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Preimplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526407/sirtuin-inhibition-leads-to-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-porcine-preimplantation-blastocysts
#1
Min Gyeong Kim, Duk Hyoun Kim, Hye Ran Lee, Jun Sung Lee, Su Jin Jin, Hoon Taek Lee
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent class III histone deacetylase proteins that play a crucial role in several cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, and lifespan. Previous studies have shown that sirtuin inhibition leads to embryonic developmental arrest and oxidative stress in porcine and murine. However, sirtuin-mediated mechanisms have not been examined in porcine preimplantation blastocysts. We therefore investigated the relationship between sirtuins and autophagy. Embryos were cultured with 100 μM sirtinol (SIRT1/2 inhibitor) in NCSU-23 media after in vitro fertilization...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525417/assessing-frailty-in-patients-undergoing-destination-therapy-left-ventricular-assist-device-observations-from-interagency-registry-for-mechanically-assisted-circulatory-support
#2
Lauren B Cooper, Bradley G Hammill, Larry A Allen, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Robert J Mentz, Joseph G Rogers, Carmelo A Milano, Chetan B Patel, Karen P Alexander, Adrian F Hernandez
Frailty and heart failure share common pathways with symptoms that often coexist. Assessment of frailty may inform patient selection for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy. Using Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) data of destination therapy (DT) LVAD patients from January 1, 2012, to March 31, 2014, we examined preimplantation provider-assessed frailty and gait speed testing and the association with 1 year postimplantation outcomes. Of 2,469 patients, 227 (9...
May 18, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513911/sperm-capacitation-pretreatment-positively-impacts-bovine-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection
#3
L Águila, F Zambrano, M E Arias, Felmer R
The efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in bovines is low compared to other species due in part to inadequate egg activation and sperm nucleus decondensation after injection. We hypothesized that this low efficiency is due to the lack of complete sperm capacitation, so we evaluated the effects of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on bovine sperm capacitation and on the preimplantation developmental potential of bovine embryos generated by ICSI. Treatment with IBMX and MβCD decreased sperm viability (between 13 to 30%); nevertheless, 0...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512206/genetic-testing-and-reproductive-choice-in-neurological-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Omay Lee, Mary Porteous
Genetic testing is increasingly important for investigating suspected inherited neurological conditions. A genetic diagnosis can have a huge impact on patients and also their families. It is important for neurologists to appreciate the presymptomatic and prenatal testing options available to patients and their at-risk relatives once a genetic disorder is diagnosed. Asymptomatic family members can experience considerable psychological distress from the knowledge that they might have inherited a neurodegenerative condition...
May 16, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502422/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-monogenic-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Vivian Chi Yan Lee, Judy F C Chow, William Shu Biu Yeung, Pak Chung Ho
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was first reported in 1990. Thereafter, more and more indications for PGD, including monogenic diseases (MGD) and translocations, are presently available, and the list of indications of PGD is expanding from early-onset and serious conditions to late-onset diseases. Polymerase chain reaction has been used for PGD of MGD, while newer techniques, including karyomapping and next-generation sequencing, emerge in recent decade. The limitations of various methods for PGD are discussed in this review...
April 15, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498723/advances-in-preimplantation-genetic-testing-for-monogenic-disease-and-aneuploidy
#6
Nathan R Treff, Rebekah S Zimmerman
Genetic testing of preimplantation embryos promises to prevent monogenic disease in children born to at-risk couples, the transfer of unbalanced embryos to patients carrying a balanced translocation, and the use of aneuploid embryos created during in vitro fertilization. Technologies have evolved from fluorescence in situ hybridization to next-generation-sequencing-based aneuploidy screening and allow for simultaneous testing of multiple genetic abnormalities in a single biopsy. The field has also shifted away from polar body or blastomere biopsy and toward trophectoderm biopsy as the new standard...
