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Tuberculosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453670/incidence-and-drug-resistance-of-zoonotic-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-peshawar-pakistan
#1
Irfan Khattak, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Sultan Ayaz, Sajid Ali, Anwar Sheed, Javed Muhammad, Muhammad Luqman Sohail, Haq Amanullah, Irshad Ahmad, Sadeeq Ur Rahman
Prevalence of zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis (bTB) disease in human population is underreported from the North of Pakistan. Here, we report on the proportion of human bTB disease among the overall TB patients, drug resistance pattern of bTB isolates, and knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP)-based analysis of bTB disease. For this purpose, sputum samples from a total of 300 clinically diagnosed TB patients and 100 randomly selected school children suspected of pulmonary TB were processed by culture as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for isolation, identification, and confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) and bTB species...
February 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447374/spectrum-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-setting-in-south-india
#2
Betsy Rebecca, Anila Chacko, Valsan Verghese, Winsley Rose
Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is often underdiagnosed with poor estimate of its true burden. Availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay enhances diagnostic capacity of pediatric TB. Methods: A 3-year retrospective review of hospital records was done for all children diagnosed with confirmed and unconfirmed TB. Comparison was made between intrathoracic, single-site extrathoracic and disseminated TB. Results: In total, 274 children had TB with 130 (47...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443102/expression-of-exogenous-antigens-in-the-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-via-non-genetic-surface-decoration-with-the-avidin-biotin-system
#3
Ting-Yu Angela Liao, Alice Lau, Joseph Sunil, Vesa Hytönen, Zakaria Hmama
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease and the only available vaccine M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is safe and effective for protection against children's severe TB meningitis and some forms of disseminated TB, but fails to protect against pulmonary TB, which is the most prevalent form of the disease. Promising strategies to improve BCG currently rely either on its transformation with genes encoding immunodominant M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens and/or complementation with genes encoding co-factors that would stimulate antigen presenting cells...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442397/tuberculin-skin-test-versus-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-refugee-children-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Chris Elliot, Ben Marais, Phoebe Williams, Paul Joshua, Sherri Towle, Graham Hart, Karen Zwi
AIM: The aim of this study was to assist clinicians evaluating refugee children for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) by comparing paired tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QGIT) test results with clinical management decisions and follow-up data in a large cohort of newly arrived refugee children. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all refugee children (<15 years of age) evaluated for LTBI with both TST and interferon-γ release assay between 2007 and 2010 in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438536/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#5
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435388/impact-of-laboratory-practice-changes-on-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-with-the-introduction-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-kiribati
#6
Alfred Tonganibeia, Anthony D Harries, Onofre Edwin A Merilles, Tekaibeti Tarataake, Teatao Tiira, Takeieta Kienene
The Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, has the largest tuberculosis epidemic in the region. There is a national tuberculosis control program, which has used smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli as the main diagnostic tool for many years. In 2015, an Xpert MTB/RIF machine was procured and became functional within the tuberculosis hospital. The aim of this cross-sectional study, using routinely collected data, was to determine the effects of introducing Xpert MTB/RIF on laboratory smear microscopy practices and the pattern of registered tuberculosis cases...
February 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427049/favourable-outcome-in-a-child-with-symptomatic-diagnosis-of-glutaric-aciduria-type-1-despite-vertical-hiv-infection-and-minor-head-trauma
#7
Angeline Thomas, Els F M Dobbels, Priscilla E Springer, Christelle Ackermann, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
The first case of Glutaric aciduria Type 1(GA1) in an African child was reported in 2001. GA1 has a prevalence of 1:5000 in black South Africans. Although early diagnosis is essential for a favourable outcome, newborn screening is not routine in South Africa where an estimated 320,000 children have HIV infection. Neurodevelopmental delay and encephalopathy are complications of both HIV and GA1. In such a setting it is important to recognise that HIV and GA1 can occur simultaneously. We present an HIV-infected South African male child of Xhosa descent with macrocephaly who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 8 weeks of age in a clinical trial which included a neurodevelopmental sub-study...
