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Zonisamide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202262/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-new-antiepileptic-drugs-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Romina Moavero, Marta Elena Santarone, Cinzia Galasso, Paolo Curatolo
BACKGROUND: In pediatric epilepsy, neurodevelopmental comorbidities could be sometimes even more disabling than seizures themselves, therefore it is crucial for the clinicians to understand how to benefit these children, and to choose the proper antiepileptic drug for the treatment of epilepsy associated to a specific neurodevelopmental disorder. Aim of this paper is to discuss the potential impact on cognition and behavior of new and newest AEDs and to guide the choice of the clinicians for a targeted use in epilepsy associated with specific neurodevelopmental disorders...
February 12, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195838/the-use-of-zonisamide-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-systematic-review
#2
Massimiliano Buoli, Silvia Grassi, Valentina Ciappolino, Marta Serati, Alfredo C Altamura
OBJECTIVE: Traditional pharmacotherapy has undoubtedly improved the outcome of patients with psychiatric disorders, but partial efficacy or poor tolerability persists in a number of these subjects. Among different compounds, zonisamide has been used to address unmet needs of standard pharmacotherapy. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review about the use of zonisamide for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. METHODS: A research in the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of the use of zonisamide in psychiatric disorders or associated conditions (obesity and smoking cessation)...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157097/combination-therapy-with-zonisamide-and-antiparkinson-drugs-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#3
Shinji Matsunaga, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the efficacy and tolerability of zonisamide for Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis of zonisamide treatment in PD patients who received antiparkinson drugs such as levodopa. METHODS: The primary outcome measures were the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III scores, wearing-off time, and discontinuation rate due to all causes. Secondary outcome measures were UPDRS total and subscale scores; discontinuation rates due to adverse events, inefficacy, and death; and individual adverse events...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144450/comparing-zonisamide-with-sodium-valproate-in-the-management-of-migraine-headaches-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial-of-efficacy-and-safety
#4
Farhad Assarzadegan, Hanif Tabesh, Seyed-Mostafa Hosseini-Zijoud, Andrew David Beale, Arya Shoghli, Mahmood Ghafoori Yazdi, Behnam Mansouri, Omid Hesami, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Hosein Delavar Kasmaei
BACKGROUND: Migraine is one of the most debilitating medical conditions and has a high socioeconomic burden. As conventional therapeutic methods do not entirely alleviate the symptoms, new alternatives are being considered. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of zonisamide compared with sodium valproate in the management of migraine headaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the current double-blind, parallel, randomized, controlled trial, 96 patients with a migraine diagnosis based on the international headache society (HIS) criteria were selected...
September 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067060/update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-myoclonic-seizures
#5
Pasquale Striano, Vincenzo Belcastro
Myoclonic seizures are brief, involuntary muscular jerks arising from the central nervous system that can occur in different epilepsy syndromes, including idiopathic generalized epilepsies or the most severe group of epileptic encephalopathies. Valproate is commonly the first choice alone or in combination with some benzodiazepines or levetiracetam. However, more treatment options exist today as there is emerging evidence to support the efficacy of some newer antiepileptic drugs. In addition, of major importance remains avoidance of medications (e...
February 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057450/antiepileptic-drugs-prevent-seizures-in-hyperbaric-oxygen-a-novel-model-of-epileptiform-activity
#6
Ivan T Demchenko, Sergei Yu Zhilyaev, Alexander N Moskvin, Alexander I Krivchenko, Claude A Piantadosi, Barry W Allen
Breathing oxygen at sufficiently elevated pressures can trigger epileptiform seizures. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with FDA-approved antiepileptic drugs could prevent seizure onset in hyperoxia at 5 atmospheres absolute. We selected drugs from two putative functional categories, Na(+)-channel antagonists and GABA enhancers, each administered intraperitoneally at four doses in separate groups of C57BL/6 mice. The drugs varied in efficacy at the doses used. Of the five tested Na(+)-channel antagonists, carbamazepine and lamotrigine more than tripled seizure latency compared to values seen in vehicle controls...
