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Endocytosis, signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615051/the-nuclear-transportation-routes-of-membrane-bound-transcription-factors
#1
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Peiyao Li, Li Fan, Minghua Wu
Membrane-bound transcription factors (MTFs) are transcription factors (TFs) that are anchored in membranes in a dormant state. Activated by external or internal stimuli, MTFs are released from parent membranes and are transported to the nucleus. Existing research indicates that some plasma membrane (PM)-bound proteins and some endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-bound proteins have the ability to enter the nucleus. Upon specific signal recognition cues, some PM-bound TFs undergo proteolytic cleavage to liberate the intracellular fragments that enter the nucleus to control gene transcription...
April 3, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562183/the-lis1-nde1-complex-is-essential-for-fgf-signaling-by-regulating-fgf-receptor-intracellular-trafficking
#2
Liansheng Liu, Jinqiu Lu, Xiaoling Li, Ailing Wu, Qingzhe Wu, Mujun Zhao, Nan Tang, Hai Song
Intracellular transport of membranous organelles and protein complexes to various destinations is fundamental to signaling transduction and cellular function. The cytoplasmic dynein motor and its regulatory proteins LIS1 and NDE1 are required for transporting a variety of cellular cargos along the microtubule network. In this study, we show that deletion of Lis1 in developing lung endoderm and limb mesenchymal cells causes agenesis of the lungs and limbs. In both mutants, there is increased cell death and decreased fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling activity...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543760/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ubiquitination-and-de-ubiquitination-in-signal-transduction-and-receptor-trafficking
#3
REVIEW
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504311/roles-of-flotillins-in-tumors
#4
Xu-Xu Liu, Wei-Dong Liu, Lei Wang, Bin Zhu, Xiao Shi, Zi-Xuan Peng, He-Cheng Zhu, Xing-Dong Liu, Mei-Zuo Zhong, Dan Xie, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Cai-Ping Ren
The identification and use of molecular biomarkers have greatly improved the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. However, a much deeper understanding of oncogenic proteins is needed for the benefit to cancer patients. The lipid raft marker proteins, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, were first found in goldfish retinal ganglion cells during axon regeneration. They have since been found in a variety of cells, mainly on the inner surface of cell membranes, and not only act as a skeleton to provide a platform for protein-protein interactions, but also are involved in signal transduction, nerve regeneration, endocytosis, and lymphocyte activation...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500444/metformin-induced-caveolin-1-expression-promotes-t-dm1-drug-efficacy-in-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Yuan-Chiang Chung, Ching-Ming Chang, Wan-Chen Wei, Ting-Wei Chang, King-Jen Chang, Wei-Ting Chao
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) that was recently approved for the treatment of HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer. The drug sensitivity of ADCs depends mainly on the internalization efficiency of the drug. Caveolin-1 was shown to promote T-DM1 internalization and enhance drug sensitivity. Whether caveolin-1 can be overexpressed to improve T-DM1 efficacy is interesting and has the potential for clinical application. In this study, diabetes drug metformin was investigated in terms of induction of caveolin-1 expression for increased efficacy of subsequent T-DM1 application...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473018/a-global-analysis-of-kinase-function-in-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-reveals-a-role-for-the-endocytosis-regulator-akl1
#6
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Tsvia Gildor, Bernardo Ramírez-Zavala, Christian Schmauch, Ziva Weissman, Mariel Pinsky, Rawi Naddaf, Joachim Morschhäuser, Robert A Arkowitz, Daniel Kornitzer
The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans can switch between yeast and hyphal morphologies as a function of environmental conditions and cellular physiology. The yeast-to-hyphae morphogenetic switch is activated by well-established, kinase-based signal transduction pathways that are induced by extracellular stimuli. In order to identify possible inhibitory pathways of the yeast-to-hyphae transition, we interrogated a collection of C. albicans protein kinases and phosphatases ectopically expressed under the regulation of the TETon promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356040/basolateral-cd147-induces-hepatocyte-polarity-loss-by-e-cadherin-ubiquitination-and-degradation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progress
#7
Meng Lu, Jiao Wu, Zhi-Wei Hao, Yu-Kui Shang, Jing Xu, Gang Nan, Xia Li, Zhi-Nan Chen, Huijie Bian
Hepatocytes are epithelial cells with highly specialized polarity. The disorder and loss of hepatocyte polarity leads to a weakness of cell adhesion and connection, the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and eventually the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), a tumor-related glycoprotein, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasion of HCC. However, the function of CD147 in hepatocyte depolarization is unknown. Here we identified that CD147 was basolaterally polarized in hepatocyte membrane of liver tissues and HepG2 cells...