May 12, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497410/could-monopronucleated-icsi-zygotes-be-considered-for-transfer-analysis-through-time-lapse-monitoring-and-pgs
#7
S Mateo, F Vidal, M Parriego, I Rodríguez, V Montalvo, A Veiga, M Boada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the chromosomal constitution and the developmental potential of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) deriving embryos displaying a single pronucleus at the zygote stage. METHODS: Eighty-eight embryos from single pronucleus (1PN) two polar bodies (2PB) ICSI zygotes from 64 preimplantational genetic screening (PGS) cycles (October 2012-December 2014), were retrospectively analyzed. Zygotes were cultured in a time-lapse incubator...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496018/effects-of-heat-stress-on-bovine-preimplantation-embryos-produced-in-vitro
#8
Miki Sakatani
Summer heat stress decreases the pregnancy rate in cattle and has been thought to be associated with the early embryonic death caused by the elevation of maternal body temperature. In vitro cultures have been widely used for the evaluation of effects of heat stress on oocytes, fertilization, preimplantation, and embryonic development. Susceptibility to heat stress is present in developmental stages from oocytes to cleavage-stage (before embryonic gene activation, EGA) embryos, leading to a consequent decrease in developmental competence...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494860/overexpression-of-trophoblast-stem-cell-enriched-micrornas-promotes-trophoblast-fate-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
Ursula Nosi, Fredrik Lanner, Tsu Huang, Brian Cox
The first cell fate choice of the preimplantation embryo generates the extraembryonic trophoblast and embryonic epiblast lineages. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) can be utilized to investigate molecular mechanisms of this first cell fate decision. It has been established that ESCs can be induced to acquire trophoblast lineage characteristics upon manipulation of lineage-determining transcription factors. Here, we have interrogated the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) to drive trans-differentiation of ESCs into the trophoblast lineage...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494068/a-comparison-of-costal-cartilage-warping-using-oblique-split-vs-concentric-carving-methods
#10
Gemma C Wilson, Laura Dias, Callum Faris
Importance: Warping of costal cartilage is well described; however, its strength and abundance still make it a desirable graft material, especially in complex reconstructive rhinoplasty. Despite multiple methods of cartilage harvest, carving, and preimplantation treatment being developed over the years, warp remains a challenging clinical problem. Objective: To assess whether the 30° oblique split method of preparing costal cartilage grafts produces less warping of the graft than the current standard of harvesting the central segment of a rib using the concentric carving method...
May 11, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488030/-125-i%C3%A2-brachytherapy-in-younger-prostate-cancer-patients-outcomes-in-low-and-intermediate-risk-disease
#11
Isabelle Kindts, Karin Stellamans, Ignace Billiet, Hans Pottel, Antoon Lambrecht
PURPOSE: To evaluate local recurrence in younger men treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) (125)I brachytherapy (BT) for localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 192 patients (≤65-years-old) were treated with LDR (125)I-BT ± hormone therapy. Local failure was defined as any prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise leading to salvage treatment or biochemical failure according to the Phoenix definition. A bounce was defined as a rise in the nadir of ≥0...
May 9, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481181/a-diabetic-pregnancy-alters-the-expression-of-stress-related-receptors-in-gastrulating-rabbit-blastocyst-and-in-the-reproductive-tract
#12
Tom Seeling, Štefan Čikoš, Katarzyna J Grybel, Žofia Janštová, S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Alexandra Špirková, Anne Navarrete Santos
The incidence of diabetes mellitus for young people rises since years. A preconceptional diabetes mellitus leads to subfertility. Most of the causes for a diabetic subfertility are still unknown. Stress can significantly deteriorate glycemic control in diabetes. Several mechanisms by which "stress hormones", like adrenaline and cortisol or corticosterone, can contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis have been identified. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we examined the expression of adrenergic receptors and the glucocorticoid receptor transcripts in the female rabbit reproductive tract and in gastrulating blastocysts developed in normoinsulinemic mothers and in mothers with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus type 1...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476180/transferring-embryos-with-genetic%C3%A2-anomalies-detected-in-preimplantation-testing-an-ethics-committee-opinion
#13
(no author information available yet)
Patient requests for transfer of embryos with genetic anomalies linked to serious health-affecting disorders detected in preimplantation testing are rare but do exist. This Opinion sets out the possible rationales for a provider's decision to assist or decline to assist in such transfers. The Committee concludes in most clinical cases it is ethically permissible to assist or decline to assist in transferring such embryos. In circumstances in which a child is highly likely to be born with a life-threatening condition that causes severe and early debility with no possibility of reasonable function, provider transfer of such embryos is ethically problematic and highly discouraged...
May 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476179/current-experience-concerning-mosaic-embryos-diagnosed-during-preimplantation-genetic-screening
#14
REVIEW
Gary L Harton, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Francesco Fiorentino
The concept of embryos containing multiple cell lines (mosaicism) is not new, but much attention has been paid to this concept recently owing to recent advances in molecular techniques to analyze human embryos. Mosaicism in embryos has been known and reported for some time, originally in early cleavage-stage embryos diagnosed with the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However, the early data have come under attack owing to the limited ability of FISH to reliably detect the actual copy number count of chromosomes as well as potential ascertainment bias of those early studies, which were all performed on already analyzed embryos found to be aneuploid...
