Read by QxMD icon Read


Yanina S Bogliotti, Marcela Vilarino, Pablo J Ross
Cytoplasmic microinjection into one-cell embryos is a very powerful technique. As an example, it enables the delivery of genome editing tools that can create genetic modifications that will be present in every cell of an adult organism. It can also be used to deliver siRNA, mRNAs or blocking antibodies to study gene function in preimplantation embryos. The conventional technique for microinjecting embryos used in rodents consists of a very thin micropipette that directly penetrates the plasma membrane when advanced into the embryo...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rola F Turki, Mourad Assidi, Huda A Banni, Hanan A Zahed, Sajjad Karim, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdulrahim A Rouzi, Osama Bajouh, Hassan S Jamal, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani, Adel M Abuzenadah
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent spontaneous abortion is an obstetric complication that affects couples at reproductive age. Previous reports documented a clear relationship between parents with chromosomal abnormalities and both recurrent miscarriages and infertility. However, limited data is available from the Arabian Peninsula which is known by higher rates of consanguineous marriages. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and thrombophilic polymorphisms, and to correlate them with RPL and consanguinity in Saudi Arabia...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Ming Chen, Shun-Ping Chang, Gwo-Chin Ma, Wen-Hsian Lin, Hsin-Fu Chen, Shee-Uan Chen, Horng-Der Tsai, Feng-Po Tsai, Ming-Ching Shen
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a powerful tool to tackle the transmission of monogenic inherited disorders in families carrying the diseases from generation to generation. It currently remains a challenging task, despite PGD having been developed over 25 years ago. The major difficulty is it does not have an easy and general formula for all mutations. Different gene locus needs individualized, customized design to make the diagnosis accurate enough to be applied on PGD, in which the quantity of DNA is scanty, whereas timely laboratory diagnosis is mandatory if fresh embryo transfer is desired occasionally...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Thomas Freour, Rita Vassena
: The study of oocyte and preimplantation embryo biology has been regarded with great curiosity throughout scientific history, but it is not until the development of robust methods for in vitro observation and manipulation of animal gametes that developmental biology has flourished as a discipline. By far the biggest technical challenge in studying transcription in oocytes and early embryo has been the necessity of developing techniques that retain a high level of accuracy when starting from small amount of material...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
C S Oliveira, N Z Saraiva, M R de Lima, L Z Oliveira, R V Serapião, C A V Borges, J M Garcia, L S A Camargo
Here we present kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development. Embryos were originated using sex-sorted semen from three different Nelore bulls, and semen from the same batch was used for X-and Y-chromosome spermatozoa sorting. Data was obtained for six time points (24, 48, 96, 120, and 144 h.p.i.). Analyses for each bull׳s embryos (1, 2 and 3) is presented for female and male groups separately. Also, grouped data analysis, considering bull and sex interaction, is shown. For further interpretation and discussion, see "Cell death is involved in sexual dimorphism during preimplantation development" (Oliveira et al...
June 2016: Data in Brief
N Aleksandrova, E Shubina, A Ekimov, T Kodyleva, I Mukosey, N Makarova, E Kulakova, L Levkov, D Trofimov, G Sukhikh
Chromosomal aneuploidies are known for being the main cause of abnormal development of embryos with normal morphology, their implantation failure and early reproductive losses in IVF treatments. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) allows selecting embryos with normal chromosomal content and increases IVF treatment efficiency due to higher implantation rates and less frequent early pregnancy losses. New technologies used for PGS allow making genome-wide analysis of the presence of all chromosomes in embryos...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Jyoti Rao, Boris Greber
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) present a fascinating and powerful system for generating specialized cell types of the human body. Culture and directed differentiation of these cells however requires an understanding of the pluripotent ground state and of how cell lineage decisions in this system are made. In this review, we highlight both these aspects in light of recent findings and technical progress. Hence, advances in culturing the human preimplantation embryo beyond the implantation barrier and in analyzing it at the single-cell level shed new light on the hESC tissue of origin...