February 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405148/fasciolopsiasis-in-children-clinical-sociodemographic-profile-and-outcome
#8
Kumar Saurabh, Shilpi Ranjan
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and sociodemographic profile of fasciolopsiasis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A chart review of 56 children presenting with the passage of adult Fasciolopsis buski per stool from February 2015 to January 2016 was done for their clinical profile and risk factors for acquiring fasciolopsiasis in the Paediatric Unit of a medical college of Northern India. RESULTS: The mean age of presentation was 8.2 years (2-14 years age group)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404180/evaluation-of-treatment-indications-tuberculin-skin-test-and-bacillus-calmette-guerin-vaccination-scars-in-the-cases-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-treatment
#9
Beyhan Çakar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment application and to investigate if there is change between tuberculin skin test (TST) results according to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar numbers after LTBI treatment with isoniazid (INH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from the LTBI treatment files from the dispensary of 2006. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: Latent tuberculosis infection was administered to 253 cases in 2006...
January 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403256/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-as-an-unusual-cause-of-back-pain-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Hemaswetha Balachandran, Latha M Sneha, Gopinath Menon, Julius Scott
Low back pain in children and adolescents are usually attributed to mechanical causes and faulty positions. Although most of them are self-limiting, physicians should be aware of the red flag signs that warrant complete evaluation to rule out malignant causes of back pain. As delay in the diagnosis of vertebral lytic lesion may have sequelae in the growing children, pain disproportionate to the signs should have low threshold levels for evaluation. We report a case of 6-year-old boy who presented with worsening back pain...
October 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402263/effect-of-the-2015-earthquake-on-pediatric-inpatient-pattern-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#11
Bishnu Rath Giri, Ram Hari Chapagain, Samana Sharma, Sandeep Shrestha, Sunita Ghimire, P Ravi Shankar
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking. METHODS: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401500/mobile-direct-observation-of-therapy-mdot-a-rapid-systematic-review-and-pilot-study-in-children-with-asthma
#12
Michael D Shields, Fahad ALQahtani, Michael P Rivey, James C McElnay
We describe, for the first time, the use of a mobile device platform for remote direct observation of inhaler use and technique. The research programme commenced with a rapid systematic review of mobile device (or videophone) use for direct observation of therapy (MDOT). Ten studies (mainly pilots) were identified involving patients with tuberculosis, sickle cell disease and Alzheimer's disease. New studies are ongoing (ClinicalTrials.gov website) in TB, stroke, sickle cell disease, HIV and opioid dependence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399082/identifying-pathway-modules-of-tuberculosis-in-children-by-analyzing-multiple-different-networks
#13
Lu Cheng, Yuling Han, Xiuxia Zhao, Xiaoli Xu, Jing Wang
Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by the mycobacterium TB, is the major cause of human death worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the biomarkers involved in child TB. Gene expression data were obtained from the Array Express Archive of Functional Genomics Data. Gene expression data and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data were downloaded to construct differential gene co-expression networks (DCNs). The Benjamini-Hochberg algorithm was used to correct the P-value. In total, 3,820 edges (PPIs) and 1,359 nodes (genes) were obtained from the human-related PPIs data and gene expression data at the criteria of absolute value of Pearson's correlation coefficient >0...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388291/comparison-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-gamma-release-assay-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-pediatric-candidates-of-renal-transplantation
#14
Shirin Sayyahfar, Faranak Davoodzadeh, Rozita Hoseini, Nahid Rahimzadeh, Hasan Otukesh
IGRA has been approved as an alternative in vitro test to diagnose Mycobacterium TB infection. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of TST in comparison with QFT assay to detect LTBI among Iranian children candidate for renal transplantation. This cross-sectional study was performed on 31 children who were candidate for renal transplantation admitted to Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2013 to 2014. TST and QFT were performed for all patients. QFT was negative in all patients, while TST was positive only in one case...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386758/challenges-in-management-of-pediatric-life-threatening-neck-and-chest-trauma
#15
Shilpa Sharma, Biplab Mishra, Amit Gupta, Kapil Dev Soni, Richa Aggarwal, Subodh Kumar
Introduction: Neck and thoracic trauma in children pose unforeseen challenges requiring variable management strategies. Here, we describe some unusual cases. Patients and Methods: Pediatric cases of unusual neck and thoracic trauma prospectively managed from April 2012 to March 2014 at a Level 1 trauma center were studied for management strategies, outcome, and follow-up. Results: Six children with a median age of 5.5 (range 2-10) years were managed...