May 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472298/adiponectin-stimulates-lipid-metabolism-via-ampk-in-rabbit-blastocysts
#15
Maria Schindler, Mareike Pendzialek, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, Tom Seeling, Jacqueline Gürke, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
STUDY QUESTION: How does a maternal diabetic hyperadiponectineamia affect signal transduction and lipid metabolism in rabbit preimplantation blastocysts? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a diabetic pregnancy increased levels of adiponectin led to a switch in embryonic metabolism towards a fatty acid-dependent energy metabolism, mainly affecting genes that are responsible for fatty acid uptake and turnover. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although studies in cell culture experiments have shown that adiponectin is able to regulate lipid metabolism via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), data on the effects of adiponectin on embryonic lipid metabolism are not available...
May 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470749/noninvasive-imaging-systems-for-gametes-and-embryo-selection-in-ivf-programs-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Marjan Omidi, Azita Faramarzi, Azam Agharahimi, Mohammad Ali Khalili
Optimizing the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedure by improving pregnancy rates and reducing the risks of multiple pregnancies simultaneously are the primary goals of the current assisted reproductive technology program. With the move to single embryo transfers, the need for more cost-effective and noninvasive methods for embryo selection prior to transfer is paramount. These aims require advancement in a more acquire gametes/embryo testing and selection procedures using high-tech devices. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive imaging systems in the current literatures, focusing on the potential clinical application in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatments...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469097/effects-of-rapamycin-on-clinical-manifestations-and-blood-lipid-parameters-in-different-preeclampsia-like-mouse-models
#17
Yan-Hong Yi, Zi Yang, Yi-Wei Han, Jing Huai
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of some types of preeclampsia is related to fatty acid oxidation disorders. Rapamycin can regulate fatty acid metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rapamycin on the clinical manifestations and blood lipid parameters in different preeclampsia-like mouse models. METHODS: Two preeclampsia-like mouse models and a control group were established: L-NA (injected with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), LPS (injected with lipopolysaccharide), and the control group with normal saline (NS)...
May 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461656/shipment-of-live-preimplantation-stage-mouse-embryos
#18
Richard Behringer, Marina Gertsenstein, Kristina Vintersten Nagy, Andras Nagy
Sharing genetically modified mouse models is a very important part of collaboration between researchers. Shipping live animals around the world is inconvenient, expensive, and cumbersome because of the variety of international regulations and paperwork. The issue of health status differences between animal facilities is of great importance; traditionally, imported animals are quarantined to determine their health status and avoid the introduction of undesirable pathogens. The shipment of preimplantation-stage embryos for immediate transfer into pseudopregnant recipients upon arrival is a commonly used method for transportation...
May 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459457/conserved-roles-of-mouse-dux-and-human-dux4-in-activating-cleavage-stage-genes-and-mervl-hervl-retrotransposons
#19
Peter G Hendrickson, Jessie A Doráis, Edward J Grow, Jennifer L Whiddon, Jong-Won Lim, Candice L Wike, Bradley D Weaver, Christian Pflueger, Benjamin R Emery, Aaron L Wilcox, David A Nix, C Matthew Peterson, Stephen J Tapscott, Douglas T Carrell, Bradley R Cairns
To better understand transcriptional regulation during human oogenesis and preimplantation development, we defined stage-specific transcription, which highlighted the cleavage stage as being highly distinctive. Here, we present multiple lines of evidence that a eutherian-specific multicopy retrogene, DUX4, encodes a transcription factor that activates hundreds of endogenous genes (for example, ZSCAN4, KDM4E and PRAMEF-family genes) and retroviral elements (MERVL/HERVL family) that define the cleavage-specific transcriptional programs in humans and mice...
May 1, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459185/karyomapping-and-how-is-it-improving-preimplantation-genetics
#20
Rebecca L Gould, Darren K Griffin
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS) has been applied clinically for >25 years however inherent drawbacks include the necessity to tailor each case to the trait in question, and that technology to detect monogenic and chromosomal disorders respectively is fundamentally different. Areas covered: The area of preimplantation genetics has evolved over the last 25 years, adapting to changes in technology and the need for more efficient, streamlined diagnoses. Karyomapping allows the determination of inheritance from the (grand)parental haplobocks through assembly of inherited chromosomal segments...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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