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Endocytosis, signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208600/invariant-chain-complexes-and-clusters-as-platforms-for-mif-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Robert Lindner
Invariant chain (Ii/CD74) has been identified as a surface receptor for migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Most cells that express Ii also synthesize major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules, which depend on Ii as a chaperone and a targeting factor. The assembly of nonameric complexes consisting of one Ii trimer and three MHC II molecules (each of which is a heterodimer) has been regarded as a prerequisite for efficient delivery to the cell surface. Due to rapid endocytosis, however, only low levels of Ii-MHC II complexes are displayed on the cell surface of professional antigen presenting cells and very little free Ii trimers...
February 10, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163220/nano-encapsulation-of-a-novel-anti-ran-gtpase-peptide-for-blockade-of-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-rcc1-function-in-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Yusuf A Haggag, Kyle B Matchett, Dakir El-Habib, Paul Buchanan, Mohammed A Osman, Sanaa A Elgizawy, Mohamed El-Tanani, Ahmed M Faheem, Paul A McCarron
Ran is a small ras-related GTPase and is highly expressed in aggressive breast carcinoma. Overexpression induces malignant transformation and drives metastatic growth. We have designed a novel series of anti-Ran-GTPase peptides, which prevents Ran hydrolysis and activation, and although they display effectiveness in silico, peptide activity is suboptimal in vitro due to reduced bioavailability and poor delivery. To overcome this drawback, we delivered an anti-Ran-GTPase peptide using encapsulation in PLGA-based nanoparticles (NP)...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114413/visualization-of-bri1-and-serk3-bak1-nanoclusters-in-arabidopsis-roots
#3
Stefan J Hutten, Danny S Hamers, Marije Aan den Toorn, Wilma van Esse, Antsje Nolles, Christoph A Bücherl, Sacco C de Vries, Johannes Hohlbein, Jan Willem Borst
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that are perceived at the plasma membrane (PM) by the ligand binding receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and the co-receptor SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASE 3/BRI1 ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (SERK3/BAK1). To visualize BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry in the plane of the PM, variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) was employed, which allows selective illumination of a thin surface layer. VAEM revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry at the PM, which we attribute to the presence of distinct nanoclusters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111926/membrane-remodeling-and-organization-elements-common-to-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes
#4
REVIEW
Luz A Vega-Cabrera, Liliana Pardo-López
Membrane remodeling processes in eukaryotes, such as those involved in endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, are mediated by a large number of structural, accessory and regulatory proteins. These processes occur in all cell types, enabling the exchange of signals and/or nutrients with the external medium and with neighboring cells; likewise, they are required for the intracellular trafficking of various cargo molecules between organelles, as well as the recycling of these structures. Recent studies have demonstrated that some elements of the molecular machinery involved in regulating and mediating endocytosis in eukaryotic cells are also present in some bacteria, where they participate in processes such as cell division, sporulation and signal transduction...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059487/%C3%AE-tocopheryl-phosphate-induces-vegf-expression-via-cd36-pi3k%C3%AE-in-thp-1-monocytes
#5
Jean-Marc Zingg, Angelo Azzi, Mohsen Meydani
The CD36 scavenger receptor binds several ligands and mediates ligand uptake and ligand-dependent signal transduction and gene expression, events that may involve CD36 internalization. Here we show that CD36 internalization in THP-1 monocytes is triggered by α-tocopherol (αT) and more strongly by α-tocopheryl phosphate (αTP) and EPC-K1, a phosphate diester of αTP and L-ascorbic acid. αTP-triggered CD36 internalization is prevented by the specific covalent inhibitor of selective lipid transport by CD36, sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825947/characterization-of-micrornas-by-deep-sequencing-in-red-claw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus-haematopoietic-tissue-cells-after-white-spot-syndrome-virus-infection
#6
Meng-Ru Zhao, Chuang Meng, Xiao-Lu Xie, Cheng-Hua Li, Hai-Peng Liu
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most prevalent and widespread viruses in both shrimp and crayfish aquaculture. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial post-transcriptional regulators and play critical roles in cell differentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and immunity. In this study, miRNA expression profiles were identified via deep sequencing in red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell cultures infected with WSSV at both early (i.e., 1 hpi) and late (i...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791132/endocytosis-of-wingless-via-a-dynamin-independent-pathway-is-necessary-for-signaling-in-drosophila-wing-discs