January 21, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305908/exostosin-like-2-regulates-fgf2-signaling-by-controlling-the-endocytosis-of-fgf2
#8
Satomi Nadanaka, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices, and are engaged in heparin-binding growth factor-related signal transduction. Thus, changes in the amounts, structures, and chain lengths of heparan sulfate have profound effects on aspects of cell growth controlled by heparin-binding growth factors such as FGF2. Exostosin glycosyltransferases (EXT1, EXT2, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3) control heparan sulfate biosynthesis, and the expression levels of their genes regulate the amounts, chain lengths, and sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate...
April 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276316/a-new-electron-microscopic-method-to-observe-the-distribution-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-4-bisphosphate
#9
Sharmin Aktar, Sho Takatori, Takuma Tsuji, Minami Orii, Yuki Ohsaki, Jinglei Cheng, Toyoshi Fujimoto
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4)P2 ] is a phosphoinositide that plays important roles in signal transduction, endocytosis, and cell migration among others. The intracellular distribution of PtdIns(3,4)P2 has mainly been studied by observing the distribution of GFP-tagged PtdIns(3,4)P2 -binding protein domains in live cells and by labeling with anti-PtdIns(3,4)P2 antibody in fixed cell samples, but these methods only offer low spatial resolution results and may have pitfalls. In the present study, we developed an electron microscopic method to observe the PtdIns(3,4)P2 distribution using the SDS-treated freeze-fracture replica labeling method...
October 24, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200219/ordering-of-lipid-membranes-altered-by-boron-nitride-nanosheets
#10
Yonghui Zhang, Zhen Li, Chun Chan, Jiale Ma, Chunyi Zhi, Xiaolin Cheng, Jun Fan
Boron nitride nanosheets are novel promising nanomaterials with a lower cytotoxicity than graphene making them a better candidate for biomedical applications. However, there is no systematic study on how they interact with cell membranes. Here we employed large scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide molecular details of the structure and properties of membranes after the insertion of boron nitride nanosheets. Our results reveal that the boron nitride nanosheet can extract phospholipids from the lipid bilayers and is enveloped by the membrane...
February 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161594/clathrin-assembly-defines-the-onset-and-geometry-of-cortical-patterning
#11
Yang Yang, Ding Xiong, Anne Pipathsouk, Orion D Weiner, Min Wu
Assembly of the endocytic machinery is a constitutively active process that is important for the organization of the plasma membrane, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Existing research has focused on the stochastic nature of endocytosis. Here, we report the emergence of the collective dynamics of endocytic proteins as periodic traveling waves on the cell surface. Coordinated clathrin assembly provides the earliest spatial cue for cortical waves and sets the direction of propagation. Surprisingly, the onset of clathrin waves, but not individual endocytic events, requires feedback from downstream factors, including FBP17, Cdc42, and N-WASP...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125865/membrane-order-in-the-plasma-membrane-and-endocytic-recycling-compartment
#12
David B Iaea, Frederick R Maxfield
The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051140/fgd5-regulates-vegf-receptor-2-coupling-to-pi3-kinase-and-receptor-recycling
#13
Maikel A Farhan, Abul K Azad, Nicolas Touret, Allan G Murray
OBJECTIVE: VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor-A) signaling to the endothelial cell (EC) through VEGFR2 (VEGF receptor-2) is the principal cue driving new blood vessel formation. FGD5 (faciogenital dysplasia-5)-a Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor-is selectively expressed in EC. Deficiency of FGD5 is embryonically lethal in mice and perturbs angiogenesis and VEGF signal transduction. However, the mechanism of FGD5 regulation of VEGF signaling is poorly understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Angiogenic sprouting and EC cytoskeletal remodeling were evaluated in a 3-dimensional in vitro model...
