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Hongdo Do, Daniel Cameron, Ramyar Molania, Bibhusal Thapa, Gareth Rivalland, Paul L Mitchell, Carmel Murone, Thomas John, Anthony Papenfuss, Alexander Dobrovic
Identifying circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) for monitoring of cancer therapy is dependent on the development of readily designed, sensitive cancer-specific DNA markers. Genomic rearrangements that are present in the vast majority of cancers provide such markers.Tumour DNA isolated from two fresh-frozen lung tumours underwent whole genome sequencing. Genomic rearrangements were detected using a new computational algorithm, GRIDSS. Four genomic rearrangements from each tumour were chosen for further study using rearrangement-specific primers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Vipulkumar Rana, Bipin Thapa, Sumanta Chaudhuri Saini, Pooja Nagpal, Ankur Segon, Kathlyn Fletcher, Geoffrey Lamb
BACKGROUND: Reducing 30-day readmissions is a national priority. Although multipronged programs have been shown to reduce readmissions, the role of the individual hospitalist physician in reducing readmissions is not clear. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of physicians' self-review of their own readmission cases on the 30-day readmission rate. METHODS: Over a 1-year period, hospitalists were sent their individual readmission rates and cases on a weekly basis...
October 2016: Quality Management in Health Care
Bishnu Thapa, H Bernhard Schlegel
A practical method for calculating the pKa's of selenols in aqueous solution has been developed using density functional theory with the SMD solvation model and up to three explicit water molecules. The pKa's of 30 different organoselenols, 16 with known experimental pKa's, have been calculated using three different functionals (wB97XD, B3LYP, and M06-2X) and two basis sets (6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p)). Calculations using wB97XD and B3LYP with SMD solvation without explicit waters are found have errors of 3-6 pKa units; the errors with M06-2X are somewhat smaller...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Roshan J Thapa, Justin P Ingram, Katherine B Ragan, Shoko Nogusa, David F Boyd, Asiel A Benitez, Haripriya Sridharan, Rachelle Kosoff, Maria Shubina, Vanessa J Landsteiner, Mark Andrake, Peter Vogel, Luis J Sigal, Benjamin R tenOever, Paul G Thomas, Jason W Upton, Siddharth Balachandran
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an RNA virus that is cytotoxic to most cell types in which it replicates. IAV activates the host kinase RIPK3, which induces cell death via parallel pathways of necroptosis, driven by the pseudokinase MLKL, and apoptosis, dependent on the adaptor proteins RIPK1 and FADD. How IAV activates RIPK3 remains unknown. We report that DAI (ZBP1/DLM-1), previously implicated as a cytoplasmic DNA sensor, is essential for RIPK3 activation by IAV. Upon infection, DAI recognizes IAV genomic RNA, associates with RIPK3, and is required for recruitment of MLKL and RIPK1 to RIPK3...