January 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029083/psychopathological-behaviour-and-cognition-in-morbid-obesity
#7
Alba Calderone, Pasquale Fabio Calabrò, Chita Lippi, Roberta Jaccheri, Jacopo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024798/zonisamide-attenuates-lactacystin-induced-parkinsonism-in-mice-without-affecting-system-xc
#8
Eduard Bentea, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Lise Verbruggen, Katleen Martens, Sho Kobayashi, Lauren Deneyer, Thomas Demuyser, Giulia Albertini, Katrien Maes, Hideyo Sato, Ilse Smolders, Jan Lewerenz, Ann Massie
Zonisamide (ZNS), an anticonvulsant drug exhibiting symptomatic effects in Parkinson's disease (PD), was recently reported to exert neuroprotection in rodent models. One of the proposed neuroprotective mechanisms involves increased protein expression of xCT, the specific subunit of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc(-), inducing glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Here, we investigated the outcome of ZNS treatment in a mouse model of PD based on intranigral proteasome inhibition, and whether the observed effects would be mediated by system xc(-)...
December 24, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017579/seizures-caused-by-brain-tumors-in-children
#9
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of seizures secondary to pediatric brain tumors. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric tumor and the most common cause of death in pediatric cancer. Seizures are one of the most common symptoms of pediatric brain tumors. Factors associated with increased risk of seizures include supratentorial location, gray matter involvement, low-grade, and certain histological features-especially dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, and oligodendroglioma...
December 7, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979020/antiepilepsy-drugs-and-the-immune-system
#10
REVIEW
Neetu Godhwani, Sami L Bahna
OBJECTIVE: To alert physicians about the peculiar adverse effects of antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) on the immune system. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature during the past 25 years. STUDY SELECTIONS: Reports and review articles on the hypersensitivities of AEDs and their effect on immunity. RESULTS: AEDs have significant effects on the immune system in the form of hypersensitivity or immune suppression. IgE-mediated reactions can be urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm, or anaphylaxis...
December 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939141/clinical-profile-and-changes-of-serum-lipid-levels-in-epileptic-patients-after-cerebral-infarction
#11
Ken Ikeda, Masahiro Sawada, Harumi Morioka, Maya Kyuzen, Junya Ebina, Junpei Nagasawa, Masaru Yanagihashi, Ken Miura, Yuichi Ishikawa, Takehisa Hirayama, Takanori Takazawa, Osamu Kano, Kiyokazu Kawabe, Yasuo Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may increase development of dyslipidemia and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We examined the clinical profile and changes of serum lipid levels after AED monotherapy in patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after cerebral infarction (CI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Medical records were reviewed in consecutive 2144 CI patients. Monotherapy of valproate, carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), zonisamide, levetiracetam, or lamotrigine was performed in PSE patients...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919463/newer-anti-epileptic-drugs-vitamin-status-and-neuropathy-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#12
V Cahill, D McCorry, I Soryal, Y A Rajabally
OBJECTIVE: Whether new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may result in neuropathy is unknown but possible given their effects on vitamin metabolism. This analysis aimed to determine frequency and correlates of neuropathy in subjects treated with new AEDs in relation to drug used, length of exposure and serum vitamin B12 and folate levels. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 52 consecutive epileptic subjects. Presence of neuropathy was determined using the Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS)...
