smith, Robert Pratt, Lisa Trieu, Pennan M Barry, Dzung T Thai, Shama Desai Ahuja, Sarita Shah
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is an important global public health threat, but accurate estimates of MDR TB burden among children are lacking. Methods: We analyzed demographic, clinical and laboratory data for newly-diagnosed pediatric (<15 years) TB cases reported to the US National TB Surveillance System (NTSS) during 1993-2014. MDR TB was defined as culture-confirmed TB disease with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. To ascertain potential under-estimation of pediatric MDR TB, we surveyed high burden states for clinically-diagnosed cases treated for MDR TB...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626255/underlying-cause-of-death-recorded-during-2013-to-2015-at-a-tertiary-general-hospital-in-vientiane-capital-lao-pdr
#4
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Tavanh Manivon, Bounxou Keohavong, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the cause of death is not registered in death reports. As a result, the government cannot produce official reports that show mortality according to cause of death. This study aimed to report the underlying cause of death in a tertiary general hospital (Mittaphab Hospital) in Vientiane capital. Mittaphab hospital is a governmental teaching hospital with 300 beds for inpatient services specialized in orthopedics, neurology, and hemodialysis. Since a children hospital exists beside Mittaphab Hospital, severe pediatric cases are referred to the child hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625040/vitamin-d-status-in-under-five-children-with-a-history-of-close-tuberculosis-contact-in-padang-west-sumatra
#5
Finny Fitry Yani, Nur Indrawaty Lipoeto, Bambang Supriyatno, Eryati Darwin, Darfioes Basir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum vitamin D influences cellular immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly in under-five children. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent in Indonesia. This study described the association of serum vitamin D in the incidence of latent TB in under-five children with a history of close TB contact. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study examined 178 under-five children with a history of close TB contact, with 98 index cases from primary health care facilities in Padang...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623556/characteristics-and-clinical-role-of-bronchoscopy-in-diagnosis-of-childhood-endobronchial-tuberculosis
#6
An-Xia Jiao, Lin Sun, Fang Liu, Xiao-Chun Rao, Yu-Yan Ma, Xi-Cheng Liu, Chen Shen, Bao-Ping Xu, A-Dong Shen, Kun-Ling Shen
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is the most frequent complication of primary pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children. The aim of the study was to analyze characteristics and clinical role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of childhood EBTB. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken in 157 children with EBTB undergone fl exible bronchoscopy (FB) between January 2006 and June 2014. RESULTS: The median age of the enrolled patients was 3...
June 15, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606173/tuberculosis-caseload-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-related-with-high-hospital-based-mortality-in-lusaka-zambia
#7
Tendai Munthali, Chishala Chabala, Elson Chama, Raider Mugode, Nathan Kapata, Patrick Musonda, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children pose a major treatment and care challenge in high HIV burden countries in Africa. We investigated the prevalence of Tuberculosis notifications among hospitalised under-five children with severe acute malnutrition. A retrospective review of medical records for all children aged 0-59 months admitted to the University Teaching Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate TB caseload...
June 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606115/peripheral-neuropathy-in-a-diabetic-child-treated-with-linezolid-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Aravind Swaminathan, Philipp du Cros, James A Seddon, Shamsiya Mirgayosieva, Rajabov Asladdin, Zulfiya Dusmatova
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB with additional resistance to injectable agents or fluoroquinolones are challenging to treat due to lack of available, effective drugs. Linezolid is one of the few drugs that has shown promise in treating these conditions. Long-term linezolid use is associated with toxicities such as peripheral and optic neuropathies. Diabetes mellitus (DM), especially when uncontrolled, can also result in peripheral neuropathy...
June 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605426/biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-and-inflammation-in-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#9
Ursula K Rohlwink, Katya Mauff, Katalin A Wilkinson, Nico Enslin, Emmanuel Wegoye, Robert J Wilkinson, Anthony A Figaji
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to death or disability in half the affected individuals. Tools to assess severity and predict outcome are lacking. Neuro-specific biomarkers could serve as markers of the severity and evolution of brain injury, but have not been widely explored in TBM. We examined biomarkers of neurological injury (neuromarkers) and inflammation in pediatric TBM and their association with outcome. Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with TBM and hydrocephalus taken on admission and over 3 weeks were analysed for neuromarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and multiple inflammatory markers...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600662/mri-in-thoracic-tuberculosis-of-children
#10
Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Madhurima Sharma, Akshay Kumar Saxena, Joseph L Mathew, Meenu Singh, Niranjan Khandelwal
OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with thoracic tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: This prospective study of forty children (age range of 5 to 15 y) with thoracic TB was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Chest radiograph, lung MRI and computed tomography (CT) scan were performed in all children. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of MRI were calculated and kappa test of agreement was used to determine the strength of agreement between the MRI and CT findings...
