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Synthetic transcriptional factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917887/13-methylberberine-a-berberine-analogue-with-stronger-anti-adipogenic-effects-on-mouse-3t3-l1-cells
#1
Yit-Lai Chow, Mami Sogame, Fumihiko Sato
Lipid metabolism modulation is a main focus of metabolic syndrome research, an area in which many natural and synthetic chemicals are constantly being screened for in vitro and in vivo activity. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid, has been extensively investigated for its anti-obesity effects and as a potential cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering drug. We screened 11 protoberberine and 2 benzophenanthridine alkaloids for their anti-adipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that 13-methylberberine exhibited the most potent activity...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908936/genome-editing-technologies-principles-and-applications
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Gaj, Shannon J Sirk, Sai-Lan Shui, Jia Liu
Targeted nucleases have provided researchers with the ability to manipulate virtually any genomic sequence, enabling the facile creation of isogenic cell lines and animal models for the study of human disease, and promoting exciting new possibilities for human gene therapy. Here we review three foundational technologies-clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs)...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902922/the-extent-to-which-immunity-apoptosis-and-detoxification-gene-expression-interact-with-17-alpha-methyltestosterone
#3
Haitham G Abo-Al-Ela, Abeer F El-Nahas, Shawky Mahmoud, Essam M Ibrahim
Innate immunity is the first line of defence against invasion by foreign pathogens. One widely used synthetic androgen for the production of all-male fish, particularly commercially valuable Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT). The present study investigates the effect of MT on innate immunity, cellular apoptosis and detoxification and the mortality rate, during and after the feeding of fry with 0-, 40-and 60-mg MT/kg. Expression analysis was completed on interleukin 1 beta (il1β), interleukin 8 (il8), tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfα), CXC2- and CC-chemokines, interferon (ifn), myxovirus resistance (mx), toll-like receptor 7 (tlr7), immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgM heavy chain), vitellogenin (vtg), cellular apoptosis susceptibility (cas) and glutathione S-transferase α1 (gstα1)...
November 27, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882602/the-resveratrol-derivatives-trans-3-5-dimethoxy-4-fluoro-4-hydroxystilbene-and-trans-2-4-5-trihydroxystilbene-decrease-oxidative-stress-and-prolong-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Nadine Fischer, Christian Büchter, Karoline Koch, Sabrina Albert, René Csuk, Wim Wätjen
OBJECTIVES: Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene (1)) was previously shown to extend the lifespan of different model organisms. However, its pharmacological efficiency is controversially discussed. Therefore, the bioactivity of four newly synthesized stilbenes (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-fluoro-4'-hydroxystilbene (3), trans-4'-hydroxy-3,4,5-trifluorostilbene (4), trans-2,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (5), trans-2,4',5-trihydroxystilbene (6)) was compared to (1) and pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (2)) in the established model organism Caenorhabditis elegans...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881725/tata-box-insertion-provide-a-selected-mechanism-for-enhancing-gene-expression-to-adapt-fe-deficiency
#5
Meiling Zhang, Yuanda Lv, Yi Wang, Jocelyn K C Rose, Fei Shen, Zhenyun Han, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han
Intraspecific genetic variation is essential for plant responses and adaption to evolutionary challenges, such as changing environmental conditions. The development the Earth's aerobic atmosphere has increased the iron (Fe) demand of organisms and Fe deficiency has become a limiting environmental factor for plant growth. We demonstrate here that the adaptation of apple trees to Fe deficiency is achieved by the modification of the promoter of the Iron-Regulated Transporter1 (IRT1) gene. Specifically, an IRT1 mutant allele with a TATA-box insertion in the promoter upstream of the IRT1 coding region enhances IRT1 expression...
November 23, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879131/spatio-temporal-models-of-synthetic-genetic-oscillators
#6
Cicely K Macnamara, Mark A J Chaplain
Signal transduction pathways play a major role in many important aspects of cellular function e.g. cell division, apoptosis. One important class of signal transduction pathways is gene regulatory networks (GRNs). In many GRNs, proteins bind to gene sites in the nucleus thereby altering the transcription rate. Such proteins are known as transcription factors. If the binding reduces the transcription rate there is a negative feedback leading to oscillatory behaviour in mRNA and protein levels, both spatially (e...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879050/structural-studies-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-2-reveal-its-interactions-with-potential-substrates-and-inhibitors
#7
Vincent Cura, Nils Marechal, Nathalie Troffer-Charlier, Jean-Marc Strub, Matthijs J van Haren, Nathaniel I Martin, Sarah Cianférani, Luc Bonnefond, Jean Cavarelli
: PRMT2 is the less-characterized member of the protein arginine methyltransferase family in terms of structure, activity, and cellular functions. PRMT2 is a modular protein containing a catalytic Ado-Met-binding domain and unique Src homology 3 domain that binds proteins with proline-rich motifs. PRMT2 is involved in a variety of cellular processes and has diverse roles in transcriptional regulation through different mechanisms depending on its binding partners. PRMT2 has been demonstrated to have weak methyltransferase activity on a histone H4 substrate, but its optimal substrates have not yet been identified...