December 2, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901384/pharmacokinetics-of-zonisamide-following-rectal-administration-to-healthy-dogs
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jennifer R Michaels, Amy J Hodshon, William B Thomas, Dawn M Boothe, Lindsay Williams
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of zonisamide following rectal administration of 20 or 30 mg/kg suspended in sterile water or polyethylene glycol (PEG) to healthy dogs and determine whether either dose resulted in plasma zonisamide concentrations within the recommended therapeutic target range (10 to 40 μg/mL). ANIMALS 8 healthy mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES Each dog received each of 2 doses (20 or 30 mg/kg) of zonisamide suspended in each of 2 delivery substrates (sterile water or PEG) in a randomized crossover study with a 7-day washout period between phases...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873080/evaluation-of-the-drug-solubility-and-rush-ageing-on-drug-release-performance-of-various-model-drugs-from-the-modified-release-polyethylene-oxide-matrix-tablets
#14
Saeed Shojaee, Ali Nokhodchi, Mohammed Maniruzzaman
Hydrophilic matrix systems are currently some of the most widely used drug delivery systems for controlled-release oral dosage forms. Amongst a variety of polymers, polyethylene oxide (PEO) is considered an important material used in pharmaceutical formulations. As PEO is sensitive to thermal oxidation, it is susceptible to free radical oxidative attack. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of PEO based formulations containing different model drugs with different water solubility, namely propranolol HCl, theophylline and zonisamide...
February 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819746/monotherapy-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-congenital-malformation-outcomes-in-the-child
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer Weston, Rebecca Bromley, Cerian F Jackson, Naghme Adab, Jill Clayton-Smith, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Andrew J McKay, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs on the prevalence of congenital malformations in the child...
7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777429/the-anticonvulsant-zonisamide-inhibits-hydroxyl-radical-generated-from-methylguanidine
#16
Yasuko Noda, Toshiki Masumizu, Akitane Mori
Methylguanidine (MG) is a known nephrotoxin and neurotoxin, and an intracisternal injection of MG can induce convulsions in experimental animals. In this in vitro study, we examined the inhibitory effects of the antiepileptic agent zonisamide (ZNS) on hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generated from MG by using an electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. ZNS scavenged •OH generated from MG in a dose-dependent manner through direct scavenging during the auto-oxidation of MG. The rate constant of ZNS reacting with the •OH was at a near diffusion-controlled rate...
October 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766590/an-updated-overview-on-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-recent-antiepileptic-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
December 2016: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749631/complete-recovery-after-acute-zonisamide-overdose-in-an-adolescent-female
#18
Charlayne McStay, Richard Pierce, Carley Riley
Zonisamide is a sulfonamide drug used primarily for the treatment of partial seizures in adults. We describe the case of a 15-year-old woman with a mood disorder who survived without complications after ingestion of an estimated 7.5 g of zonisamide. To the best of our knowledge, there are 4 case reports of individuals with intentional ingestion of more than 4 g of zonisamide as a single agent. Our patient developed coma and hypotension 4 hours after ingestion and was treated with a catecholamine infusion, endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721044/potential-role-of-selected-antiepileptics-used-in-neuropathic-pain-as-human-gaba-transporter-isoform-1-gat1-inhibitors-molecular-docking-and-pharmacodynamic-studies
#19
Łukasz Fijałkowski, Kinga Sałat, Adrian Podkowa, Paula Zaręba, Alicja Nowaczyk
The chemical interaction of nine antiepileptic drugs (tiagabine, gabapentin, pregabalin, lamotrigine, zonisamide, valproic acid, valpromide, vigabatrin, progabide) and two endogenous metabolites (4-aminobutanoic acid, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid) with a model of human GABA transporter 1 (hGAT1) is described using the molecular docking method. To establish the role of hGAT1 in chronic pain, tiagabine, a selective hGAT1 inhibitor, was assessed in the in vivo experiments for its antiallodynic properties in two mouse models of neuropathic pain...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704257/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-childhood-migraine
#20
REVIEW
Kelsey Merison, Howard Jacobs
While the diagnosis of migraine in children is generally straightforward, treatment can seem complex with a number of medication choices, many of which are used "off label." Patients with intermittent migraines can often be managed with ibuprofen or naproxen taken as needed. Unfortunately, by the time that children present to our practice, they have often tried these medications without improvement. Triptans are frequently prescribed to these patients with good success. It is important to make the patient aware of the possible associated serotonergic reactions...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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