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Chia-Hsin Lin, Shinji Funayama, Shu-Fen Peng, Chao-Lin Kuo, Jing-Gung Chung
Prostate cancer is the most common male reproductive system cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer in Europe and the United States is higher than that in the Asian region. However, the treatment of prostate cancer remains unsatisfactory. Psoralea corylifolia has been used to cure this disease as Chinese medicine in the Asian region. In this study, we analyzed the components of ethanol extraction of unprepared and prepared P. corylifolia by HPLC. Psoralen and isopsoralen content from the prepared P. corylifolia is twofold higher than that from unprepared, so we use the prepared extraction in this study...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Li-Juan Wei, Jun-An Li, Dong-Mei Bai, Ying Song
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as tumor suppressor or oncogenic genes. The putative targets of miR-223 include tumor suppressor gene, RhoB. Here we sought to investigate the role of miR-223-RhoB signaling pathway in proliferation of colon cancer. We used Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or RT-PCR to detect expression levels of miR-223 and RhoB in colon adenocarcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples, or in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. MTT assay was used to determine proliferation and apoptosis in cell lines...
April 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yi Zhang, Li Zhang, Qiyu Zhang, Weilong Hong, Xiaohua Lin
<b>Objective:</b> To explore the effect of microRNA(miR)-222 on cell proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblasts in hypertrophic scar (HS) and the underlying mechanisms. <b>Methods:</b> The expression of miR-222 in the HS and the normal skin tissues was detected by real-time RT-PCR. The HS fibroblasts were transfected with miR-222 mimic and miR-222 inhibitor respectively. The cell viability was tested with MTT assay, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected with flow cytometry and the expression levels of proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle related proteins were determined with Western blot...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Jingcheng Wang, Yang Tian, Hui Chen, Hui Li, Shusen Zheng
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using bioinformatics approaches. The microarray dataset GSE64041 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 60 tumor liver samples and 60 matched control samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and control groups were identified. Then functional enrichment analyses, protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network, sub‑network and integrated transcription factor (TF)‑microRNA (miRNA)‑target network analyses were performed for these DEGs...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Dongjun Jeong, Hyeongjoo Kim, Doyeon Kim, Seona Ban, Seunghyun Oh, Sanghee Ji, Donghuyn Kang, Hyunyong Lee, Tae Sung Ahn, Han Jo Kim, Sang Byung Bae, Moon Soo Lee, Chang-Jin Kim, Hyog Young Kwon, Moo-Jun Baek
The protein kinase, membrane‑associated tyrosine/threonine 1 (PKMYT1) is known to inhibit precocious entry into mitosis by phosphorylating CDK1 at Thr14 and Tyr15 residues. However, the functional importance of PKMYT1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. Thus, it is important to elucidate whether PKYMT1 is indispensable in the tumorigenesis of CRC. To investigate the functional importance of PKMYT1 in CRC tumorigenesis, PKMYT1 was knocked down in CRC cell lines such as SW480, SW620, HCT116 and HT29 by siRNA...
