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Endocytosis, signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628655/moend3-regulates-appressorium-formation-and-virulence-through-mediating-endocytosis-in-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#1
Xiao Li, Chuyun Gao, Lianwei Li, Muxing Liu, Ziyi Yin, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Eukaryotic cells respond to environmental stimuli when cell surface receptors are bound by environmental ligands. The binding initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in the appropriate intracellular responses. Studies have shown that endocytosis is critical for receptor internalization and signaling activation. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a non-canonical G-protein coupled receptor, Pth11, and membrane sensors MoMsb2 and MoSho1 are thought to function upstream of G-protein/cAMP signaling and the Pmk1 MAPK pathway to regulate appressorium formation and pathogenesis...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615463/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-proteins-in-skeletal-development-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Bart O Williams
The identification of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) provided a foundation for subsequent studies in lipoprotein metabolism, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and many other fundamental biological functions. The importance of the LDLR led to numerous studies that identified homologous molecules and ultimately resulted in the description of the LDL-receptor superfamily, a group of proteins that contain domains also found in the LDLR. Subsequent studies have revealed that members of the LDLR-related protein family play roles in regulating many aspects of signal transduction...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592413/recruitment-of-endosomal-signaling-mediates-the-forskolin-modulation-of-guinea-pig-cardiac-neuron-excitability
#3
Jean C Hardwick, Todd A Clason, John D Tompkins, Beatrice M Girard, Caitlin N Baran, Laura A Merriam, Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Forskolin, a selective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), commonly is used to establish actions of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are initiated primarily through activation of AC/cAMP signaling pathways. In the present study, forskolin was used to evaluate the potential role of AC/cAMP, which is a major signaling mechanism for the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor, in the regulation of guinea pig cardiac neuronal excitability. Forskolin (5-10 µM) increases excitability in ~60 % of the cardiac neurons...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589128/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-signaling-in-angiogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Hua Mao, Liang Xie, Xinchun Pi
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) plays multifunctional roles in lipid homeostasis, signaling transduction, and endocytosis. It has been recognized as an endocytic receptor for many ligands and is involved in the signaling pathways of many growth factors or cytokines. Dysregulation of LRP1-dependent signaling events contributes to the development of pathophysiologic processes such as Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and coagulation. Interestingly, recent studies have linked LRP1 with endothelial function and angiogenesis, which has been underappreciated for a long time...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587148/the-role-of-caveolin-1-in-hiv-infection-and-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Ayalew Mergia
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a major component of the caveolae structure and is expressed in a variety of cell types including macrophages, which are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Caveolae structures are present in abundance in mechanically stressed cells such as endothelial cells and adipocytes. HIV infection induces dysfunction of these cells and promotes pathogenesis. Cav-1 and the caveolae structure are believed to be involved in multiple cellular processes that include signal transduction, lipid regulation, endocytosis, transcytosis, and mechanoprotection...
May 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508421/subversion-of-host-kinases-a-key-network-in-cellular-signaling-hijacked-by-helicobacter-pylori-caga
#6
REVIEW
Nicole Tegtmeyer, Matthias Neddermann, Carmen Isabell Asche, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori is a paradigm of persistent pathogens and major risk factor for developing severe diseases including adenocarcinoma in the human stomach. An important bacterial factor linked to gastric disease progression is the cag pathogenicity island-encoded type-IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein CagA. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA-motifs and then activates or inactivates multiple host signaling proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent fashion...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449947/barcoding-of-gpcr-trafficking-and-signaling-through-the-various-trafficking-roadmaps-by-compartmentalized-signaling-networks
#7
REVIEW
Suleiman W Bahouth, Mohammed M Nooh
Proper signaling by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is dependent on the specific repertoire of transducing, enzymatic and regulatory kinases and phosphatases that shape its signaling output. Activation and signaling of the GPCR through its cognate G protein is impacted by G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-imprinted "barcodes" that recruit β-arrestins to regulate subsequent desensitization, biased signaling and endocytosis of the GPCR. The outcome of agonist-internalized GPCR in endosomes is also regulated by sequence motifs or "barcodes" within the GPCR that mediate its recycling to the plasma membrane or retention and eventual degradation as well as its subsequent signaling in endosomes...
