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Tuberculosis in children

Giorgia Sulis, Adjima Combary, Haileyesus Getahun, Saidou Gnanou, Pier Francesco Giorgetti, Arnaud Konseimbo, Susanna Capone, Yohhei Hamada, Annabel Baddeley, Alberto Matteelli
Objective: To develop and test a simple system for recording and reporting the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection and to compare the effects of passive and active tracing of child contacts on indicators of such infection. Methods: We revised Burkina Faso's latent tuberculosis infection register and quarterly tuberculosis reporting form. Subsequently, coverage of the routine screening of contacts, who were younger than five years, for active tuberculosis and the corresponding percentages of such contacts who, if eligible, initiated preventive therapy were measured, nationwide, between 1 April 2016 and 31 March 2017...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Belén Rocío Imperiale, Cecilia Nieves, Belén Mancino, Myriam Sanjurjo, Silvina Tártara, Ángela Beatríz Di Giulio, Juan Carlos Palomino, Nora Susana Morcillo, Anandi Martin
Background: There is a critical need to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Several techniques have been developed to improve the quality of sputum samples; however, these procedures are very unpleasant and invasive and require hospitalization and trained personnel. This study aims to explore the potential use of a new and noninvasive tool, "string test," for TB diagnosis in children and in adults not able to render sputum samples and at risk of developing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Anna Starshinova, Irina Dovgalyuk, Andrey Berkos, Yulia Ovchinnikova, Ludmila Bubnova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: Nowadays, there is no doubt that the development of infectious process is determined not only by individual features of a human, but also by features of infection agent. It is commonly known that ability to form an adequate immune response is based on immunogenetic peculiarities of macroorganism. Methods: The immunogenetic study was performed in 228 children from 1 to 15 years old with different manifestations of tuberculosis (TB). Control group was consisted of 446 adult healthy donors-residents of the Northwestern region of Russia...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Sonia Bianchini, Andrea Esposito, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Background: Spondylodiscitis (SD), the concurrent infection of a vertebral disc and the adjacent vertebral bodies, is a very severe disease that can lead to death or cause spinal deformities, segmental instabilities, and chronic pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life for affected patients. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to reduce the risk of negative outcomes. The two cases of SD that are described in this paper might be useful for informing paediatric approaches to children with SD...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alexander Nast, Lasse Amelunxen, Matthias Augustin, Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Corinna Dressler, Matthew Gaskins, Peter Härle, Bernd Hoffstadt, Joachim Klaus, Joachim Koza, Ulrich Mrowietz, Hans-Michael Ockenfels, Sandra Philipp, Kristian Reich, Thomas Rosenbach, Berthold Rzany, Martin Schlaeger, Gerhard Schmid-Ott, Michael Sebastian, Ralph von Kiedrowski, Tobias Weberschock
The German guideline for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris was updated using GRADE methodology. The guideline is based on a systematic literature review completed on December 1, 2016, and on a formal consensus and approval process. The second part of this short version of the guideline covers the following special patient populations and treatment situations: tuberculosis screening before and during psoriasis treatment, choice of psoriasis treatment for individuals wishing to have children, as well as during pregnancy and breast-feeding, and patients with joint involvement and vaccinations...
June 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
James Gaensbauer, Bryn Gonzales, Robert Belknap, Michael L Wilson, Mary E O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes from a QuantiFERON-tuberculosis (TB) Gold (QFT)-based screening for pediatric latent TB infection (LTBI) in the Denver Health Community Health System (CHS), an urban primary-care network in the US. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed all QFTs (n = 6685) performed on children aged 2-18 years between January 5, 2011, and August 18, 2014. Risk factors for positive testing in the CHS population were identified by logistic regression, and further assessed using a case-control comparison...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Bereket Gebremichael, Tsega-Ab Abebaw, Tsedey Moges, Admas Abera Abaerei, Nadia Worede
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is among the top ten cause of death (9th) from a single infectious agent worldwide. It even ranks above HIV/AIDS. It is among the top 10 causes of death among children. Globally there are estimates of one million cases of TB in children, 76% occur in 22 high-burden countries among which Ethiopia ranked 8th. Despite this fact, children with TB are given low priority in most national health programs. Moreover reports on childhood TB and its predictors are very limited...
June 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
I Pathmanathan, S Ahmedov, E Pevzner, G Anyalechi, S Modi, H Kirking, J S Cavanaugh
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). TB preventive therapy (TPT) works synergistically with, and independently of, antiretroviral therapy to reduce TB morbidity, mortality and incidence among PLHIV. However, although TPT is a crucial and cost-effective component of HIV care for adults and children and has been recommended as an international standard of care for over a decade, it remains highly underutilized. If we are to end the global TB epidemic, we must address the significant reservoir of tuberculous infection, especially in those, such as PLHIV, who are most likely to progress to TB disease...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Rattanachai Rermruay, Supattra Rungmaitree, Sunsanee Chatpornvorarux, Chantapat Brukesawan, Orasri Wittawatmongkol, Keswadee Lapphra, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Nantaka Kongstan, Benjawan Khumcha, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may cause mild and benign local adverse effects (AE). More serious AE are rarely reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical features and outcomes of BCG (Tokyo-172 strain)-induce diseases (BCG-ID) that required medical attention at a tertiary care center in Bangkok, Thailand. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from January 2007 to December 2016 that were selected by ICD-10 codes...