November 5, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865854/obeticholic-acid-protects-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-liver-injury-and-inflammation
#8
Da-Gang Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Jun-Xian Wang, Bi-Wei Wang, Hua Wang, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Yan Lu, Li Tao, Jian-Qing Wang, Xi Chen, De-Xiang Xu
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (0.15ml/kg). In CCl4+OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1h before CCl4. As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl4-induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865806/ikaros-exploiting-and-targeting-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-in-b-progenitor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
REVIEW
Michelle L Churchman, Charles G Mullighan
Genetic alterations of IKZF1 encoding the lymphoid transcription factor IKAROS are a hallmark of high risk B-progenitor ALL such as BCR-ABL1 positive (Ph+) and Ph-like ALL, and are associated with poor outcome, even in the era of contemporary chemotherapy incorporating tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of Ph+ ALL. Recent experimental mouse modeling of B-progenitor ALL has shown that IKZF1 alterations have multiple effects, including arresting differentiating, skewing lineage of leukemia from myeloid to lymphoid, and in Ph+ leukemia, conferring resistance to TKI therapy without abrogating ABL1 inhibition...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858514/involvement-of-sth7-in-light-adapted-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-promoted-by-both-strigolactone-and-karrikin
#10
Jutiporn Thussagunpanit, Yuko Nagai, Miyu Nagae, Kiyoshi Mashiguchi, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Takeshi Nakano, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Tadao Asami
Strigolactones (SLs) and karrikins (KARs) regulate photomorphogenesis. GR24, a synthetic SL and KAR1, a KAR, inhibit the hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis thaliana in a weak light. GR24 and KAR1 up-regulate the expression of STH7, encoding a transcription factor belonging to the double B-box zinc finger subfamily. In this study, we used STH7-overexpressing (STH7ox) lines and functionally defective STH7 (STH7-SRDX) mutants to investigate roles of SLs and KARs in photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis. Hypocotyl elongation of STH7-SRDX mutants was less sensitive to both GR24 and KAR1 treatment than that of wild-type Arabidopsis under weak light conditions...
November 18, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834148/the-role-of-nuclear-receptor-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-sleep-wake-cycle-modulation-a-tentative-approach-for-treatment-of-sleep-disorders
#11
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez
There is a general consensus that sleep-wake cycle is controlled by neuroanatomical, neurochemical and molecular systems as well as by homeostatic and circadian complex networks. The research has shown that a molecular element that could be displaying a relevant role in the modulation of sleep is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which belongs to the family of nuclear receptor ligand-activated transcription factors that includes PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that PPARα is activated by natural ligands such as the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or synthetic compounds including Wy14643 whereas antagonists like MK-886 block the neurobiological outcomes of PPARα...
November 9, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830682/-identification-of-new-genes-that-affect-psi-prion-toxicity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#12
A G Matveenko, M V Belousov, S A Bondarev, S E Moskalenko, G A Zhouravleva
Translation termination is an important step in gene expression. Its correct processing is governed by eRF1 (Sup45) and eRF3 (Sup35) proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in the corresponding genes, as well as Sup35 aggregation in [PSI^(+)] cells that propagate the prion form of Sup35 lead to inaccurate stop codon recognition and, consequently, nonsense suppression. The presence of stronger prion variants results in the more efficient suppression of nonsense mutations. Previously, we proposed a synthetic lethality test that enables the identification of genes that may influence either translation termination factors or [PSI^(+)] manifestation...
September 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810268/identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-in-maize-endosperm-response-to-exogenous-sucrose-using-small-rna-sequencing
#13
Huanhuan Huang, Jiao Long, Lanjie Zheng, Yangping Li, Yufeng Hu, Guowu Yu, Hanmei Liu, Yinghong Liu, Zhi Huang, Junjie Zhang, Yubi Huang
Sucrose acts as a signaling molecule for genes critical to starch biosynthesis in maize endosperm. Previously, we showed that sucrose could regulate starch biosynthesis in maize via transcription factors. To better understand the complex regulation of starch biosynthesis, the 10days after pollination endosperm from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line was collected and treated with sucrose for small RNA sequencing. The sequencing results revealed that 24 known miRNAs and 190 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in response to sucrose...
