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hyaluronan, glucosamine chondroitin

Hidemi Hattori, Hironori Tsujimoto, Kazuo Hase, Masayuki Ishihara
To examine the potential of chitosan-based agents for submucosal injection in endoscopic techniques, a chitosan derivative was prepared with lactose moieties linked to the amino groups of its glucosamine units (CH-LA). After dissolving CH-LA in neutral pH solutions, including physiological saline (CH-LA-S), its response to different concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans and proteins in the surrounding environment was examined. The CH-LA-S form changed in the presence of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and mucin) and protein (fibrinogen)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Allison H Kilborne, Hayam Hussein, Alicia L Bertone
OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) or HA combined with chondroitin sulfate (CS) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (NAG) by use of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro method. SAMPLE Monolayer cultures of synovial cells from 4 adult horses. PROCEDURES Synovial cell cultures were untreated or treated with HA alone or HA-CS-NAG for 24 hours, subsequently unchallenged or challenge-exposed with 2 LPS concentrations (20 and 50 ng/mL) for 2 hours, and retreated with HA or HA-CS-NAG for another 24 hours...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
David D Frisbie, C Wayne McIlwraith, Christopher E Kawcak, Natasha M Werpy
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of IV administration of a product containing hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine for prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis in horses. ANIMALS 32 healthy 2- to 5-year-old horses. PROCEDURES The study involved 2 portions. To evaluate prophylactic efficacy of the test product, horses received 5 mL of the product (n = 8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (8; placebo) IV every fifth day, starting on day 0 (when osteoarthritis was induced in the middle carpal joint of 1 forelimb) and ending on day 70...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Toby J Koenig, Andrew J Dart, C Wayne McIlwraith, Neil Horadagoda, Robin J Bell, Nigel Perkins, Christina Dart, Mark Krockenberger, Leo B Jeffcott, Christopher B Little
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of sodium pentosan polysulfate (PPS), N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG), and sodium hyaluronan (HA) in horses with induced osteoarthritis (OA). STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. ANIMALS: Adult Standard bred horses (n = 16). METHODS: OA was induced arthroscopically in 1 intercarpal joint; 8 horses were administered 3 mg/kg PPS, 4.8 mg/kg NAG, and 0.12 mg/kg HA (PGH), intravenously (IV), weekly and 8 horses were administered an equivalent volume of saline IV until study completion (day 70)...
July 2014: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Victoria A Higman, David C Briggs, David J Mahoney, Charles D Blundell, Benedict M Sattelle, Douglas P Dyer, Dixy E Green, Paul L DeAngelis, Andrew Almond, Caroline M Milner, Anthony J Day
Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) is an inflammation-associated hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein that contributes to remodeling of HA-rich extracellular matrices during inflammatory processes and ovulation. The HA-binding domain of TSG-6 consists solely of a Link module, making it a prototypical member of the superfamily of proteins that interacts with this high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharides of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Previously we modeled a complex of the TSG-6 Link module in association with an HA octasaccharide based on the structure of the domain in its HA-bound conformation...
February 28, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Amanda E Nelson, Kelli D Allen, Yvonne M Golightly, Adam P Goode, Joanne M Jordan
PURPOSE: Although a number of osteoarthritis (OA) management guidelines exist, uptake has been suboptimal. Our aim was to review and critically evaluate existing OA management guidelines to better understand potential issues and barriers. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in MEDLINE published from January 1, 2000 to April 1, 2013 was performed and supplemented by bibliographic reviews, following PRISMA guidelines and a written protocol. Following initial title and abstract screening, 2 authors independently reviewed full-text articles; a third settled disagreements...
