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robot -assisted

Toshiyasu Ojima, Mikihito Nakamori, Masaki Nakamura, Keiji Hayata, Shimpei Maruoka, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: Compared with total gastrectomy, proximal gastrectomy (PG) has potential advantages from a nutritional perspective, such as anemia and postoperative loss of body weight. However, PG is associated with some postoperative functional disorders, such as reflux esophagus (13-31%) and anastomotic stenosis (3-29%).1 We therefore developed a new procedure for fundoplication during esophago-gastrostomy after robotic PG (RPG). METHODS: We performed RPG for early gastric cancer localized in the upper third of the stomach using the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive, Sunnyvale, CA)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
T G Mullaney, A L Lightner, M Johnston, S R Kelley, D W Larson, E J Dozois
Retrorectal tumors are rare tumors that require resection for symptoms, malignancy and potential malignant transformation. Traditional approaches have included laparotomy, perineal excision or a combination. Multiple minimally invasive techniques are available which have the potential to minimize morbidity and enhance recovery. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the feasibility and surgical outcomes of retrorectal tumors approached using minimally invasive surgical techniques. Publications in which adult patients (≥ 18 years) had a minimally invasive approach (laparoscopic or robotic) for resection of a primary retrorectal tumor were included...
April 20, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
Li Liu, Hadi Bakhshi, Shaohua Jiang, Holger Schmalz, Seema Agarwal
In this paper, preparation method and actuation properties of an innovative composite membrane composed of thermo- and pH-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) fibers (average diameter ≈ 905 nm) embedded within a passive thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix at different angles with degree of alignment as high as 98% are presented. The composite membrane has a gradient of TPU along the thickness. It has the capability of temperature- and pH-dependent direction-, and size-controlled actuation in few minutes...
April 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Eun Joo Kim, Mi-Seon Kong, Sang Geon Park, Sheri J Y Mizumori, Jeiwon Cho, Jeansok J Kim
Predation is considered a major selective pressure in the evolution of fear, but the neurophysiology of predator-induced fear is unknown. We simultaneously recorded lateral amygdala (LA) and prelimbic (PL) area neuronal activities as rats exited a safe nest to search for food in an open space before, during, and after encountering a "predator" robot programmed to surge from afar. Distinct populations of LA neurons transiently increased spiking as rats either advanced or fled the robot, whereas PL neurons showed longer-lasting spike trains that preceded and persisted beyond LA activity...
April 2018: Science Advances
Xiangfeng Zeng, Guoli Zhu, Mingming Zhang, Sheng Q Xie
Objective: This review aims to provide a systematical investigation of clinical effectiveness of active training strategies applied in platform-based ankle robots. Method: English-language studies published from Jan 1980 to Aug 2017 were searched from four databases using key words of "Ankle∗ " AND "Robot∗ " AND "Effect∗ OR Improv∗ OR Increas∗ ." Following an initial screening, three rounds of discrimination were successively conducted based on the title, the abstract, and the full paper...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Tian-Jian Luo, Jitu Lv, Fei Chao, Changle Zhou
Action observation (AO) generates event-related desynchronization (ERD) suppressions in the human brain by activating partial regions of the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). The activation of the hMNS response to AO remains controversial for several reasons. Therefore, this study investigated the activation of the hMNS response to a speed factor of AO by controlling the movement speed modes of a humanoid robot's arm movements. Since hMNS activation is reflected by ERD suppressions, electroencephalography (EEG) with BCI analysis methods for ERD suppressions were used as the recording and analysis modalities...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hiroshi Inaba, Akihito Uemura, Kazushi Morishita, Taiki Kohiki, Akira Shigenaga, Akira Otaka, Kazunori Matsuura
Light-driven nano/micromotors are attracting much attention, not only as molecular devices but also as components of bioinspired robots. In nature, several pathogens such as Listeria use actin polymerisation machinery for their propulsion. Despite the development of various motors, it remains challenging to mimic natural systems to create artificial motors propelled by fibre formation. Herein, we report the propulsion of giant liposomes driven by light-induced peptide nanofibre growth on their surface. Peptide-DNA conjugates connected by a photocleavage unit were asymmetrically introduced onto phase-separated giant liposomes...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul Verlaine Gakne, Kyle O'Keefe
This paper presents a method of fusing the ego-motion of a robot or a land vehicle estimated from an upward-facing camera with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for navigation purposes in urban environments. A sky-pointing camera is mounted on the top of a car and synchronized with a GNSS receiver. The advantages of this configuration are two-fold: firstly, for the GNSS signals, the upward-facing camera will be used to classify the acquired images into sky and non-sky (also known as segmentation)...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Volker Sommer
Linear regression is a basic tool in mobile robotics, since it enables accurate estimation of straight lines from range-bearing scans or in digital images, which is a prerequisite for reliable data association and sensor fusing in the context of feature-based SLAM. This paper discusses, extends and compares existing algorithms for line fitting applicable also in the case of strong covariances between the coordinates at each single data point, which must not be neglected if range-bearing sensors are used. Besides, in particular, the determination of the covariance matrix is considered, which is required for stochastic modeling...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Yu Xia, Xinyue Zhang, Shu Yang
Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) with intrinsic anisotropic strains are reversible shape-memory polymers of interest in sensor, actuator, and soft robotics applications. Rapid gelation of LCEs is required to fix molecular ordering within the elastomer network, which is essential for directed shape transformation. A highly efficient photo-cross-linking chemistry, based on two-step oxygen-mediated thiol-acrylate click reactions, allows for nearly instant gelation of the main-chain LCE network upon exposure to UV light...