May 30, 2018: Vaccine
Cornelius Nattey, Nelly Jinga, Constance Mongwenyana, Idah Mokhele, Given Mohomi, Matthew P Fox, Dorina Onoya
Effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission benefits from early presentation to antenatal care (ANC). It is, however, unclear whether a previous HIV diagnosis results in earlier initiation of ANC. We estimated the probability of early ANC initiation among women with a previous HIV-positive diagnosis compared to those who first tested for HIV during ANC and explored determinants of early ANC among HIV-positive women. We conducted an analysis of a cross-sectional survey among 411 HIV-positive adult (>18 years) women who gave birth at midwife obstetrics units in Gauteng between October 2016 and May 2017...
June 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Poorani Anandakrishnan, Teik Beng Khoo
Cerebral demyelination and optic neuritis are often seen in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following various infections and immunisations. An eight month old girl presented with a left axillary lymph node swelling and an erythematous lace-like rash over her cheeks and trunk. She then developed acute encephalopathy, bilateral nystagmus, right hemiparesis and left facial nerve palsy. Her electroencephalogram showed an encephalopathic process and visual evoked response study were grossly abnormal...
May 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Neha Gupta, Bineeta Kashyap, Pooja Dewan, Puneeta Hyanki, N P Singh
Aim and objectives: The paucibacillary nature of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) makes diagnosis difficult. The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical spectrum of pediatric TB with microbiological diagnosis. Materials and methods: Specimens from clinically suspected pediatric TB cases were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CB-NAAT) for TB. Results: Pulmonary TB was the predominant form affecting 36 of 62 (58%) patients...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Rama Chaudhry, Prathyusha Kokkayil, Arnab Ghosh, Tej Bahadur, Kamala Kant, Tanu Sagar, Sunil Kumar Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Aparajit Ballav Dey, Vimala Menon
Background & objectives: : Bartonella henselae causes infections which closely resemble febrile illness and chronic diseases such as tuberculosis and haematological malignancies. There are not many studies on Bartonella infections from India. The present study was undertaken to diagnose B. henselae infection in diverse clinical conditions in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: A total of 145 patients including those with fever and lymphadenopathy, infective endocarditis and neuroretinitis were enrolled in the study...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Claudia C Dobler, Greg J Fox, Paul Douglas, Kerri A Viney, Faiz Ahmad Khan, Zelalem Temesgen, Ben J Marais
In most settings with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB), foreign-born people make up the majority of TB cases, but the distribution of the TB risk among different migrant populations is often poorly quantified. In addition, screening practices for TB disease and latent TB infection vary widely. Addressing the risk of TB in international migrants is an essential component of TB prevention and care efforts in low incidence countries, and strategies to systematically screen for, diagnose, treat and prevent TB among this group contribute to national and global TB elimination goals...
May 24, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Heather R Draper, Heather Finlayson, Jana Winckler, André Burger, Barend Fourie, Stephanie Thee, Anneke C Hesseling, H Simon Schaaf
Safety concerns persist for long-term pediatric fluoroquinolone use. Seventy children (median age 2.1 years) treated with levofloxacin 10-20 mg/kg once daily for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (median observation time 11.8 months) had few musculoskeletal events, no levofloxacin-attributed serious adverse events, and no QTcF >450 ms. Long-term levofloxacin was safe and well tolerated.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kendalem Asmare Atalell, Nigusie Birhan Tebeje, Daniale Tekelia Ekubagewargies
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children globally. The aims of this study were to determine the mortality rate and to identify the predictors of mortality among TB/HIV co-infected children at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. METHOD: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among TB/HIV co-infected children from February 2005 to March 2017. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the median survival time...
2018: PloS One
Pelzer Pt, Mutayoba B, Cobelens Fgj
OBJECTIVES: There is conflicting evidence as to whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination offers protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ascertained by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). We investigated the association between BCG vaccination status and TST results in a set of surveys at increasing TST cut-off values to take cross-reactions to BCG vaccination into account. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from three consecutive tuberculin surveys done among schoolchildren in Tanzania between 1990 and 2002...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infection
Safa Naraghi, Tinashe Mutsvangwa, René Goliath, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Tania S Douglas
BACKGROUND: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used method for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in adults and active tuberculosis in children. We present the development of a mobile-phone based screening tool for measuring the tuberculin skin test induration. METHOD: The tool makes use of a mobile application developed on the Android platform to capture images of an induration, and photogrammetric reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan to reconstruct the induration in 3D, followed by 3D measurement of the induration with the aid of functions from the Python programming language...
May 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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