June 10, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#11
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, K W I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598771/barriers-to-initiating-tuberculosis-treatment-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-focused-on-children-and-youth
#12
Brittney J Sullivan, B Emily Esmaili, Coleen K Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease globally, with 10.4 million people infected and more than 1.8 million deaths in 2015. TB is a preventable, treatable, and curable disease, yet there are numerous barriers to initiating treatment. These barriers to treatment are exacerbated in low-resource settings and may be compounded by factors related to childhood. OBJECTIVE: Timely initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is critical to reducing disease transmission and improving patient outcomes...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579706/hepatotoxicity-due-to-antituberculosis-therapy-among-paediatric-patients-seen-at-the-university-of-ilorin-teaching-hospital-north-central-nigeria
#13
Gobir Aishatu, Ibraheem Rasheedah, Johnson Wahab, Muhammed Sheni, Oladele Damilola, Ojuola Adeniyi
BACKGROUND: The liver is vulnerable to injury from the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs. This may result in mortality, long term morbidity and reduced compliance to therapy. Nigeria recently introduced fixed drug combinations in the treatment of children amid concerns of hepatotoxicity. A 6-year-old boy was treated in our unit had fulminant hepatic failure two weeks after completing his anti-tuberculosis therapy. This prompted the unit to investigate hepatotoxicity due to anti-tuberculosis therapy among children...
March 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575364/the-incremental-value-of-repeated-induced-sputum-and-gastric-aspirate-samples-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-acute-community-acquired-pneumonia
#14
David P Moore, Melissa M Higdon, Laura L Hammitt, Christine Prosperi, Andrea N DeLuca, Pedro Da Silva, Vicky L Baillie, Peter V Adrian, Azwifarwi Mudau, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) contributes to the pathogenesis of childhood acute community-acquired pneumonia in settings with a high tuberculosis burden. The incremental value of a repeated induced sputum (IS) sample, compared with a single IS or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, is not well known. Methods.: Two IS samples were obtained for Mtb culture from children enrolled as cases in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study in South Africa...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575208/high-rate-of-treatment-completion-in-program-settings-with-12-dose-weekly-isoniazid-and-rifapentine-3hp-for-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Amy L Sandul, Nwabunie Nwana, J Mike Holcombe, Mark N Lobato, Suzanne Marks, Risa Webb, Shu-Hua Wang, Brock Stewart, Phil Griffin, Garrett Hunt, Neha Shah, Asween Marco, Naveen Patil, Leonard Mukasa, Ruth N Moro, John Jereb, Sundari Mase, Terence Chorba, Sapna Bamrah-Morris, Christine S Ho
Background: RCTs demonstrated the newest LTBI regimen, 12 weekly doses of directly observed isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP), as efficacious as 9 months of isoniazid (9H) with a greater completion rate (82% versus 69%); however, 3HP has not been assessed in routine health care settings. Methods: Observational cohort of LTBI patients receiving 3HP through 16 US programs was used to assess treatment completion, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and factors associated with treatment discontinuation...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562675/addressing-tuberculosis-control-in-fragile-states-urban-dots-experience-in-kabul-afghanistan-2009-2015
#16
G Qader, A Hamim, M Sayedi, M Rashidi, L Manzoor, M K Seddiq, N Ikram, P G Suarez
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Afghanistan, but experience in implementing effective strategies to prevent and control TB in urban areas and conflict zones is limited. This study shares programmatic experience in implementing DOTS in the large city of Kabul. We analyzed data from the 2009-2015 reports of the National TB Program (NTP) for Kabul City and calculated treatment outcomes and progress in case notification using rates, ratios, and confidence interval. Urban DOTS was implemented by the NTP in partnership with United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded TB projects, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the private sector...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559702/tubercular-abdominal-cocoon-in-children-a-single-centre-study-in-remote-area-of-northern-india
#17
Rikki Singal, B Satyashree, Amit Mittal, Bhanu Pratap Sharma, Samita Singal, Muzzafarr Zaman, Parteek Shardha
BACKGROUND: Amongst the numerous causes of intestinal obstruction listed in the literature, sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis also called Abdominal Cocoon (AC) is one of the rarest entities. Its characteristic feature is a thick fibrotic membrane encasing varying lengths of the small and large gut in a cocoon. In India, there is an increasing incidence of tuberculosis, especially in the rural areas. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation and evaluate the operative findings of tuberculous AC...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559513/extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-colombian-children-epidemiological-and-clinical-data-in-a-reference-hospital
#18
Eileen Viviana Fonseca Sepulveda, Luisa Fernanda Imbachí Yunda, Kelly Christina Márquez Herrera, German Camacho Moreno
BACKGROUND: The pediatric population is at increased risk of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). There is little information on children affected by this entity. The demographic, clinical, and outcome characteristics of the treatment of children with extrapulmonary TB, treated at a national reference institution between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2016, are described and analyzed in this work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study...
April 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555322/assessment-of-airway-compression-on-chest-radiographs-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Lisel Richter-Joubert, Savvas Andronikou, Lesley Workman, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Because small, pliable paediatric airways are easily compressed by enlarged lymph nodes, detection of radiographic airway compression might be an objective criterion for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency and inter-observer agreement of airway compression on chest radiographs in children with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to those with a different lower respiratory tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs of children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were read by two readers according to a standardised format and a third reader when there was disagreement...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549451/clinical-and-laboratory-evaluation-of-new-immigrant-and-refugee-children-arriving-in-greece
#20
Ioanna D Pavlopoulou, Marsela Tanaka, Stavroula Dikalioti, Evangelia Samoli, Pavlos Nisianakis, Olga D Boleti, Konstantinos Tsoumakas
BACKGROUND: Migrant children are a population at risk for various health problems. Despite the increased inflow of migrants in Greece, data regarding their health assessment are lacking. This study aims to describe the clinical and certain laboratory characteristics and identify possible associations in a group of new immigrant (I) and refugee (R) children, arriving in Athens, Greece. METHODS: A prospective, cross- sectional study was performed in a migrant outpatient clinic of a tertiary Children's hospital...
May 26, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
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