October 8, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Kanchan Thapa, Marcella J Kelly
While there are numerous wildlife ecology studies in lowland areas of Nepal, there are no in-depth studies of the hilly Churia habitat even though it comprises 7,642 km(2) of potential wildlife habitat across the Terai Arc. We investigated tiger, leopard, and prey densities across this understudied habitat. Our camera trapping survey covered 536 km(2) of Churia and surrounding areas within Chitwan National Park (CNP). We used 161 trapping locations and accumulated 2,097 trap nights in a 60-day survey period during the winter season of 2010-2011...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Vivek Thapa, Jasmine Das
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
David H Oh, Alya Dabbagh, James L Goodson, Peter M Strebel, Sanjita Thapa, Jagat Narain Giri, Sagar Ratna Shakya, Sudhir Khanal
In 2012, the Global Vaccine Action Plan* established a goal to achieve measles and rubella elimination in five of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions (194 countries) by 2020 (1). Measles elimination strategies aim to achieve ≥95% coverage with 2 routine doses of measles-containing vaccine (2), and implement supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)(†) in settings where routine coverage is low or where there are subpopulations at high risk. To ensure SIA quality and to achieve ≥95% SIA coverage nationally, rapid convenience monitoring (RCM) is used during or immediately after SIAs (3,4)...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Dharma R Thapa, Jeremy Martinson, Priya Duggal, Sudhir Penugonda, Jay H Bream, Po-Yin Chang, Sugandha Dandekar, Shen-Chih Chang, Roger Detels, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Shehnaz K Hussain
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, are implicated in lymphomagenesis. We evaluated whether genetic variations in microRNA coding regions, binding sites, or biogenesis genes (collectively referred to as miRNA-SNPs) were associated with risk of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), and serum levels of four lymphoma-related microRNAs. METHODS: Twenty-five miRNA-SNPs were genotyped in 180 AIDS-NHL cases and 529 HIV-infected matched controls from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify serum microRNA levels...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Lekhjung Thapa, Nooma Sharma, Ramesh Sharma Poudel, Tirtha Raj Bhandari, Riwaz Bhagat, Ashis Shrestha, Shakti Shrestha, Dipendra Khatiwada, Louis R Caplan
BACKGROUND: Baseline stroke knowledge in a targeted population is indispensable to promote the effective stroke education. We report the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of high school students with respect to stroke from Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-structured questionnaire survey regarding KAP about stroke was conducted in high school students of 33 schools of Bharatpur, Nepal. Descriptive statistics including Chi-square test was used, and the significant variables were subjected to binary logistic regression...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Pushpa Thapa, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Suresh Mehata, Abhinav Vaidya, Bijay Kumar Jha, Meghnath Dhimal, Shaili Pradhan, Purushottam Dhakal, Arpana Pandit, Achyut Raj Pandey, Bihungum Bista, Ava Upadhyay Pokhrel, Khem Bahadur Karki
BACKGROUND: Oral diseases remain a significant public health problem in Nepal, as do oral health behaviours. Socio-demographic factors play a crucial role in driving oral hygiene practices. This study aims to identify oral hygiene practices and associated socio-demographic factors in Nepalese population. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study recruited 4200 adults (15-69 years) through multistage cluster sampling. Data obtained from the WHO NCD STEPS instrument version 2...
September 29, 2016: BMC Oral Health
Mohd Quadir Siddiqui, Rajan Kumar Choudhary, Pankaj Thapa, Neha Kulkarni, Yogendra S Rajpurohit, Hari S Misra, Nikhil Gadewal, Satish Kumar, Syed K Hasan, Ashok K Varma
Fanconi anemia complementation groups - I (FANCI) protein facilitates DNA ICL (Inter-Cross-link) repair and plays a crucial role in genomic integrity. FANCI is a 1328 amino acids protein which contains armadillo (ARM) repeats and EDGE motif at the C-terminus. ARM repeats are functionally diverse and evolutionarily conserved domain that plays a pivotal role in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Considering the importance of ARM repeats, we have explored comprehensive in-silico and in-vitro approach to examine folding pattern...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Qing Ma, Dapeng Zhou, Elizabeth S DeLyria, Xiaoxia Wen, Wei Lu, Prakash Thapa, Chengwen Liu, Dan Li, Roland L Bassett, Willem W Overwijk, Patrick Hwu, Chun Li
There is an urgent need for new clinically applicable drug-delivery methods to enhance accumulation of immune-activating drugs in tumors. We synthesized a poly(L-glutamic acid)-CpG ODN2216 conjugate (PG-CpG) and injected it intratumorally into C57BL/6 mice bearing subcutaneous B16-ovalbumin melanoma. PG-CpG elicited the same potent antitumoral activity as CpG with respect to reducing tumor growth and triggering antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses in this well-established solid tumor model. Moreover, PG-CpG was retained significantly longer in both tumor and draining lymph nodes than was free CpG after intratumoral injection...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
