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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936467/clinical-relevance-of-cell-free-dna-in-gastrointestinal-tract-malignancy
#1
Yuan-Tzu Lan, Ming-Huang Chen, Wen-Liang Fang, Chih-Cheng Hsieh, Chien-Hsing Lin, Fang-Yu Jhang, Shung-Haur Yang, Jen-Kou Lin, Wei-Shone Chen, Jeng-Kai Jiang, Pei-Ching Lin, Shih-Ching Chang
BACKGROUND: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from blood has become a clinically feasible biomarker in various types of cancer. However, the clinical significance of cfDNA in gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer among Asian populations requires further investigation. RESULTS: The median cfDNA copy number was highest in esophageal cancer, followed by colorectal cancer and gastric cancer, which were all significantly higher than those of healthy individuals. The cfDNA levels were higher in GI tract cancer, followed by those in carcinoma in situ and then healthy individuals (P = 0...
December 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935989/brcaness-and-prognosis-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#2
Hirokazu Tanino, Yoshimasa Kosaka, Hiroshi Nishimiya, Youko Tanaka, Naoko Minatani, Mariko Kikuchi, Akiko Shida, Mina Waraya, Hiroshi Katoh, Takumo Enomoto, Norihiko Sengoku, Sabine Kajita, Robert M Hoffman, Masahiko Watanabe
BRCAness is defined as the set of traits in which BRCA1 dysfunction, arising from gene mutation, methylation or deletion, results in DNA repair deficiency. In the present study, we addressed BRCAness, therapeutic efficacy, recurrence, and survival in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Kitasato University Hospital, Japan, between April 2006 and October 2012. BRCAness was determined by preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens and surgical specimens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935967/large-scale-analysis-of-gene-expression-data-reveals-a-novel-gene-expression-signature-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-distant-recurrence
#3
Nehad M Alajez
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth-ranked cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in CRC management, distant recurrence (DR) remains the major cause of mortality in patients with preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, underscoring a need to precisely identify novel gene signatures for predicting the risk of systemic relapse. Herein, we integrated two independent CRC gene expression datasets: the GSE71222 dataset, including 26 patients who developed DR and 126 patients who did not develop DR, and the GSE21510 dataset, including 23 patients who developed DR and 76 patients who did not develop DR...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935821/stromal-hedgehog-signaling-maintains-smooth-muscle-and-hampers-micro-invasive-prostate-cancer
#4
Zhaohui Yang, Yu-Ching Peng, Anuradha Gopalan, Dong Gao, Yu Chen, Alexandra L Joyner
It is widely appreciated that reactive stroma or carcinoma-associated fibroblasts can influence epithelial tumor progression. In prostate cancer (PCa), the second most common male malignancy worldwide, the amount of reactive stroma is variable and has predictive value for tumor recurrence. By analyzing human PCa protein and RNA expression databases, we found smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are decreased in advanced tumors, whereas fibroblasts are maintained. In three mouse models of PCa, we found the composition of the stroma is distinct...
November 30, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935223/response-to-and-toxicity-of-gemcitabine-for-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-according-to-number-of-previous-chemotherapy-regimens
#5
Yuji Takei, Yoshifumi Takahashi, Shizuo Machida, Akiyo Taneichi, Suzuyo Takahashi, Tomomi Nagashima, Hiroyuki Morisawa, Yasushi Saga, Shigeki Matsubara, Hiroyuki Fujiwara
AIM: Gemcitabine is used not only as a second-line, but also as a third-line or higher regimen for taxane/platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to clarify the response to and toxicity of gemcitabine for recurrent ovarian cancer according to the number of previous chemotherapy regimens. METHODS: The subjects were patients with taxane/platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer on gemcitabine treatment at the present hospital between June 2007 and September 2013...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935113/fak-is-overexpressed-in-keratocystic-odontogenic-tumor-a-preliminary-study
#6
Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Shakira Choudhary, Shankargouda Patil
BACKGROUND: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important mediator of cell adhesion, growth proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and migration. FAK is over expressed in many locally invasive and malignant lesions including oral cancer. Looking at the tumorigenic nature of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), which involves local invasion, proliferation, and recurrence, we hypothesized strong expression of FAK in the epithelial lining of KCOT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 34 KCOTs, 11 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOCs), 25 radicular cysts (RCs), 17 dentigerous cysts (DCs) and 25 dental follicles (DFs) were retrieved from archives and subjected to the immunohistochemical analysis using FAK antibody...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934107/detection-of-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-at-picomolar-levels-using-biocatalysis-coupled-to-assisted-ion-transfer-voltammetry-at-a-liquid-organogel-microinterface-array
#7
Rashida Akter, Damien W M Arrigan
A label-free electrochemical strategy for the detection of a cancer biomarker, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), at picomolar concentrations without the use of antibodies, was investigated. The approach is based on the assisted ion transfer of protons, generated by a series of enzymatic reactions, at an array of microinterfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (μ-ITIES). This nonredox electrochemical approach based on biocatalysis-coupled proton transfer at the μ-ITIES array opens a new way to detect the prostate cancer biomarker, with detection capability achieved at concentrations below those indicative of disease presence...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933665/detection-of-dna-sequences-from-a-novel-papillomavirus-in-a-feline-basal-cell-carcinoma
#8
John S Munday, Adrienne French, Neroli Thomson
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are uncommon feline skin neoplasms of uncertain cause. CASE: A 14-year-old Abyssinian cat developed a soft dermal nodule on the dorsal thorax. This mass grew slowly over a six month period before being surgically excised. METHODS AND RESULTS: Histology revealed a BCC. Additionally, changes suggestive of an early Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC) were present in the overlying epidermis. Both the BCC and the BISC contained papillomavirus-induced cell changes and prominent basophilic intracytoplasmic bodies...