January 2018: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374831/use-of-procalcitonin-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-infants-and-preschool-children
#16
Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Esther Pérez, Desirée Henares, Anna Fernández-López, Anna Valls, Pedro Brotons, Clàudia Fortuny, Antoni Noguera-Julian
Normal procalcitonin (PCT) levels have been reported in adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) but have not been previously investigated in children. We aimed to assess PCT levels at diagnosis of TB in young children in a low-burden setting. In a cross-sectional observational study in a referral pediatric center in Barcelona (Spain), we assessed the value of PCT and other inflammatory markers (leucocyte counts, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) in the diagnosis of TB in pre-school children (< 6 years at diagnosis, n = 45), as compared with two control groups (pneumococcal pneumonia, n = 25; and healthy controls, n = 49)...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372096/calvarial-tuberculosis-in-a-preschool-aged-child-an-uncommon-entity
#17
Avradip Santra, Arya Sen, Atri Chatterjee
Calvarial tuberculosis is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis, especially in children under five years of age. We report a two-and-a-half-year-old male child who presented to the Nilratan Sircar Medical College, Kolkata, India, in 2015 with frontoparietal fluctuant swelling of three months' duration. He had also had chronic sinus discharge from the left lower eyelid over the previous six months. Computed tomography of the head revealed a frontal swelling along with erosion of both the outer and inner plates of the left frontal bone...
November 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371710/clinical-presentations-and-outcomes-of-the-children-with-tuberculous-meningitis-an-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Naveed Anjum, Nuzhat Noureen, Imran Iqbal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical presentations and outcomes of the children suffering from tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: This prospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from February to December 2015. The Pakistan Paediatric Association scoring chart for tuberculosis was used as a tool for the probable diagnosis. The clinical symptoms with their durations were noted. Clinical stages of tuberculous meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and computerised tomography brain findings were noted for each patient...
January 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370565/clinical-profile-of-scleritis-in-children
#19
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Sowkath Ali, Amala George, Sudha Ganesh, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical pattern of scleritis in patients ≤16 years of age at a tertiary care eye hospital in India. METHODS: The medical records of 24 eyes of 20 children with scleritis were included in this retrospective study. Collected data included age, subsets of uveitis, best corrected visual acuities (BCVA), detailed laboratory investigations and treatment. RESULTS: Mean age at presentation was 12.2 ± 2.5 years. Scleritis was unilateral in 80% patients and an equal gender distribution was observed...
January 25, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364534/italian-multicentre-study-found-infectious-and-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-children-adopted-from-africa-and-recommends-prompt-medical-screening
#20
Elena Chiappini, Mauro Zaffaroni, Martina Bianconi, Giuseppina Veneruso, Nicolino Grasso, Silvia Garazzino, Rosangela Arancio, Piero Valentini, Anna Ficcadenti, Maria Rosalia Da Riol, Simona La Placa, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Gianni Bona
AIM: This study evaluated the prevalence of infectious diseases and immunisation status of children adopted from Africa METHODS: We studied 762 African children referred to 11 Italian paediatric centres in 2009-2015. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected and analysed. RESULTS: The median age of the children (60.3% males) was 3.6 years, 52.6% came from Ethiopia and 50.1% had at least one infectious disease. Parasitic infections accounted for the majority of the infectious diseases (409/715) and the most common were Giardia lamblia (n=239), Toxocara canis (n=65) and skin infections (n=205), notably Tinea capitis/corporis (n=134) and Molluscum contagiosum (n=56) Active tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in nine children (1...
January 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
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