April 13, 2018: Oncology Reports
Evgenia Lampropoulou, Ioanna Logoviti, Marina Koutsioumpa, Maria Hatziapostolou, Christos Polytarchou, Spyros S Skandalis, Ulf Hellman, Manolis Fousteris, Sotirios Nikolaropoulos, Efrosini Choleva, Margarita Lamprou, Angeliki Skoura, Vasileios Megalooikonomou, Evangelia Papadimitriou
Pleiotrophin (PTN) stimulates endothelial cell migration through binding to receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) and αν β3 integrin. Screening for proteins that interact with RPTPβ/ζ and potentially regulate PTN signaling, through mass spectrometry analysis, identified cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activator p35 among the proteins displaying high sequence coverage. Interaction of p35 with the serine/threonine kinase CDK5 leads to CDK5 activation, known to be implicated in cell migration...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takeo Kishimoto
In metazoans that undergo sexual reproduction, genomic inheritance is ensured by two distinct types of cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis maintains the genomic ploidy in somatic cells reproducing within a generation, whereas meiosis reduces by half the ploidy in germ cells to prepare for successive generations. The meiotic cell cycle is believed to be a derived form of the mitotic cell cycle; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying both of these processes remain elusive. My laboratory has long studied the meiotic cell cycle in starfish oocytes, particularly the control of meiotic M-phase by maturation- or M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the kinase cyclin B-associated Cdk1 (cyclin B-Cdk1)...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Veneta Gerganova, Sophie G Martin
All cells show size homeostasis owing to coordination of division with growth. In this issue, Allard et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. establish that transient inhibitory visits of a negative regulator of Cdk1 to cortical oligomeric platforms increase in number and duration with cell growth, suggesting how Cdk1 activation is coupled to cell size.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Guang-Jie Jiang, Yan-Hua Chen, Wei Guo, Hang Zhang, Lin Zou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the key genes in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) using bioinformatics method to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of T-ALL. METHODS: The gene expression profiles of GSE14317 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in T-ALL were analyzed using R package Limma. The online analysis tool DAVID was used to perform the functional and pathway enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed by STRING and visualized by Cytoscape...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Christos Vaklavas, Kurt R Zinn, Sharon L Samuel, Zheng Meng, William E Grizzle, Hyoungsoo Choi, Scott W Blume
Using a series of potential biomarkers relevant to mechanisms of protein synthesis, we observed that estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumor cells exist in two distinct yet interconvertible phenotypic states (of roughly equal proportion) which differ in the degree of differentiation and use of IRES-mediated translation. Nascently translated IGF1R in the cytoplasm positively correlated with IRES activity and the undifferentiated phenotype, while epitope accessibility of RACK1, an integral component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, aligned with the more differentiated IRES-off state...
March 23, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jeff C Liu, Letizia Granieri, Mariusz Shrestha, Dong-Yu Wang, Ioulia Vorobieva, Elizabeth A Rubie, Rob Jones, YoungJun Ju, Giovanna Pellecchia, Zhe Jiang, Carlo A Palmerini, Yaacov Ben-David, Sean E Egan, James R Woodgett, Gary D Bader, Alessandro Datti, Eldad Zacksenhaus
CDK4/6 inhibitors are effective against cancer cells expressing the tumor suppressor RB1, but not RB1-deficient cells, posing the challenge of how to target RB1 loss. In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), RB1 and PTEN are frequently inactivated together with TP53. We performed kinome/phosphatase inhibitor screens on primary mouse Rb/p53-, Pten/p53-, and human RB1/PTEN/TP53-deficient TNBC cell lines and identified CDC25 phosphatase as a common target. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CDC25 suppressed growth of RB1-deficient TNBC cells that are resistant to combined CDK4/6 plus CDK2 inhibition...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
Guangfeng Su, Hao Chen, Xinhua Sun
BACKGROUND: Baicalein is an important Chinese herbal medicine and has multiple pharmacological activities. However, the biological mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of Baicalein on non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still need to be understood. METHODS: Human NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells were pretreated with Baicalein or DMSO. Cells viability and transwell cell invasion assays were performed to assess cell proliferation and invasion. QRT-PCR assay was used to analyze mRNA expression levels of Twist1, E-cadhertin, Vimentin, Notch1 and hes-1...