December 8, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933604/chemoresistant-lung-cancer-stem-cells-display-high-dna-repair-capability-to-remove-cisplatin-dna-damage
#9
Wai-Kin Yu, Zhigang Wang, Chi-Chun Fong, Dandan Liu, Tak-Chun Yip, Siu-Kie Au, Guangyu Zhu, Mengsu Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The persistence of lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) has been proposed to be the main factor of lung cancer recurrence due to their high resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The underlying mechanisms, however, have not been fully addressed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study, we examined the cellular response of a human lung cancer stem cell line upon treatment with cisplatin, a DNA-damaging anticancer drug that is extensively applied in clinics...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933467/osteosarcoma-overview
#10
REVIEW
Brock A Lindsey, Justin E Markel, Eugenie S Kleinerman
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and patients with metastatic disease or recurrences continue to have very poor outcomes. Unfortunately, little prognostic improvement has been generated from the last 20 years of research and a new perspective is warranted. OS is extremely heterogeneous in both its origins and manifestations. Although multiple associations have been made between the development of osteosarcoma and race, gender, age, various genomic alterations, and exposure situations among others, the etiology remains unclear and controversial...
December 8, 2016: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933386/endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-specimens-in-early-colorectal-cancer-lateral-margins-macroscopic-techniques-and-possible-pitfalls
#11
Alicia Dessain, Christophe Snauwaert, Pamela Baldin, Pierre Deprez, Louis Libbrecht, Hubert Piessevaux, Anne Jouret-Mourin
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows en-bloc resection of superficial gastrointestinal tumors, providing specimens on which lateral margin analysis can be performed reliably. Positive lateral margins have been linked to higher rates of recurrence/residual tumor. There are no guidelines for macroscopic processing of lateral margins. Currently, most institutions use parallel lateral sections, which are difficult to interpret. We use perpendicular lateral sections, hypothesizing that it decreases potential artifactually positive lateral margins...
December 8, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933271/functional-significance-of-aurora-kinases-p53-protein-family-interactions-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Kaori Sasai, Warapen Treekitkarnmongkol, Kazuharu Kai, Hiroshi Katayama, Subrata Sen
Aurora kinases play critical roles in regulating spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis to ensure faithful segregation of chromosomes during mitotic cell division cycle. Molecular and cell biological studies have revealed that Aurora kinases, at physiological levels, orchestrate complex sequential cellular processes at distinct subcellular locations through functional interactions with its various substrates. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases, on the other hand, cause defects in mitotic spindle assembly, checkpoint response activation, and chromosome segregation leading to chromosomal instability...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933239/impact-of-bowel-resection-margins-in-node-negative-colon-cancer
#13
Ricardo Rocha, Rui Marinho, David Aparício, Marta Fragoso, Marta Sousa, António Gomes, Carlos Leichsenring, Carla Carneiro, Vasco Geraldes, Vítor Nunes
PURPOSE: Surgical intestinal resection margins in colon cancer are a longstanding debate in terms the optimal distance between the tumor and the colonic section line. The aim of this study is to define the oncological outcomes in relation to surgical margins, measured in terms or recurrence rate, time-to-recurrence, disease-free survival and overall survival in a population of node negative colon cancer patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational longitudinal single institution study...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933110/profiling-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-liquid-biopsy-can-one-size-fit-all
#14
Harry W Clifford, Amy P Cassidy, Courtney Vaughn, Evaline S Tsai, Bianka Seres, Nirmesh Patel, Hannah L O'Neill, Emil Hewage, John W Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Cancer is first and foremost a disease of the genome. Specific genetic signatures within a tumour are prognostic of disease outcome, reflect subclonal architecture and intratumour heterogeneity, inform treatment choices and predict the emergence of resistance to targeted therapies. Minimally invasive liquid biopsies can give temporal resolution to a tumour's genetic profile and allow the monitoring of treatment response through levels of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, the detection of ctDNA in repeated liquid biopsies is currently limited by economic and time constraints associated with targeted sequencing...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932893/let-7a-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-to-cetuximab-by-regulating-stat3-expression
