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Endocytosis, signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200219/ordering-of-lipid-membranes-altered-by-boron-nitride-nanosheets
#1
Yonghui Zhang, Zhen Li, Chun Chan, Jiale Ma, Chunyi Zhi, Xiaolin Cheng, Jun Fan
Boron nitride nanosheets are novel promising nanomaterials with a lower cytotoxicity than graphene making them a better candidate for biomedical applications. However, there is no systematic study on how they interact with cell membranes. Here we employed large scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide molecular details of the structure and properties of membranes after the insertion of boron nitride nanosheets. Our results reveal that the boron nitride nanosheet can extract phospholipids from the lipid bilayers and is enveloped by the membrane...
December 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161594/clathrin-assembly-defines-the-onset-and-geometry-of-cortical-patterning
#2
Yang Yang, Ding Xiong, Anne Pipathsouk, Orion D Weiner, Min Wu
Assembly of the endocytic machinery is a constitutively active process that is important for the organization of the plasma membrane, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Existing research has focused on the stochastic nature of endocytosis. Here, we report the emergence of the collective dynamics of endocytic proteins as periodic traveling waves on the cell surface. Coordinated clathrin assembly provides the earliest spatial cue for cortical waves and sets the direction of propagation. Surprisingly, the onset of clathrin waves, but not individual endocytic events, requires feedback from downstream factors, including FBP17, Cdc42, and N-WASP...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125865/membrane-order-in-the-plasma-membrane-and-endocytic-recycling-compartment
#3
David B Iaea, Frederick R Maxfield
The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051140/fgd5-regulates-vegf-receptor-2-coupling-to-pi3-kinase-and-receptor-recycling
#4
Maikel A Farhan, Abul K Azad, Nicolas Touret, Allan G Murray
OBJECTIVE: VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor-A) signaling to the endothelial cell (EC) through VEGFR2 (VEGF receptor-2) is the principal cue driving new blood vessel formation. FGD5 (faciogenital dysplasia-5)-a Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor-is selectively expressed in EC. Deficiency of FGD5 is embryonically lethal in mice and perturbs angiogenesis and VEGF signal transduction. However, the mechanism of FGD5 regulation of VEGF signaling is poorly understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Angiogenic sprouting and EC cytoskeletal remodeling were evaluated in a 3-dimensional in vitro model...
December 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932706/global-proteomics-revealed-klebsiella-pneumoniae-induced-autophagy-and-oxidative-stress-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-during-infection
#5
Arumugam Kamaladevi, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
The enterobacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae invades the intestinal epithelium of humans by interfering with multiple host cell response. To uncover a system-level overview of host response during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans using quantitative proteomics approach. Comparison of protein samples of nematodes exposed to K. pneumoniae for 12, 24, and 36 h by 2DE revealed several changes in host proteome. A total of 266 host-encoded proteins were identified by 2DE MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS and the interacting partners of the identified proteins were predicted by STRING 10...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910489/nucleoside-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-attenuate-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-by-impairing-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-signalling-in-endothelial-cells
#6
Lin Song, Sha Ding, Zhen Ge, Xiaolong Zhu, Cong Qiu, Yuewen Wang, Enyin Lai, Weijun Yang, Yi Sun, Samson A Chow, Luyang Yu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a major clinical challenge for HIV-positive patients. However, the role of ART in blood vessel growth is largely unknown. Here, we examined an integral component of ART, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and investigated their effects on key microvascular functions, including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis capability of endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated using migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in vitro, and mouse ear and Matrigel plug assays in vivo...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867585/protein-phosphorylation-and-its-role-in-the-regulation-of-annexin-a2-function
#7
REVIEW
Ann Kari Grindheim, Jaakko Saraste, Anni Vedeler
BACKGROUND: Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multifunctional protein involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, membrane domain organisation, actin remodelling, signal transduction, protein assembly, transcription and mRNA transport, as well as DNA replication and repair. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current knowledge of the role of phosphorylation in the functional regulation of AnxA2 is reviewed. To provide a more comprehensive treatment of this topic, we also address in depth the phosphorylation process in general and discuss its possible conformational effects...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867254/the-sneaking-ligand-approach-for-cell-type-specific-modulation-of-intracellular-signalling-pathways