April 24, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446613/structural-basis-for-ligand-capture-and-release-by-the-endocytic-receptor-apoer2
#8
Hidenori Hirai, Norihisa Yasui, Keitaro Yamashita, Sanae Tabata, Masaki Yamamoto, Junichi Takagi, Terukazu Nogi
Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) is a close homologue of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that mediates the endocytosis of ligands, including LDL particles. LDLR family members have been presumed to explore a large conformational space to capture ligands in the extended conformation at the cell surface. Ligands are subsequently released through a pH-titrated structural transition to a self-docked, contracted-closed conformation. In addition to lipoprotein uptake, ApoER2 is implicated in signal transduction during brain development through capture of the extracellular protein reelin...
June 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436498/integrative-meta-modeling-identifies-endocytic-vesicles-late-endosome-and-the-nucleus-as-the-cellular-compartments-primarily-directing-rtk-signaling
#9
Jared C Weddell, Princess I Imoukhuede
Recently, intracellular receptor signaling has been identified as a key component mediating cell responses for various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). However, the extent each endocytic compartment (endocytic vesicle, early endosome, recycling endosome, late endosome, lysosome and nucleus) contributes to receptor signaling has not been quantified. Furthermore, our understanding of endocytosis and receptor signaling is complicated by cell- or receptor-specific endocytosis mechanisms. Therefore, towards understanding the differential endocytic compartment signaling roles, and identifying how to achieve signal transduction control for RTKs, we delineate how endocytosis regulates RTK signaling...
May 22, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419983/pam3csk4-induces-mmp-9-expression-in-human-monocytic-thp-1-cells
#10
Fatema Al-Rashed, Shihab Kochumon, Safa Usmani, Sardar Sindhu, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is known to degrade the extracellular matrix and increased MMP-9 levels are related with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory conditions including obesity. Pam3CSK4 is a synthetic triacylated lipopeptide (LP) which is a potent activator of immune cells and induces cytokine production. However, it is unclear whether Pam3CSK4 is able to induce MMP-9 expression in monocytic cells. We, therefore, determined MMP-9 production by Pam3CSK4-treated THP-1 cells and also investigated the signal transduction pathway(s) involved...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415766/anti-proliferative-role-of-recombinant-lethal-toxin-of-bacillus-anthracis-on-primary-mammary-ductal-carcinoma-cells-revealing-its-therapeutic-potential
#11
Rekha Khandia, Bramhadev Pattnaik, Katherukamem Rajukumar, Atul Pateriya, Sandeep Bhatia, Harshad Murugkar, Anil Prakash, Hare Krishna Pradhan, Kuldeep Dhama, Ashok Munjal, Sunil K Joshi
Bacillus anthracis secretes three secretary proteins; lethal factor (LF), protective antigen (PA) and edema factor (EF). The LF has ability to check proliferation of mammary tumors, chiefly depending on mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of recombinant LF (rLF), recombinant PA (rPA) and lethal toxin (rLF + rPA = LeTx) on the primary mammary ductal carcinoma cells revealed significant (p < 0.01) reduction in proliferation of tumor cells with mean inhibition indices of 28...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400284/transcriptome-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-and-histopathology-analysis-of-hepatopancreas-from-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-fed-with-aflatoxin-b1-afb1
#12
Wei Zhao, Lei Wang, Mei Liu, Keyong Jiang, Mengqiang Wang, Guang Yang, Cancan Qi, Baojie Wang
Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus fungi during grain and feed processing and storage. Aflatoxins cause severe health problems reducing the yield and profitability of shrimp cultures. We sought to understand the interaction between shrimp immunity and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), analyzing transcriptome expression, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histological features of the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with AFB1. From over 4 million high-quality reads, de novo unigene assembly produced 103,644 fully annotated genes...
April 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317979/fluorescent-bioimaging-of-ph-from-design-to-applications
#13
Ji-Ting Hou, Wen Xiu Ren, Kun Li, Jinho Seo, Amit Sharma, Xiao-Qi Yu, Jong Seung Kim
Protons play crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes, such as receptor-mediated signal transduction, ion transport, endocytosis, homeostasis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The urgent demand for pH imaging and measurement in biological systems has incited the development of fluorescent pH probes. Numerous fluorescent probes have been reported, but many lack the abilities needed for biological applications. Hence, the development of new pH probes with better biocompatibility, sensitivity, and site-specificity is still indispensable...