October 19, 2016: Stem Cells
Meirav Sokolov, Ohad Hilly, David Ulanovski, Yotam Shkedy, Joseph Attias, Eyal Raveh
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the intra- and postoperative effects of untreated otitis media with effusion (OME) in cochlear implant (CI) patients, and to assess the role of ventilation tube (VT) introduction before implantation. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: CI patients, aged 10 years or younger, implanted during 2009 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Cases were divided into three groups: 1) normal aerated middle ear before CI, 2) OME treated with VT, and 3) untreated OME...
September 30, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Tetsuya Ishii
Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Antonio Capalbo, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Laura Rienzi, Richard Scott, Nathan Treff
Embryonic mosaicism, defined as the presence of karyotypically distinct cell lines within an embryo, has been frequently reported with a high incidence in preimplantation embryos derived from IVF and is thought to be one of the major biological limitations for the routine application of PGD for aneuploidies (PGD-A). The incidence of mosaicism in preimplantation embryos is in fact reported to be between 4 and 90%. However, these data are in sharp contrast with what is known from clinical pregnancies, where true foetal mosaicism is observed in less than 0...
October 13, 2016: Human Reproduction
Jose Maria Bastida Bermeja, Jose Ramon González-Porras, Cristina Jiménez, Rocio Benito, Gonzalo R Ordoñez, Maria Teresa Álvarez-Román, M Elena Fontecha, Kamila Janusz, David Castillo, Rosa María Fisac, Luis Javier García-Frade, Carlos Aguilar, María Paz Martínez, Nuria Bermejo, Sonia Herrero, Ana Balanzategui, Jose Manuel Martin-Antorán, Rafael Ramos, Maria Jose Cebeiro, Emilia Pardal, Carmen Aguilera, Belen Pérez-Gutierrez, Manuel Prieto, Susana Riesco, Maria Carmen Mendoza, Ana Benito, Ana Hortal Benito-Sendin, Víctor Jiménez-Yuste, Jesus Maria Hernández-Rivas, Ramon García-Sanz, Marcos González-Díaz, Maria Eugenia Sarasquete
Currently, molecular diagnosis of haemophilia A and B (HA and HB) highlights the excess risk-inhibitor development associated with specific mutations, and enables carrier testing of female relatives and prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Molecular testing for HA also helps distinguish it from von Willebrand disease (VWD). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows simultaneous investigation of several complete genes, even though they may span very extensive regions. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a molecular algorithm employing an NGS approach for sequencing the complete F8, F9 and VWF genes...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Eric O Williams, Amy K Taylor, Eric L Bell, Rachelle Lim, Daniel M Kim, Leonard Guarente
The enhancer landscape is dramatically restructured as naive preimplantation epiblasts transition to the post-implantation state of primed pluripotency. A key factor in this process is Otx2, which is upregulated during the early stages of this transition and ultimately recruits Oct4 to a different set of enhancers. In this study, we discover that the acetylation status of Oct4 regulates the induction of the primed pluripotency gene network. Maintenance of the naive state requires the NAD-dependent deacetylase, SirT1, which deacetylates Oct4...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
A K Datta, S Campbell, B Deval, G Nargund
A series of new technologies and adjuvant therapies have been advocated in order to improve the success of IVF treatment. Dehydro-epiandrostenedione, growth hormones, Coenzyme Q 10, calcium ionosphores, immune therapy, heparin, low-dose aspirin, and vasodilators are among commonly prescribed pharmacological adjuvants. New technologies that are proposed to improve IVF outcomes include advanced sperm selection procedures, time- lapse embryo monitoring, preimplantation genetic screening, assisted hatching endometrial injury or embryo-glue...
December 28, 2015: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Krithika Ravichandran, Luis Guzman, Tomas Escudero, Xuezhong Zheng, Pere Colls, Amy Jordan, Jacques Cohen, Dagan Wells, Santiago Munné
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy (PGD-A) with comprehensive chromosome analysis has been known to improve pregnancy outcomes. Accuracy in detecting sex chromosomes becomes important when selecting against embryos at risk for sex-linked disorders. A total of 21,356 PGD-A cycles consisting of day-3 (cleavage) or day-5 (blastocyst) biopsies were received at the same laboratory for PGD-A via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) from multiple fertility centres...
