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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353445/hypermethylation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activating-protein-like-nkapl-promoter-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-suppresses-its-expression-and-predicts-a-poor-prognosis
#1
Patrick Kwok Shing Ng, Carol Po Ying Lau, Emily Kai Yee Lam, Sheila Sai Kam Li, Vivian Wai Yan Lui, Winnie Yeo, Yuen Keng Ng, Paul Bo San Lai, Stephen Kwok Wing Tsui
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complicated disease with low survival rate partially due to frequent recurrence and no efficient therapy. Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been demonstrated as one of the molecular mechanisms contributing to tumorigenesis and progression in HCC. This study aims to investigate regulation of NKAPL expression by promoter methylation and its clinical relevance as a biomarker for HCC. METHODS: We measured mRNA expression of NKAPL in 5 HCC cell lines and a cohort of 62 pairs of primary HCC tumor and their adjacent non-cancer liver tissues...
January 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353367/surveillance-for-cancer-recurrence-in-long-term-young-breast-cancer-survivors-randomly-selected-from-a-statewide-cancer-registry
#2
Tarsha Jones, Debra Duquette, Meghan Underhill, Chang Ming, Kari E Mendelsohn-Victor, Beth Anderson, Kara J Milliron, Glenn Copeland, Nancy K Janz, Laurel L Northouse, Sonia M Duffy, Sofia D Merajver, Maria C Katapodi
PURPOSE: This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. METHODS: Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms...
January 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353366/is-invasion-a-necessary-step-for-metastases-in-breast-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Steven A Narod, Victoria Sopik
PURPOSE: To review the empirical evidence to support the conventional (sequential) model of breast cancer progression, which is based on the paradigm that cancer passes through several stages, including an in situ stage prior to an invasive stage, and thereafter (in some cases) disseminates to the lymph nodes and distant organs. METHODS: We review the cancer literature of the last 50 years which relates to the prevention of invasive breast cancer (through radiotherapy or surgery) and reductions in the mortality for breast cancer...
January 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353337/a-retrospective-analysis-of-5-fluorouracil-plus-cisplatin-as-first-line-chemotherapy-in-the-recent-treatment-strategy-for-patients-with-metastatic-or-recurrent-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Shuji Hiramoto, Ken Kato, Hirokazu Shoji, Natsuko Okita, Atsuo Takashima, Yoshitaka Honma, Satoru Iwasa, Tetsuya Hamaguchi, Yasuhide Yamada, Yasuhiro Shimada, Narikazu Boku
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic or recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have a poor prognosis. For decades, the most widely used first-line chemotherapy regimen for these patients has been the combination of 5-fluorouracil + cisplatin (CF). However, prognostic factors of CF as first-line chemotherapy for ESCC have not been clarified. METHODS: A total of 187 patients with metastatic or recurrent esophageal ESCC treated with CF at the National Cancer Center Hospital between January 2001 and December 2012 were enrolled in the study...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353332/first-line-chemotherapy-with-s-1-alone-or-s-1-plus-cisplatin-for-elderly-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-a-multicenter-propensity-score-matched-study
#5
Akitaka Makiyama, Kenji Kunieda, Masaaki Noguchi, Takeshi Kajiwara, Takao Tamura, Koji Takeda, Junko Sugiyama, Keiko Minashi, Toshikazu Moriwaki, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Michitaka Nagase, Yuji Negoro, Takashi Tsuda, Hideki Shimodaira, Naohiro Okano, Akihito Tsuji, Daisuke Sakai, Kazuhiro Yanagihara, Shinya Ueda, Shingo Tamura, Satoshi Otsu, Takuya Honda, Yuzo Matsushita, Tatsuya Okuno, Tomomi Kashiwada, Akira Nozaki, Masahide Ebi, Hiroyuki Okuda, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Shuichi Hironaka, Ichinosuke Hyodo, Eishi Baba, Narikazu Boku, Kei Muro, Taito Esaki
BACKGROUND: Fluoropyrimidine and platinum combination is the standard treatment for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer (AGC). However, fluoropyrimidine monotherapy is commonly used for elderly patients with AGC because of its good tolerability. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study, we collected clinical data of AGC patients aged 70 years or older, treated with S-1 alone or S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) as the first-line treatment between January 2009 and December 2011...