Christine C Groves, Manoj K Poudel, Bishow Pj Thapa, Mandira Ms Baniya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Bibhusal Thapa, D Neil Watkins, Tom John
Initial data of immune based therapy showed promise for improving malignant mesothelioma (MM) treatment. However, the results of such treatments have neither been predictable nor consistent and recent clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors in MM have dampened initial enthusiasm. Areas covered: We comprehensively discuss the basis, modalities and updated results of immunotherapy in MM. An online search was conducted for relevant literature and abstracts of recent meetings. Expert commentary: Although initial studies have demonstrated proof of principle that manipulating the immune checkpoint axis holds promise in MM, results of some recent large studies using checkpoint inhibitors have been disappointing...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ramesh Parajuli, Suman Thapa, Sushna Maharjan
Intramuscular hemangiomas are rare benign vascular neoplasms. IMH accounts for less than 1% of all hemangiomas. These neoplasms commonly occur in trunk and extremities but are rare in head and neck region. The present case is a 17-year-old female patient, who presented with a painless, slowly enlarging mass in left sided upper neck for 4 years. Investigations were suggestive of vascular neoplasm. She underwent excision of the mass in toto under general anesthesia. Postoperative period was uneventful. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed it as mixed type of intramuscular hemangioma...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Marius N Stan, Vikram Sonawane, Thomas J Sebo, Prabin Thapa, Rebecca S Bahn
CONTEXT: IgG4-positive (+) plasma cells have been reported in both Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). These cells are the hallmark of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether RT is part of IgG4-RD spectrum. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: This was a case-control study performed at a tertiary medical centre. We included RT cases from the period 1958 to 2008 that had sufficient paraffin-embedded tissue for IgG4 immunostaining...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Bibhav Acharya, Jasmine Tenpa, Poshan Thapa, Bikash Gauchan, David Citrin, Maria Ekstrand
BACKGROUND: Globally, access to mental healthcare is often lacking in rural, low-resource settings. Mental healthcare services integration in primary care settings is a key intervention to address this gap. A common strategy includes embedding mental healthcare workers on-site, and receiving consultation from an off-site psychiatrist. Primary care provider perspectives are important for successful program implementation. METHODS: We conducted three focus groups with all 24 primary care providers at a district-level hospital in rural Nepal...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Seojeong Park, Tara Man Kadayat, Kyu-Yeon Jun, Til Bahadur Thapa Magar, Ganesh Bist, Aarajana Shrestha, Eung-Seok Lee, Youngjoo Kwon
On the basis of previous reports on the importance of thienyl, furyl or phenol group substitution on 5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine skeleton, a new series of rigid 2-aryl-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine derivatives were systematically designed and synthesized. Topoisomerase inhibitory activity and antiproliferative activity of all the synthesized compounds were determined using human colorectal (HCT15), breast (T47D), prostate (DU145) and cervix (HeLa) cancer cells. Compounds 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18 and 19 with thienyl or furyl moiety at the 2-position and hydroxyl group at the meta or para positions of 4-phenyl ring displayed strong to moderate topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) inhibitory activity and significant antiproliferative activity...
September 8, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Shamshul Ansari, Rabindra Dhital, Sony Shrestha, Sangita Thapa, Ram Puri, Niraj Chaudhary, Suresh Khatiwada, Rajendra Gautam
Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently isolated organism as it acts as the opportunistic pathogen and can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. The production of different types of beta-lactamases renders this organism resistant to many commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document the antibiotic resistance rate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods. Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered was identified by standard microbiological methods...
2016: BioMed Research International
Subash Thapa, Deependra Kaji Thapa, Anne Buve, Karin Hannes, Chiranjibi Nepal, Catharina Mathei
Nepalese labor migrants and their wives are considered as at-risk populations for HIV infection. There may be a risk of HIV transmission from the labor migrant and their wives to the general population due to HIV-related risk behaviors, but so far empirical evidence to support this hypothesis is scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare HIV-related risk behaviors between labor migrants, their wives, and males and females from the general population in the far-western region of Nepal. This was a cross-sectional study, in which structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 261 male labor migrants, 262 wives of labor migrants, 123 males and 122 females from the general population...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Community Health
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