April 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jamal N Shillingford, Joseph L Laratta, Paul J Park, Joseph M Lombardi, Alexander Tuchman, Comron S Saifi, Ronald A Lehman, Lawrence G Lenke
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective matched cohort analysis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw placement by robotic guidance versus free hand technique. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinopelvic fixation utilizing S2AI screws provides optimal fixation across the lumbosacral junction allowing for solid fusion, especially in long segment fusion constructs. Traditionally, S2AI screw placement has required fluoroscopic guidance for accurate screw placement...
April 18, 2018: Spine
Sameer Kishore, Xavi Navarro, Eva Dominguez, Nonny De La Pena, Mel Slater
We show how a combination of virtual reality and robotics can be used to beam a physical representation of a person to a distant location, and describe an application of this system in the context of journalism. Full body motion capture data of a person is streamed and mapped in real time, onto the limbs of a humanoid robot present at the remote location. A pair of cameras in the robots eyes stream stereoscopic video back to the HMD worn by the visitor, and a two-way audio connection allows the visitor to talk to people in the remote destination...
March 2018: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Shunichi Kurumaya, Brennan T Phillips, Kaitlyn P Becker, Michelle H Rosen, David F Gruber, Kevin C Galloway, Koichi Suzumori, Robert J Wood
This article presents the development of modular soft robotic wrist joint mechanisms for delicate and precise manipulation in the harsh deep-sea environment. The wrist consists of a rotary module and bending module, which can be combined with other actuators as part of a complete manipulator system. These mechanisms are part of a suite of soft robotic actuators being developed for deep-sea manipulation via submersibles and remotely operated vehicles, and are designed to be powered hydraulically with seawater...
April 19, 2018: Soft Robotics
Kazushi Tanaka, Jun Teishima, Atsushi Takenaka, Ryoichi Shiroki, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Kazunori Hattori, Hiro-Omi Kanayama, Shigeo Horie, Yasushi Yoshino, Masato Fujisawa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy compared with those of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for T1 renal tumors in Japanese centers. METHODS: Patients with a T1 renal tumor who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy were eligible for inclusion in the present study. The primary end-point consisted of three components: a negative surgical margin, no conversion to open or laparoscopic surgery and a warm ischemia time ≤25 min. We compared data from these patients with the data from a retrospective study of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy carried out in Japan...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Tim Shay, Orlin D Velev, Michael D Dickey
Soft and stretchable materials play an important role in the emerging fields of soft robotics, human-machine interfaces, and stretchable electronics. Hydrogels are compelling materials because they are soft, chemically tunable, biocompatible, and ionically conductive. Hydrogels have been used as components of skin mountable sensors, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes, and show promise in emerging devices as stretchable, transparent electrodes. Ultimately, these types of devices interface the hydrogel with rigid metallic electrodes to connect with electronic circuitry...
April 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Gang Wang, Wen-Ling Wang, Yi-Qun Liu, Hong-Min Dong, Yin-Xiang Hu
Objective: In this study, prostate cancer patients were treated with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The translational positioning errors were discussed to provide the basis for determining margins of the planning target volume (PTV). Methods: Thirty prostate cancer patients were treated with radical radiotherapy using the IGRT system. Patients were placed in the supine position and underwent kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (KVCBCT) scans before radiotherapy...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ross C Lagoy, Dirk R Albrecht
High-throughput biological and chemical experiments typically use either multiwell plates or microfluidic devices to analyze numerous independent samples in a compact format. Multiwell plates are convenient for screening chemical libraries in static fluid environments, whereas microfluidic devices offer immense flexibility in flow control and dynamics. Interfacing these platforms in a simple and automated way would introduce new high-throughput experimental capabilities, such as compound screens with precise exposure timing...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nazita Taghavi, Greg R Luecke, Nicholas D Jeffery
In this research, we describe a new balancing device used to stabilize the rear quarters of a patient dog with spinal cord injuries. Our approach uses inertial measurement sensing and direct leg actuation to lay a foundation for eventual muscle control by means of direct functional electrical stimulation (FES). During this phase of development, we designed and built a mechanical test-bed to develop the control and stimulation algorithms before we use the device on our animal subjects. We designed the bionic test-bed to mimic the typical walking gait of a dog and use it to develop and test the functionality of the balancing device for stabilization of patient dogs with hindquarter paralysis...
April 18, 2018: Sensors
Srikant Chakravarthi, Richard Rovin, Amin Kassam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
S Y Park, D J Kim, D R Kang, S J Haam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
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