#7
Anupama Hemalatha, Chaitra Prabhakara, Satyajit Mayor
Endocytosis of ligand-receptor complexes regulates signal transduction during development. In particular, clathrin and dynamin-dependent endocytosis has been well studied in the context of patterning of the Drosophila wing disc, wherein apically secreted Wingless (Wg) encounters its receptor, DFrizzled2 (DFz2), resulting in a distinctive dorso-ventral pattern of signaling outputs. Here, we directly track the endocytosis of Wg and DFz2 in the wing disc and demonstrate that Wg is endocytosed from the apical surface devoid of DFz2 via a dynamin-independent CLIC/GEEC pathway, regulated by Arf1, Garz, and class I PI3K...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787860/tracking-differential-endocytosis-and-trafficking-of-semaphorin-receptor-complexes-in-responding-nerve-growth-cones
#8
Puneet Dang, Andrew J W Furley
The study of receptor endocytosis is important to our understanding of the signal transduction events initiated by axon guidance cues in growth cones. Fab fragments of antibodies to guidance receptors and endocytic cargoes like transferrin and cholera toxin-B are the tools of choice for studying the dynamics of receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking by different pathways. We describe a method where in vitro cultures of growth cones are incubated with these ligands in the presence or absence of Sema3A, followed by stripping of remaining ligand on cell-surface and analysis by immunofluorescence techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731905/microbe-inducible-trafficking-pathways-that-control-toll-like-receptor-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Yunhao Tan, Jonathan C Kagan
The receptors of the mammalian innate immune system are designed for rapid microbial detection, and are located in organelles that are conducive to serve these needs. However, emerging evidence indicates that the sites of microbial detection are not the sites of innate immune signal transduction. Rather, microbial detection triggers the movement of receptors to regions of the cell where factors called sorting adaptors detect active receptors and promote downstream inflammatory responses. These findings highlight the critical role that membrane trafficking pathways play in the initiation of innate immunity to infection...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671041/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-are-required-for-effective-infection-of-human-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-by-listeria-monocytogenes
#10
Stefanie Dinner, Julian Kaltschmidt, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Svetlana Hetjens, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk
Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium, can cause meningitis after invading the human central nervous system. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), located at the epithelium of the choroid plexus, is a possible entry site for L. monocytogenes into the brain, and in vitro L. monocytogenes invades human choroid plexus epithelial papilloma (HIBCPP) cells. Although host cell signal transduction subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes has been investigated, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is not clarified yet...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669116/diverse-functions-and-signal-transduction-of-the-exocyst-complex-in-tumor-cells
#11
REVIEW
Toshiaki Tanaka, Kaoru Goto, Mitsuyoshi Iino
The exocyst complex is a large conserved hetero-oligomeric complex that consists of Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84 subunits. It has been implicated in the targeting of vesicles for regulated exocytosis in various cell types, and is also important for targeted exocytosis of post-Golgi transport vesicles to the plasma membrane. The exocyst complex is essential for membrane growth, secretion, and function during exocytosis and endocytosis. Moreover, the individual components of the complex are thought to act on specific biological processes, such as cytokinesis, ciliogenesis, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
May 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664379/caveolins-and-caveolae-in-ocular-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Xiaowu Gu, Alaina M Reagan, Mark E McClellan, Michael H Elliott
Caveolae are specialized, invaginated plasma membrane domains that are defined morphologically and by the expression of signature proteins called, caveolins. Caveolae and caveolins are abundant in a variety of cell types including vascular endothelium, glia, and fibroblasts where they play critical roles in transcellular transport, endocytosis, mechanotransduction, cell proliferation, membrane lipid homeostasis, and signal transduction. Given these critical cellular functions, it is surprising that ablation of the caveolae organelle does not result in lethality suggesting instead that caveolae and caveolins play modulatory roles in cellular homeostasis...