January 20, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352696/safety-and-efficacy-of-prostatic-artery-chemoembolization-for-prostate-cancer-initial-experience
#6
João Pisco, Tiago Bilhim, Nuno V Costa, Manuel Pinto Ribeiro, Lucia Fernandes, António G Oliveira
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome of prostatic artery chemoembolization for patients with prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2013 and July 2016 in 20 patients with PCa who underwent chemoembolization. Mean patient age was 67.5 years ± 6.4. Gleason score was 6-10, and staging was T2N0M0. Fifteen patients refused prostatectomy and 5 wanted to stop hormonal therapy because of side effects...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352490/oral-lichenoid-reaction-showing-multiple-ulcers-associated-with-anti-programmed-death-cell-receptor-1-treatment-a-report-of-two-cases-and-published-work-review
#7
Koya Obara, Mamiko Masuzawa, Yasuyuki Amoh
Anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies represent an effective treatment opinion for advanced melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer, as well as other cancerous entities. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD-1 antibody result in a unique side-effect profile, commonly described as immune-related adverse events (irAE). These irAE affect the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, endocrine system and other organ systems. We report two cases of oral lichenoid reaction showing multiple ulcers associated with nivolumab treatment...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352368/endocrine-therapy-and-related-issues-in-hormone-receptor-positive-early-breast-cancer-a-roundtable-discussion-by-the-breast-cancer-therapy-expert-group-bcteg
#8
REVIEW
Jame Abraham, Humberto Caldera, Robert Coleman, Anthony Elias, Matthew P Goetz, Muaiad Kittaneh, Elyse Lower, Reshma Mahtani, E Terry Mamounas, Mark Pegram, Hope Rugo, Lee Schwartzberg, Tiffany Traina, Chuck Vogel
PURPOSE: Management of breast cancer is a rapidly evolving field, and, although evidence-based guidelines are available for clinicians to provide direction on critical issues in patient care, clinicians often left to address these issues in the context of community practice situations with their patients. These include the patient's comorbid conditions, actual versus perceived benefit of treatments, patient's compliance as well as financial/reimbursement issues, and long-term tolerability of therapy...
January 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352111/hepatic-smarca4-predicts-hcc-recurrence-and-promotes-tumour-cell-proliferation-by-regulating-smad6-expression
#9
Zhiao Chen, Xinyuan Lu, Deshui Jia, Ying Jing, Di Chen, Qifeng Wang, Fangyu Zhao, Jinjun Li, Ming Yao, Wenming Cong, Xianghuo He
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and is typically diagnosed at advanced stages. Identification and characterisation of genes within amplified and deleted chromosomal loci can provide new insights into the pathogenesis of cancer and lead to new approaches for diagnosis and therapy. In our previous study, we found a recurrent region of copy number amplification at 19p13.2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we performed integrated copy number analysis and expression profiling at this locus and a putative cancer gene, SMARCA4/BRG1, was uncovered in this region...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352080/functional-analysis-of-cancer-associated-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-variants-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Stephanie R Barbari, Daniel P Kane, Elizabeth A Moore, Polina V Shcherbakova
DNA replication fidelity relies on base selectivity of the replicative DNA polymerases, exonucleolytic proofreading, and post-replicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Ultramutated human cancers without MMR defects carry alterations in the exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase ε (Polε). They have been hypothesized to result from defective proofreading. However, modeling in yeast of the most common variant, Polε-P286R, produced an unexpectedly strong mutator effect that exceeded the effect of proofreading deficiency by two orders of magnitude and indicated the involvement of other infidelity factors...
January 19, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352052/estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-exploiting-signaling-pathways-implicated-in-endocrine-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Adam M Brufsky, Maura N Dickler
Advancements in molecular profiling and endocrine therapy (ET) have led to more focused clinical attention on precision medicine. These advances have expanded our understanding of breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis and hold promising implications for the future of therapy. The estrogen receptor-α is a predominant endocrine regulatory protein in the breast and in estrogen-induced BC. Successful targeting of proteins and genes within estrogen receptor (ER) nuclear and nonnuclear pathways remains a clinical goal...
January 19, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352018/oncohistones-drivers-of-pediatric-cancers
#12
REVIEW
Faizaan Mohammad, Kristian Helin
One of the most striking results in the area of chromatin and cancer in recent years has been the identification of recurrent mutations in histone genes in pediatric cancers. These mutations occur at high frequency and lead to the expression of mutant histones that exhibit oncogenic features. Thus, they are termed oncohistones. Thus far, mutations have been found in the genes encoding histone H3 and its variants. The expression of the oncohistones affects the global chromatin landscape through mechanisms that have just begun to be unraveled...