April 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261234/phytophthora-megakarya-and-p-palmivora-causal-agents-of-black-pod-rot-induce-similar-plant-defense-responses-late-during-infection-of-susceptible-cacao-pods
#14
Shahin S Ali, Jonathan Shao, David J Lary, Mary D Strem, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Bryan A Bailey
Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224988/post-endocytic-sorting-of-plexin-d1-controls-signal-transduction-and-development-of-axonal-and-vascular-circuits
#15
Katja Burk, Erik Mire, Anaïs Bellon, Mélanie Hocine, Jeremy Guillot, Filipa Moraes, Yutaka Yoshida, Michael Simons, Sophie Chauvet, Fanny Mann
Local endocytic events involving receptors for axon guidance cues play a central role in controlling growth cone behaviour. Yet, little is known about the fate of internalized receptors, and whether the sorting events directing them to distinct endosomal pathways control guidance decisions. Here, we show that the receptor Plexin-D1 contains a sorting motif that interacts with the adaptor protein GIPC1 to facilitate transport to recycling endosomes. This sorting process promotes colocalization of Plexin-D1 with vesicular pools of active R-ras, leading to its inactivation...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208600/invariant-chain-complexes-and-clusters-as-platforms-for-mif-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Robert Lindner
Invariant chain (Ii/CD74) has been identified as a surface receptor for migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Most cells that express Ii also synthesize major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules, which depend on Ii as a chaperone and a targeting factor. The assembly of nonameric complexes consisting of one Ii trimer and three MHC II molecules (each of which is a heterodimer) has been regarded as a prerequisite for efficient delivery to the cell surface. Due to rapid endocytosis, however, only low levels of Ii-MHC II complexes are displayed on the cell surface of professional antigen presenting cells and very little free Ii trimers...
February 10, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163220/nano-encapsulation-of-a-novel-anti-ran-gtpase-peptide-for-blockade-of-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-rcc1-function-in-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Yusuf A Haggag, Kyle B Matchett, El-Habib Dakir, Paul Buchanan, Mohammed A Osman, Sanaa A Elgizawy, Mohamed El-Tanani, Ahmed M Faheem, Paul A McCarron
Ran is a small ras-related GTPase and is highly expressed in aggressive breast carcinoma. Overexpression induces malignant transformation and drives metastatic growth. We have designed a novel series of anti-Ran-GTPase peptides, which prevents Ran hydrolysis and activation, and although they display effectiveness in silico, peptide activity is suboptimal in vitro due to reduced bioavailability and poor delivery. To overcome this drawback, we delivered an anti-Ran-GTPase peptide using encapsulation in PLGA-based nanoparticles (NP)...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114413/visualization-of-bri1-and-serk3-bak1-nanoclusters-in-arabidopsis-roots
#18
Stefan J Hutten, Danny S Hamers, Marije Aan den Toorn, Wilma van Esse, Antsje Nolles, Christoph A Bücherl, Sacco C de Vries, Johannes Hohlbein, Jan Willem Borst
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that are perceived at the plasma membrane (PM) by the ligand binding receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and the co-receptor SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASE 3/BRI1 ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (SERK3/BAK1). To visualize BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry in the plane of the PM, variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) was employed, which allows selective illumination of a thin surface layer. VAEM revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry at the PM, which we attribute to the presence of distinct nanoclusters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111926/membrane-remodeling-and-organization-elements-common-to-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes
#19
REVIEW
Luz A Vega-Cabrera, Liliana Pardo-López
Membrane remodeling processes in eukaryotes, such as those involved in endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, are mediated by a large number of structural, accessory and regulatory proteins. These processes occur in all cell types, enabling the exchange of signals and/or nutrients with the external medium and with neighboring cells; likewise, they are required for the intracellular trafficking of various cargo molecules between organelles, as well as the recycling of these structures. Recent studies have demonstrated that some elements of the molecular machinery involved in regulating and mediating endocytosis in eukaryotic cells are also present in some bacteria, where they participate in processes such as cell division, sporulation and signal transduction...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059487/%C3%AE-tocopheryl-phosphate-induces-vegf-expression-via-cd36-pi3k%C3%AE-in-thp-1-monocytes
#20
Jean-Marc Zingg, Angelo Azzi, Mohsen Meydani
The CD36 scavenger receptor binds several ligands and mediates ligand uptake and ligand-dependent signal transduction and gene expression, events that may involve CD36 internalization. Here we show that CD36 internalization in THP-1 monocytes is triggered by α-tocopherol (αT) and more strongly by α-tocopheryl phosphate (αTP) and EPC-K1, a phosphate diester of αTP and L-ascorbic acid. αTP-triggered CD36 internalization is prevented by the specific covalent inhibitor of selective lipid transport by CD36, sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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