January 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647839/disorders-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-partner-proteins-insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-calcium-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Fadil M Hannan, Valerie N Babinsky, Rajesh V Thakker
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o)-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G protein-coupled receptor, which detects alterations in Ca(2+) o concentrations and modulates parathyroid hormone secretion and urinary calcium excretion. The central role of the CaSR in Ca(2+) o homeostasis has been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting the CASR gene on chromosome 3q21.1. Loss-of-function CASR mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), whereas gain-of-function mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH)...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641076/single-molecule-imaging-reveals-the-activation-dynamics-of-intracellular-protein-smad3-on-cell-membrane
#14
Nan Li, Yong Yang, Kangmin He, Fayun Zhang, Libo Zhao, Wei Zhou, Jinghe Yuan, Wei Liang, Xiaohong Fang
Smad3 is an intracellular protein that plays a key role in propagating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals from cell membrane to nucleus. However whether the transient process of Smad3 activation occurs on cell membrane and how it is regulated remains elusive. Using advanced live-cell single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to image and track fluorescent protein-labeled Smad3, we observed and quantified, for the first time, the dynamics of individual Smad3 molecules docking to and activation on the cell membrane...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613772/protein-carbonylation-of-an-amino-acid-residue-of-the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-1-subunit-determines-na-k-atpase-signaling-and-sodium-transport-in-renal-proximal-tubular-cells
#15
Yanling Yan, Anna P Shapiro, Brahma R Mopidevi, Muhammad A Chaudhry, Kyle Maxwell, Steven T Haller, Christopher A Drummond, David J Kennedy, Jiang Tian, Deepak Malhotra, Zi-Jian Xie, Joseph I Shapiro, Jiang Liu
BACKGROUND: We have demonstrated that cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, signaling through the Na/K-ATPase, regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. By direct carbonylation modification of the Pro222 residue in the actuator (A) domain of pig Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, reactive oxygen species are required for ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling and subsequent regulation of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. In the present study we sought to determine the functional role of Pro222 carbonylation in Na/K-ATPase signaling and sodium handling...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605705/retrolinkin-recruits-the-wave1-protein-complex-to-facilitate-bdnf-induced-trkb-endocytosis-and-dendrite-outgrowth
#16
Chenchang Xu, Xiuping Fu, Shaoxia Zhu, Jia-Jia Liu
Retrolinkin, a neuronal membrane protein, coordinates with endophilin A1 and mediates early endocytic trafficking and signal transduction of the ligand-receptor complex formed between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), in dendrites of CNS neurons. Here we report that retrolinkin interacts with the CYFIP1/2 subunit of the WAVE1 complex, a member of the WASP/WAVE family of nucleation-promoting factors that binds and activates the Arp2/3 complex to promote branched actin polymerization...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567260/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-is-essential-for-the-productive-entry-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#17
Shaobo Wang, Haibin Liu, Xiangyang Zu, Yang Liu, Liman Chen, Xueqin Zhu, Leike Zhang, Zheng Zhou, Gengfu Xiao, Wei Wang
The host-virus interaction during the cellular entry of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is poorly characterized. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the major intracellular proteolytic pathway, mediates diverse cellular processes, including endocytosis and signal transduction, which may be involved in the entry of virus. Here, we showed that the proteasome inhibitors, MG132 and lactacystin, impaired the productive entry of JEV by effectively interfering with viral intracellular trafficking at the stage between crossing cell membrane and the initial translation of the viral genome after uncoating...
November 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548222/multiple-roles-of-the-small-gtpase-rab7
#18
REVIEW
Flora Guerra, Cecilia Bucci
Rab7 is a small GTPase that belongs to the Rab family and controls transport to late endocytic compartments such as late endosomes and lysosomes. The mechanism of action of Rab7 in the late endocytic pathway has been extensively studied. Rab7 is fundamental for lysosomal biogenesis, positioning and functions, and for trafficking and degradation of several signaling receptors, thus also having implications on signal transduction. Several Rab7 interacting proteins have being identified leading to the discovery of a number of different important functions, beside its established role in endocytosis...
August 18, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528396/deciphering-transcriptome-profiles-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-response-to-prrsv-vaccination-in-pigs
#19
Md Aminul Islam, Christine Große-Brinkhaus, Maren Julia Pröll, Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Sharmin Aqter Rony, Dawit Tesfaye, Ernst Tholen, Michael Hölker, Karl Schellander, Christiane Neuhoff
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important viral diseases affecting swine industry worldwide. Despite routine farm vaccination, effective control strategies for PRRS remained elusive which underscores the need for in-depth studies to gain insight into the host immune response to vaccines. The current study aimed to investigate transcriptional responses to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccine in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) within 3 days following vaccination in German Landrace pigs...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509865/her2-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugates-for-ovarian-cancer-therapy
#20
Jing Jiang, Lihou Dong, Lei Wang, Ling Wang, Jing Zhang, Fang Chen, Xiuli Zhang, Min Huang, Shenjun Li, Weiwei Ma, Qiaoyu Xu, Changjiang Huang, Jianmin Fang, Chunhua Wang
HER2 targeted delivery of ovarian cancer therapy has been beneficial for some patients, although, its efficacy is yet to be confirmed in large populations. We generated a novel anti-HER2 humanized antibody (Hertuzumab) and conjugated it to a microtubule-disrupting drug monomethyl auristatin E conjugate (MMAE) with a lysosomal protease-cleavable valine-citrulline linker. The average drug to antibody ratio (DAR) of Hertuzumab-vc-MMAE was varied by conjugating Hertuzumab antibodies with increasing linker-drugs (LDs) from D0-D8...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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