August 20, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Federica Federici, Aristea Magaraki, Evelyne Wassenaar, Catherina J H van Veen-Buurman, Christine van de Werken, Esther B Baart, Joop S E Laven, J Anton Grootegoed, Joost Gribnau, Willy M Baarends
In mouse female preimplantation embryos, the paternal X chromosome (Xp) is silenced by imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI). This requires production of the noncoding Xist RNA in cis, from the Xp. The Xist locus on the maternally inherited X chromosome (Xm) is refractory to activation due to the presence of an imprint. Paternal inheritance of an Xist deletion (XpΔXist) is embryonic lethal to female embryos, due to iXCI abolishment. Here, we circumvented the histone-to-protamine and protamine-to-histone transitions of the paternal genome, by fertilization of oocytes via injection of round spermatids (ROSI)...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yongchun Zuo, Guanghua Su, Shanshan Wang, Lei Yang, Mingzhi Liao, Zhuying Wei, Chunling Bai, Guangpeng Li
Recent genome-wide omics studies have confirmed the early embryogenesis strictly dependent on the rigorous spatiotemporal activation and multilevel regulation. However, the full effect of functional pathway was not considered. To obtain complete understanding of the gene activation during early development, we performed systematic comparisons based on differential co-expression analysis for bovine preimplantation embryo development (PED). The results confirmed that the functional pathways actively transcribes as early as the 2-cell and 4-cell waves, which Basal transcription factor, Endocytosis and Spliceosome pathway can represent first signs of embryonic activity...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
Kei-Ichiro Ishiguro, Manuela Monti, Tomohiko Akiyama, Hiromi Kimura, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Miki Sakota, Saeko Sato, Carlo Alberto Redi, Shigeru B H Ko, Minoru S H Ko
Mouse zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4) proteins, which are encoded by multiple copies of Zscan4 genes, are expressed specifically in preimplantation embryos in vivo and embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. However, the expression patterns of mouse Zscan4 in vivo have been largely elusive. Here, we show that Zscan4 proteins are expressed in adult ovaries and testes. In ovaries, Zscan4 proteins were detected in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes in antral follicles, indicating that Zscan4 genes are activated during the diplotene/dictyate stage in meiotic prophase I...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Kei-Ichiro Ishiguro, Yuhki Nakatake, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Hiromi Kimura, Tomohiko Akiyama, Mayumi Oda, Shigeru B H Ko, Minoru S H Ko
Mouse Zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4) is encoded in multiple copies of Zscan4 genes, which are expressed in late two-cell stage preimplantation embryos and in 1-5% of the embryonic stem (ES) cell population at a given time. Due to the highly identical nucleotide sequences of multiple copies of Zscan4 paralogs and pseudogenes in the mouse Zscan4 genomic cluster, previous analyses have been done using exogenous transgenes under the regulation of Zscan4c promoter. In this manuscript, we generated knock-in mouse ES cell lines and mouse lines, in which the expression of endogenous Zscan4c, one of the Zscan4 genes, can be specifically monitored with a green fluorescent protein variant, Emerald...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Nilay Kuşcu, Mariano Bizzarri, Arturo Bevilacqua
Myo-inositol (myo-Ins) has a physiological role in mammalian gametogenesis and embryonic development and a positive clinical impact on human medically assisted reproduction. We have previously shown that mouse embryo exposure to myo-Ins through preimplantation development in vitro increases proliferation activity and blastocyst production, representing an improvement in culture conditions. We have herein investigated biochemical mechanisms elicited by myo-Ins in preimplantation embryos and evaluated myo-Ins effects on postimplantation/postnatal development...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Gian Mario Tiboni, Adalisa Ponzano
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that act by blocking the production of estrogens from androgens. The current review concentrates on the prenatal developmental toxicity of AIs in experimental models. Available data indicate that AIs may affect pregnancy at human therapeutic or lower doses. The window of vulnerability to AIs is not limited to organogenesis, but also includes the preimplantation stage and fetal periods. Decreased embryo/fetal survival was the prominent treatment-related effect...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"