#8
Bettina Sehnert, Harald Burkhardt, Stephanie Finzel, Stefan Dübel, Reinhard E Voll
Small molecules interfering with intracellular signalling pathways are used in the treatment of multiple diseases including RA. However, small molecules usually affect signalling in most cell types, not only in those which need to be targeted. This general inhibition of signalling pathways causes often adverse effects, which could be avoided by cell type-specific inhibitors. For cell-type specific modulation of signal transduction, we developed the sneaking ligand fusion proteins (SLFPs). SLFPs contain three domains: (1) the binding domain mediating cell type-specific targeting and endocytosis; (2) the endosomal release sequence releasing the effector domain into the cytoplasm; (3) the effector domain modulating signalling...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791640/study-of-egfr-signaling-endocytosis-by-site-directed-mutagenesis
#9
Qian Wang, Zhixiang Wang
As an essential tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, in vitro mutagenesis is important for mechanistic and functional studies of protein at the cellular level. Through site-directed substitution, insertion, or deletion of potential function residues, we may evaluate the specific biological role of proteins and understand the underlying mechanism. EGF ligand binding will activate EGFR and initiate signaling transduction for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival; meanwhile, it will also induce the EGFR endocytosis for degradation to maintain cellular homeostasis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747924/endocytosis-of-atrgs1-is-regulated-by-the-autophagy-pathway-after-d-glucose-stimulation
#10
Quanquan Yan, Jingchun Wang, Zheng Qing Fu, Wenli Chen
Sugar, as a signal molecule, has significant functions in signal transduction in which the seven-transmembrane regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS1) protein participates. D-Glucose causes endocytosis of the AtRGS1, leading to the physical uncoupling of AtRGS1 from AtGPA1 and thus a release of the GAP activity and concomitant sustained activation of G-protein signaling. Autophagy involves in massive degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components to survive environmental stresses. The function of autophagy in AtRGS1 endocytosis during D-glucose stimulation has not been elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704415/c-elegans-sma-10-regulates-bmp-receptor-trafficking
#11
Ryan J Gleason, Mehul Vora, Ying Li, Nanci S Kane, Kelvin Liao, Richard W Padgett
Signal transduction of the conserved transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signaling pathway functions through two distinct serine/threonine transmembrane receptors, the type I and type II receptors. Endocytosis orchestrates the assembly of signaling complexes by coordinating the entry of receptors with their downstream signaling mediators. Recently, we showed that the C. elegans type I bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor SMA-6, part of the TGFβ family, is recycled through the retromer complex while the type II receptor, DAF-4 is recycled in a retromer-independent, ARF-6 dependent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698057/membrane-trafficking-in-plant-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Yangnan Gu, Raul Zavaliev, Xinnian Dong
Plants employ sophisticated mechanisms to interact with pathogenic as well as beneficial microbes. Of those, membrane trafficking is key in establishing a rapid and precise response. Upon interaction with pathogenic microbes, surface-localized immune receptors undergo endocytosis for signal transduction and activity regulation while cell wall components, antimicrobial compounds, and defense proteins are delivered to pathogen invasion sites through polarized secretion. To sustain mutualistic associations, host cells also reprogram the membrane trafficking system to accommodate invasive structures of symbiotic microbes...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628655/moend3-regulates-appressorium-formation-and-virulence-through-mediating-endocytosis-in-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#13
Xiao Li, Chuyun Gao, Lianwei Li, Muxing Liu, Ziyi Yin, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Eukaryotic cells respond to environmental stimuli when cell surface receptors are bound by environmental ligands. The binding initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in the appropriate intracellular responses. Studies have shown that endocytosis is critical for receptor internalization and signaling activation. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a non-canonical G-protein coupled receptor, Pth11, and membrane sensors MoMsb2 and MoSho1 are thought to function upstream of G-protein/cAMP signaling and the Pmk1 MAPK pathway to regulate appressorium formation and pathogenesis...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615463/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-proteins-in-skeletal-development-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Bart O Williams