June 2014: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
D D Frisbie, C W McIlwraith, C E Kawcak, N M Werpy
A randomized blinded placebo controlled trial was conducted to assess the clinical, biochemical and histological effects of a hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine combination (PG) administered through an intra-articular (IA) route for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) at the time of injury. OA was induced in one carpal joint of each of 16 horses. Horses were designated placebo or IA PG treated. All horses were treated with 125 mg amikacin sulfate IA and 5 mL physiological saline in the middle carpal joint bilaterally on study Days 0 (after induction of OA), 7, 14 and 28, except the OA affected joint of the IA PG horses, which received 5 mL PG plus 125 mg of amikacin sulfate on similar days...
September 2013: Veterinary Journal
Yasushi Nakasone, Kazunori Watabe, Keita Watanabe, Akihito Tomonaga, Isao Nagaoka, Tetsuro Yamamoto, Hideyo Yamaguchi
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of a glucosamine (1,200 mg/day)-based dietary supplement combined with chondroitin sulfate and three antioxidant micronutrients, namely methylsulfonylmethane, guava leaf extract, and vitamin D (test supplement) on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A 16-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving 32 subjects with symptomatic knee OA. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) for symptoms and a study diary-based visual analog scale (diary VAS) for pain at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16 during the 16-week intervention period...
September 2011: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Davide Vigetti, Sara Deleonibus, Paola Moretto, Eugenia Karousou, Manuela Viola, Barbara Bartolini, Vincent C Hascall, Markku Tammi, Giancarlo De Luca, Alberto Passi
Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan present in most tissue microenvironments that can modulate many cell behaviors, including proliferation, migration, and adhesive proprieties. In contrast with other glycosaminoglycans, which are synthesized in the Golgi, HA is synthesized at the plasma membrane by one or more of the three HA synthases (HAS1-3), which use cytoplasmic UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrates. Previous studies revealed the importance of UDP-sugars for regulating HA synthesis...
October 12, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pascal Richette
According to international recommendations, acetaminophen should be used as a first-line therapy in patients with osteoarthritis, because of its safety and effectiveness. NSAIDs should be considered in patients unresponsive to acetaminophen, and should be prescribed at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. The use of stronger analgesics, such as weak opioids and narcotic analgesics, is only indicated when other drugs, such as NSAIDs, have been ineffective or are contraindicated. Symptomatic slow acting drugs (avocado soybean unsaponifiable, chondroitin sulphate, diacerein, glucosamine sulphate, hyaluronan injections) have mild symptomatic effects and may reduce the consumption of NSAIDs...
September 2011: Thérapie
Nidhi Sofat, Iain Beith, P G Anilkumar, Philip Mitchell
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic arthritis affecting growing numbers of the ageing population. Patients diagnosed with OA place a large burden on access to healthcare services, including primary care, prescription of analgesic drugs, physiotherapy and joint replacement surgery. Not all patients diagnosed with OA will require joint replacement surgery, and therefore avenues for non-surgical treatment for such patients need to be explored in many cases. In this review we discuss current concepts underlying the pathophysiology of OA...
May 2011: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Cintia Garcilazo, Javier A Cavallasca, Jorge L Musuruana
The musculoskeletal system can be affected by diabetes in a number of ways. The shoulder is one of the frequently affected sites. One of the rheumatic conditions caused by diabetes is frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis), which is characterized by pain and severe limited active and passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint, particularly external rotation. This disorder has a clinical diagnosis and the treatment is based on physiotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid injections and, in refractory cases, surgical resolution...
September 2010: Current Diabetes Reviews
Sarah B Frazier, Kevin A Roodhouse, Dennis E Hourcade, Lijuan Zhang
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides that are found in the extracellular matrix and biological fluids of animals where they interact with hundreds of proteins and perform a variety of critical roles. There are five classes of animal GAGs: heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), keratan sulfate (KS), and hyaluronan (HA). Many biological functions can be monitored directly by their impact on GAG quantity. Thus, simple, sensitive, and robust GAG quantification methods are needed for the development of biomarkers...