March 23, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Zhongchuan Wang, Rujia Li, Yongshan He, Shiyong Huang
Background: Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) is a member of the SFRPs family that modulates the Wnt signal transduction pathway. Recent studies have showed down-regulation of SFRP1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to evaluate the effect of SFRP1 on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of CRC cells in vitro. Materials and methods: We used real-time fluorescence quantification (RT-PCR) and Western blotting to detect SFRP1 expression in CRC, pericarcinomatous tissues and CRC cell lines...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Wan-Ting Liu, Yang Wang, Jing Zhang, Fei Ye, Xiao-Hui Huang, Bin Li, Qing-Yu He
Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the most lethal cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The identification of meaningful clusters of co-expressed genes or representative biomarkers may help improve the accuracy of LAC diagnoses. Public databases, such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), provide rich resources of valuable information for clinics, however, the integration of multiple microarray datasets from various platforms and institutes remained a challenge. To determine potential indicators of LAC, we performed genome-wide relative significance (GWRS), genome-wide global significance (GWGS) and support vector machine (SVM) analyses progressively to identify robust gene biomarker signatures from 5 different microarray datasets that included 330 samples...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Letters
Rahul Brahma, Sanathoi Gurumayum, Leimarembi Devi Naorem, Mathavan Muthaiyan, Jeyakodi Gopal, Amouda Venkatesan
Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-strand RNA flavivirus, is transmitted primarily through Aedes aegypti. The recent outbreaks in America and unexpected association between ZIKV infection and birth defects have triggered the global attention. This vouches to understand the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection to develop effective drug therapy. A systems-level understanding of biological process affected by ZIKV infection in fetal brain sample led us to identify the candidate genes for pharmaceutical intervention and potential biomarkers for diagnosis...
April 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
Yu-Chia Chen, I-Shu Chen, Guan-Jin Huang, Chi-Hsiang Kang, Kuo-Chiang Wang, Min-Jen Tsao, Hung-Wei Pan
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has an increasing incidence and high mortality. Surgical operation is not a comprehensive strategy for liver cancer. Moreover, tolerating systemic chemotherapy is difficult for patients with HCC because hepatic function is often impaired due to underlying cirrhosis. Therefore, a comprehensive strategy for cancer treatment should be developed. DTL (Cdc10-dependent transcript 2) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and genomic stability...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Juan Jin, Hehui Fang, Fang Yang, Wenfei Ji, Nan Guan, Zijia Sun, Yaqin Shi, Guohua Zhou, Xiaoxiang Guan
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive subtype of breast cancer that poses a clinical challenge. Thus, new therapy strategies are urgently needed. The selective WEE1 inhibitor, AZD1775, has shown strong anti-proliferative effects on a variety of tumors. Here, we first demonstrate that inhibition of ATR by selective inhibitor AZD6738 can enhance AZD1775-caused growth inhibition in TNBC. Our results show that the enhanced cell death is attributed to repressed DNA damage repair and excessive replication stress, thereby causing increased DNA damage reflected by accumulation of the DNA double-strand-break marker γH2AX...
March 28, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Patrick von Morgen, Tomas Lidak, Zuzana Horejsi, Libor Macurek
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Repair of damaged DNA is essential for maintaining genomic stability. TP53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) plays an important role in repair of the DNA double-strand breaks. Nuclear localisation of 53BP1 depends on importin β and nucleoporin 153, but the type and location of 53BP1 nuclear localisation signal (NLS) have yet to be determined. RESULTS: Here we show that nuclear import of 53BP1 depends on two basic regions, namely 1667-KRK-1669 and 1681-KRGRK-1685, which are both needed for importin binding...
March 30, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Xiaolei Yao, M A Ei-Samahy, Lijie Fan, Linfeng Zheng, Yuyue Jin, Jing Pang, Guomin Zhang, Zifei Liu, Feng Wang
In this study, we investigated the effects of Selenium (Se) on the proliferation of and steroidogenesis in goat luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs) and elucidated the mechanisms underlying these effects. Our results showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Akt, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) were expressed mainly in ovarian oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs). We observed that 5 ng/mL Se significantly stimulated LGC proliferation, which could be attributed to increases in PCNA, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK; Thr172), and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt; Ser473) and decreases in p21 (P < 0...
March 20, 2018: Theriogenology
Fu-Chi Kang, Shu-Chun Wang, Ming-Min Chang, Bo-Syong Pan, Kar-Lok Wong, Ka-Shun Cheng, Edmund Cheung So, Bu-Miin Huang
Background: Midazolam (MDZ) has powerful hypnosis, amnesia, anti-anxiety and anticonvulsant effects. Studies have shown that prenatally developmental toxicity of diazepam can be observed in many organs/tissues. However, it remains elusive in male reproductive system. Materials and methods: TM3 mouse Leydig progenitor cell line was used to determine whether MDZ has any unfavorable effects. Results: Midazolam significantly decreased cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners in TM3 cells...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
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