The identification of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) provided a foundation for subsequent studies in lipoprotein metabolism, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and many other fundamental biological functions. The importance of the LDLR led to numerous studies that identified homologous molecules and ultimately resulted in the description of the LDL-receptor superfamily, a group of proteins that contain domains also found in the LDLR. Subsequent studies have revealed that members of the LDLR-related protein family play roles in regulating many aspects of signal transduction...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592413/recruitment-of-endosomal-signaling-mediates-the-forskolin-modulation-of-guinea-pig-cardiac-neuron-excitability
#15
Jean C Hardwick, Todd A Clason, John D Tompkins, Beatrice M Girard, Caitlin N Baran, Laura A Merriam, Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Forskolin, a selective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), commonly is used to establish actions of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are initiated primarily through activation of AC/cAMP signaling pathways. In the present study, forskolin was used to evaluate the potential role of AC/cAMP, which is a major signaling mechanism for the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor, in the regulation of guinea pig cardiac neuronal excitability. Forskolin (5-10 µM) increases excitability in ~60% of the cardiac neurons...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589128/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-signaling-in-angiogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Hua Mao, Liang Xie, Xinchun Pi
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) plays multifunctional roles in lipid homeostasis, signaling transduction, and endocytosis. It has been recognized as an endocytic receptor for many ligands and is involved in the signaling pathways of many growth factors or cytokines. Dysregulation of LRP1-dependent signaling events contributes to the development of pathophysiologic processes such as Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and coagulation. Interestingly, recent studies have linked LRP1 with endothelial function and angiogenesis, which has been underappreciated for a long time...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587148/the-role-of-caveolin-1-in-hiv-infection-and-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Ayalew Mergia
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a major component of the caveolae structure and is expressed in a variety of cell types including macrophages, which are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Caveolae structures are present in abundance in mechanically stressed cells such as endothelial cells and adipocytes. HIV infection induces dysfunction of these cells and promotes pathogenesis. Cav-1 and the caveolae structure are believed to be involved in multiple cellular processes that include signal transduction, lipid regulation, endocytosis, transcytosis, and mechanoprotection...
May 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508421/subversion-of-host-kinases-a-key-network-in-cellular-signaling-hijacked-by-helicobacter-pylori-caga
#18
REVIEW
Nicole Tegtmeyer, Matthias Neddermann, Carmen Isabell Asche, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori is a paradigm of persistent pathogens and major risk factor for developing severe diseases including adenocarcinoma in the human stomach. An important bacterial factor linked to gastric disease progression is the cag pathogenicity island-encoded type-IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein CagA. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA-motifs and then activates or inactivates multiple host signaling proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent fashion...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449947/barcoding-of-gpcr-trafficking-and-signaling-through-the-various-trafficking-roadmaps-by-compartmentalized-signaling-networks
#19
REVIEW
Suleiman W Bahouth, Mohammed M Nooh
Proper signaling by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is dependent on the specific repertoire of transducing, enzymatic and regulatory kinases and phosphatases that shape its signaling output. Activation and signaling of the GPCR through its cognate G protein is impacted by G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-imprinted "barcodes" that recruit β-arrestins to regulate subsequent desensitization, biased signaling and endocytosis of the GPCR. The outcome of agonist-internalized GPCR in endosomes is also regulated by sequence motifs or "barcodes" within the GPCR that mediate its recycling to the plasma membrane or retention and eventual degradation as well as its subsequent signaling in endosomes...
August 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446613/structural-basis-for-ligand-capture-and-release-by-the-endocytic-receptor-apoer2
#20
Hidenori Hirai, Norihisa Yasui, Keitaro Yamashita, Sanae Tabata, Masaki Yamamoto, Junichi Takagi, Terukazu Nogi
Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) is a close homologue of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that mediates the endocytosis of ligands, including LDL particles. LDLR family members have been presumed to explore a large conformational space to capture ligands in the extended conformation at the cell surface. Ligands are subsequently released through a pH-titrated structural transition to a self-docked, contracted-closed conformation. In addition to lipoprotein uptake, ApoER2 is implicated in signal transduction during brain development through capture of the extracellular protein reelin...
June 2017: EMBO Reports
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