November 1, 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807390/how-do-scientists-define-openness-exploring-the-relationship-between-open-science-policies-and-research-practice
#14
Nadine Levin, Sabina Leonelli, Dagmara Weckowska, David Castle, John Dupré
This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of "openness." This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government-policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U...
June 2016: Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800642/p110%C3%AE-inhibition-reduces-histone-h3k4-di-methylation-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Jun Pang, Yue-Wu Yang, Yiling Huang, Jun Yang, Hao Zhang, Ruibao Chen, Liang Dong, Yan Huang, Dongying Wang, Jihong Liu, Benyi Li
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Epigenetic alteration plays a major role in the development and progression of human cancers, including prostate cancer. Histones are the key factors in modulating gene accessibility to transcription factors and post-translational modification of the histone N-terminal tail including methylation is associated with either transcriptional activation (H3K4me2) or repression (H3K9me3). Furthermore, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 K) signaling and the androgen receptor (AR) are the key determinants in prostate cancer development and progression...
November 1, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799931/immunomodulatory-factors-galectin-9-and-interferon-gamma-synergize-to-induce-expression-of-rate-limiting-enzymes-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#16
Alexandra K Brooks, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Kevin C Yu, Tiffany M Janda, Andrew J Steelman, Robert H McCusker
Elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with symptomology of several psychiatric disorders, notably major depressive disorder. Symptomology has been linked to inflammation/cytokine-dependent induction of the Kynurenine Pathway. Galectins, like pro-inflammatory cytokines, play a role in neuroinflammation and the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders but without a clearly defined mechanism of action. Their involvement in the Kynurenine Pathway has not been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793801/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-double-stranded-rna-induced-tlr3-dependent-apoptosis-via-upregulation-of-transcription-factor-runx3-in-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Huachen Gan, Qin Hao, Steven Idell, Hua Tang
Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common illness in humans. Infection of the respiratory viruses results in accumulation of viral replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is one of the important components of infecting viruses for the induction of lung epithelial cell apoptosis and innate immune response, including the production of interferon (IFN). In the present study, we have investigated the regulation of dsRNA-induced airway epithelial cell apoptosis by IFN. We found that transcription factor Runx3 was strongly induced by type-II IFNγ, slightly by type-III IFNλ, but essentially not by type-I IFNα in airway epithelial cells...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790644/hemozoin-regulates-inos-expression-by-modulating-the-transcription-factor-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-macrophages
#18
Ravi Ranjan, Manjula Karpurapu, Asha Rani, Athar H Chishti, John W Christman
Hemozoin (Hz) is released from ruptured erythrocytes during malaria infection caused by Plasmodium sp., in addition the malaria infected individuals are prone to bacterial sepsis. The molecular interactions between Hz, bacterial components and macrophages remains poorly investigated. In this report, we investigated the combinatorial immune-modulatory effects of phagocytosed Hz, Interferon gamma (IFNγ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophages. Macrophages were treated with various concentrations of commercial synthetic Hz, and surprisingly it did not result in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression...
2016: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783940/a-simple-grammar-defines-activating-and-repressing-cis-regulatory-elements-in-photoreceptors
#19
Michael A White, Jamie C Kwasnieski, Connie A Myers, Susan Q Shen, Joseph C Corbo, Barak A Cohen
Transcription factors often activate and repress different target genes in the same cell. How activation and repression are encoded by different arrangements of transcription factor binding sites in cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. We investigated how sites for the transcription factor CRX encode both activation and repression in photoreceptors by assaying thousands of genomic and synthetic cis-regulatory elements in wild-type and Crx(-/-) retinas. We found that sequences with high affinity for CRX repress transcription, whereas sequences with lower affinity activate...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780960/an-analog-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-copa5-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-macrophage-activation
#20
I Na Yoon, Ji Hong, Peng Zhang, Jae Sam Hwang, Ho Kim
We previously reported that the CopA3 peptide (LLCIALRKK, D-form) originally isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial and immunosuppressive effects. However, the high cost of producing the synthetic peptide, especially the D-form, has limited the development of CopA3 for therapeutic purposes. Here, we investigated whether the CopA3 deletion derivative, CopA5, which is composed of only five amino acids (LLCIA) and has the L-form structure, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of macrophages...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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