December 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351920/exceptional-response-to-pembrolizumab-in-a-metastatic-chemotherapy-radiation-resistant-ovarian-cancer-patient-harboring-a-cd274-pd-l1-genetic-rearrangement
#13
Stefania Bellone, Natalia Buza, Jungmin Choi, Luca Zammataro, Laurie Gay, Julia A Elvin, David L Rimm, Yuting Liu, Elena Ratner, Peter E Schwartz, Alessandro D Santin
PURPOSE: Ovarian carcinoma no longer responsive to surgery and chemotherapy remains an incurable disease. Alternative therapeutic options remain desperately needed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We describe a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient with recurrent disease experiencing a remarkable clinical response to treatment with the anti-PD1 immune check-point inhibitor pembrolizumab. The clinical, pathological, and genomic characteristics of this exceptional ovarian cancer responder were carefully investigated using immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative multiplex fluorescence methods (ie, automated quantitative analysis, AQUA) and whole exome sequencing (WES) techniques...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351916/pathways-impacted-by-genomic-alterations-in-pulmonary-carcinoid-tumors
#14
Michael K Asiedu, Charles F Thomas, Jie Dong, Sandra C Schulte Tomaszek, Prasidda Khadka, Zhifu Sun, Farhad Kosari, Jin Jen, Julian R Molina, George Vasmatzis, Rui Kuang, Marie Christine Aubry, Ping Yang, Dennis A Wigle
PURPOSE: Pulmonary carcinoid tumors account for up to 5% of all lung malignancies in adults, comprise 30% of all carcinoid malignancies, and are defined histologically as typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC) tumors. The role of specific genomic alterations in the pathogenesis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors remains poorly understood. We sought to identify genomic alterations and pathways that are deregulated in these tumors to find novel therapeutic targets for pulmonary carcinoid tumors...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351618/maintenance-hormonal-therapy-after-treatment-with-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-for-patients-with-atypical-polypoid-adenomyoma
#15
Hidetaka Nomura, Yuko Sugiyama, Terumi Tanigawa, Maki Matoda, Sanshiro Okamoto, Kohei Omatsu, Hiroyuki Kanao, Kazuyoshi Kato, Kuniko Utsugi, Nobuhiro Takeshima
Background: As atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) has been reported to be a hormone-related tumor, we aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of maintenance hormonal therapy after fertility-preserving treatment of these patients with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Methods: Data were retrospectively analyzed from patients with APA who were treated with a fertility-preserving regimen including MPA between October 2001 and December 2011. Eighteen patients were treated with MPA and 14 (77...
January 17, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351056/remediation-of-radiation-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-through-oral-administration-of-the-neuroprotective-compound-nsi-189
#16
Barrett Allen, Munjal M Acharya, Celine Lu, Erich Giedzinski, Nicole Chmielewski, David Quach, Mike Hefferan, Karl K Johe, Charles L Limoli
Clinical management of primary and secondary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies frequently includes radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence after surgical resection. While cranial radiotherapy remains beneficial, adult and pediatric brain tumor survivors suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Although this has been recognized as a significant problem for decades, there remains no clinical recourse for the unintended neurocognitive sequelae associated with these types of cancer treatments...
January 19, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350774/hepatitis-b-virus-surface-gene-pre-s2-mutant-as-a-high-risk-serum-marker-for-hepatoma-recurrence-after-curative-hepatic-resection
#17
Chia-Jui Yen, Yu-Lin Ai, Hung-Wen Tsai, Shih-Huang Chan, Chia-Sheng Yen, Kuang-Hsiung Cheng, Yun-Ping Lee, Chia-Wei Kao, Yu-Chun Wang, Yi-Lin Chen, Cheng-Han Lin, Tsunglin Liu, Huey-Pin Tsai, Jen-Ren Wang, Ih-Jen Su, Wenya Huang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pre-S2 mutant large HBV surface antigen (LHBS) is highly associated with HCC. This study aimed to analyze the expression of the large form of surface protein in tumors and to evaluate the LHBS with mutations within the pre-S2 region as a high-risk recurrence marker in HCC patients after curative hepatic resection. By the analyses of immunohistochemical staining (N = 12) and Western Blotting (N = 22), the HBV surface protein, which is mainly comprised of the major form of HBS, was greatly diminished in the tumors...
January 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350539/effectiveness-and-safety-of-ct-guided-percutaneous-radiofrequency-ablation-of-adrenal-metastases
#18
Kang Zhou, Jie Pan, Ning Yang, Hai-Feng Shi, Jian Cao, Yu-Mei Li, Hong-Zhi Zhang, Ke-Fei Wang, Shao-Hui Chen
OBJECTIVE: The imaging-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of adrenal metastases is a relatively new treatment procedure, compared to the more widespread application of the technique for the treatment of liver and renal cancers, the present study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastases in a cohort of patients. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with 38 adrenal metastases who received percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation between 2012 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
January 19, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349945/the-within-group-discrimination-ability-of-the-cancer-of-the-prostate-risk-assessment-score-for-men-with-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#19
Ho Won Kang, Hae Do Jung, Joo Yong Lee, Jong Kyou Kwon, Seong Uk Jeh, Kang Su Cho, Won Sik Ham, Young Deuk Choi
BACKGROUND: Significant clinical heterogeneity within contemporary risk group is well known, particularly for those with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (IRPCa). Our study aimed to analyze the ability of the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score to discern between favorable and non-favorable risk in patients with IRPCa. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 203 IRPCa patients who underwent extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed by a single surgeon...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349770/retrospective-audit-of-patients-referred-for-further-treatment-following-mohs-surgery-for-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#20
Edmund Wee, Michelle S Goh, Vanessa Estall, Albert Tiong, Angela Webb, Catherine Mitchell, William Murray, Phillip Tran, Christopher J McCormack, Michael Henderson, Emma L Hiscutt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, subsequent management and outcomes of patients referred for further management following Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients referred to a quaternary cancer centre from 2000 to 2015. RESULTS: In total, 83 lesions in 82 patients were referred for further management; 52 (62%) were SCC and 80 (96%) were located in the head and neck...
January 18, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
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