January 1, 2008: Open Glycoscience
David Scott, Anna Kowalczyk
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis of the knee affects about 10% of adults aged over 60 years, with risk increased in those with obesity, and joint damage or abnormalities. Progression of disease on x rays is commonplace, but x ray changes don't correlate well with clinical symptoms. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee? What are the effects of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
September 1, 2007: Clinical Evidence
Latia Etheredge, Bradley P Kane, John R Hassell
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between signaling by different growth factors and the phases of corneal stromal wound repair. The authors hypothesize that the process involves sequential signaling, resulting first in proliferation and then in extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. METHODS: The effects of IGF-I, TGF-beta1, FGF-2, and PDGF on proliferation and ECM production by primary cultured bovine keratocytes were evaluated. DNA synthesis was determined by (3)H-thymidine incorporation, and maximal cell density was determined by measurement of DNA content...
July 2009: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Melanie N DeHaan, Jaime Guzman, Mark Theodore Bayley, Mary J Bell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree to which documented knee osteoarthritis (OA) care in a teaching rheumatology clinic corresponds to evidence-based treatment guidelines. METHODS: The charts of 105 randomly selected patients meeting criteria for knee OA were reviewed. The patients received care from 3 rheumatologists working in a major Canadian teaching center between 2002 and 2005. The chart abstraction tool was based on European League Against Rheumatism, American College of Rheumatology, and The Arthritis Society guidelines for OA treatment...
October 2007: Journal of Rheumatology
Shuhei Yamada, Hideto Morimoto, Toshitaka Fujisawa, Kazuyuki Sugahara
The hydrozoan is the simplest organism whose movements are governed by the neuromuscular system, and its de novo morphogenesis can be easily induced by the removal of body parts. These features make the hydrozoan an excellent model for studying the regeneration of tissues in vivo, especially in the nervous system. Although glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) have been implicated in the signaling functions of various growth factors and play critical roles in the development of the central nervous system, the isolation and characterization of GAGs from hydrozoans have never been reported...
August 2007: Glycobiology
Carlos L Aragon, Erik H Hofmeister, Steven C Budsberg
OBJECTIVE: To identify and critically evaluate the quality of evidence of the most commonly used pharmacologic, nutraceutical, and purported slow-acting drugs of osteoarthritis for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs by use of the FDA's evidence-based medicine scoring system. DESIGN: Systematic review. SAMPLE POPULATION: 16 clinical trials. PROCEDURES: A broad bibliographic search was performed prior to May 2006...
February 15, 2007: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Cheng-Juan Qu, Hannu M Karjalainen, Heikki J Helminen, Mikko J Lammi
Glucosamine and glucosamine sulphate have been promoted as a disease-modifying agent to improve the clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis. The precise mechanism of the action of the suggested positive effect of glucosamine or glucosamine sulphate on cartilage proteoglycans is not known, since the level of glucosamine in plasma remains very low after oral administration of glucosamine sulphate. We examined whether exogenous hexosamines or their sulphated forms would increase steady-state levels of aggrecan and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) or glycosaminoglycan synthesis using Northern blot and (35)S-sulphate incorporation analyses...
April 2006: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Julian Robert James Adams, Guy Sander, Sharon Byers
The expression of hyaluronan synthases (1, 2 and 3) and hyaluronidases (1, 2, 3, 4 and PH20) was examined in the MG63 osteoblast cell line induced to mineralize in vitro and compared to the rate of glycosaminoglycan production. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated a 13-fold decrease in hyaluronan synthase 3 expression in mineralising MG63 cells; no significant change in hyaluronan synthase 2 expression in mineralising cells and hyaluronan synthase 1 was not expressed. In mineralising MG63 cells a 62-fold increase in hyaluronidase 2, a 13-fold increase in hyaluronidase 3, and a 3-fold increase in hyaluronidase 4 expression were observed when compared to non-mineralising cells; hyaluronidase 1 and PH20 expression was not detected...
January 2006: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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