December 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932706/global-proteomics-revealed-klebsiella-pneumoniae-induced-autophagy-and-oxidative-stress-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-during-infection
#14
Arumugam Kamaladevi, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
The enterobacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae invades the intestinal epithelium of humans by interfering with multiple host cell response. To uncover a system-level overview of host response during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans using quantitative proteomics approach. Comparison of protein samples of nematodes exposed to K. pneumoniae for 12, 24, and 36 h by 2DE revealed several changes in host proteome. A total of 266 host-encoded proteins were identified by 2DE MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS and the interacting partners of the identified proteins were predicted by STRING 10...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910489/nucleoside-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-attenuate-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-by-impairing-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-signalling-in-endothelial-cells
#15
Lin Song, Sha Ding, Zhen Ge, Xiaolong Zhu, Cong Qiu, Yuewen Wang, Enyin Lai, Weijun Yang, Yi Sun, Samson A Chow, Luyang Yu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a major clinical challenge for HIV-positive patients. However, the role of ART in blood vessel growth is largely unknown. Here, we examined an integral component of ART, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and investigated their effects on key microvascular functions, including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis capability of endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated using migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in vitro, and mouse ear and Matrigel plug assays in vivo...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867585/protein-phosphorylation-and-its-role-in-the-regulation-of-annexin-a2-function
#16
REVIEW
Ann Kari Grindheim, Jaakko Saraste, Anni Vedeler
BACKGROUND: Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multifunctional protein involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, membrane domain organisation, actin remodelling, signal transduction, protein assembly, transcription and mRNA transport, as well as DNA replication and repair. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current knowledge of the role of phosphorylation in the functional regulation of AnxA2 is reviewed. To provide a more comprehensive treatment of this topic, we also address in depth the phosphorylation process in general and discuss its possible conformational effects...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867254/the-sneaking-ligand-approach-for-cell-type-specific-modulation-of-intracellular-signalling-pathways
#17
Bettina Sehnert, Harald Burkhardt, Stephanie Finzel, Stefan Dübel, Reinhard E Voll
Small molecules interfering with intracellular signalling pathways are used in the treatment of multiple diseases including RA. However, small molecules usually affect signalling in most cell types, not only in those which need to be targeted. This general inhibition of signalling pathways causes often adverse effects, which could be avoided by cell type-specific inhibitors. For cell-type specific modulation of signal transduction, we developed the sneaking ligand fusion proteins (SLFPs). SLFPs contain three domains: (1) the binding domain mediating cell type-specific targeting and endocytosis; (2) the endosomal release sequence releasing the effector domain into the cytoplasm; (3) the effector domain modulating signalling...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791640/study-of-egfr-signaling-endocytosis-by-site-directed-mutagenesis
#18
Qian Wang, Zhixiang Wang
As an essential tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, in vitro mutagenesis is important for mechanistic and functional studies of protein at the cellular level. Through site-directed substitution, insertion, or deletion of potential function residues, we may evaluate the specific biological role of proteins and understand the underlying mechanism. EGF ligand binding will activate EGFR and initiate signaling transduction for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival; meanwhile, it will also induce the EGFR endocytosis for degradation to maintain cellular homeostasis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747924/endocytosis-of-atrgs1-is-regulated-by-the-autophagy-pathway-after-d-glucose-stimulation
#19
Quanquan Yan, Jingchun Wang, Zheng Qing Fu, Wenli Chen
Sugar, as a signal molecule, has significant functions in signal transduction in which the seven-transmembrane regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS1) protein participates. D-Glucose causes endocytosis of the AtRGS1, leading to the physical uncoupling of AtRGS1 from AtGPA1 and thus a release of the GAP activity and concomitant sustained activation of G-protein signaling. Autophagy involves in massive degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components to survive environmental stresses. The function of autophagy in AtRGS1 endocytosis during D-glucose stimulation has not been elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704415/c-elegans-sma-10-regulates-bmp-receptor-trafficking
#20
Ryan J Gleason, Mehul Vora, Ying Li, Nanci S Kane, Kelvin Liao, Richard W Padgett
Signal transduction of the conserved transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signaling pathway functions through two distinct serine/threonine transmembrane receptors, the type I and type II receptors. Endocytosis orchestrates the assembly of signaling complexes by coordinating the entry of receptors with their downstream signaling mediators. Recently, we showed that the C. elegans type I bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor SMA-6, part of the TGFβ family, is recycled through the retromer complex while the type II receptor, DAF-4 is recycled in a retromer-independent, ARF-6 dependent manner...
2017: PloS One
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