#15
Fei Xue, Yanhui Liu, Hongwei Zhang, Yu Wen, Lei Yan, Qiang Tang, Erhui Xiao, Dongyi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Let-7 miRNAs are reported to play an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, recurrence, and pluripotency of cancer. However, few studies have reported the relationship between let-7 and drug sensitivity, especially for let-7a (a subtype of let-7). This study aimed to investigate the function of let-7a in regulating the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to cetuximab. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of cetuximab on HCC cell lines (Huh7, Hep3B, HepG2, SNU449, and SNU387) was evaluated using a cell viability assay (the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay) and a cell proliferation assay (the Click-iT EdU Imaging Kit) in the presence of a control, a let-7a mimic, and a let-7a inhibitor...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932438/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-extrahepatic-bile-duct-with-metachronous-para-aortic-lymph-node-metastasis-successfully-treated-with-s-1-plus-cisplatin
#16
Ryohei Nishiguchi, Dal Ho Kim, Masayuki Honda, Tsuguo Sakamoto
The most common histological classification of bile duct cancer is adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is relatively rare. We report a case of a 78-year-old man with SCC of the extrahepatic bile duct associated with metachronous para-aortic lymph node metastasis. He had undergone subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The pathological findings demonstrated moderately differentiated SCC of the distal extrahepatic bile duct (T1N1M0, stage IIB). 6 months after surgery, recurrence of the para-aortic lymph node was shown in abdominal CT...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932270/prognostic-value-of-lymph-node-yield-during-nephroureterectomy-for-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#17
Andrew G Winer, Emily A Vertosick, Mazyar Ghanaat, Renato B Corradi, Sigrid Carlsson, Daniel D Sjoberg, Alexander I Sankin, John P Sfakianos, Eugene K Cha, Guido Dalbagni, Jonathan A Coleman
INTRODUCTION: Lymph node dissection (LND) performed during radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) remains controversial and difficult to evaluate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether removal of more lymph nodes during RNU is safe and improves oncologic outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated 422 patients who underwent RNU with concomitant LND for upper tract urothelial carcinoma between 1976 and 2015, assessing for an association between total nodes removed, recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards models...
December 5, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932269/the-presence-of-carcinoma-in-situ-at-radical-cystectomy-increases-the-risk-of-urothelial-recurrence-implications-for-follow-up-schemes
#18
Marco Moschini, Shahrokh F Shariat, Mohammad Abufaraj, Francesco Soria, Tobias Klatte, Giovanni La Croce, Agostino Mattei, Rocco Damiano, Andrea Salonia, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, Renzo Colombo, Andrea Gallina
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the incidence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) due to bladder cancer and to assess its effect on recurrence and survival rates. METHODS: The study focused on 1,128 consecutive nonmetastatic patients with bladder cancer treated with RC at a single tertiary care referral center from 1994 to 2014. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare recurrence, cancer-specific mortality (CSM), and overall mortality-free rates in the overall population and in pT0-pT2 and pT3-pT4 patients after stratifying according to the presence of CIS...
December 5, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932068/rovalpituzumab-tesirine-a-dll3-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-recurrent-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-first-in-human-first-in-class-open-label-phase-1-study
#19
Charles M Rudin, M Catherine Pietanza, Todd M Bauer, Neal Ready, Daniel Morgensztern, Bonnie S Glisson, Lauren A Byers, Melissa L Johnson, Howard A Burris, Francisco Robert, Tae H Han, Sheila Bheddah, Noah Theiss, Sky Watson, Deepan Mathur, Bharathi Vennapusa, Hany Zayed, Satwant Lally, Donald K Strickland, Ramaswamy Govindan, Scott J Dylla, Stanford L Peng, David R Spigel
BACKGROUND: Rovalpituzumab tesirine is a first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate directed against delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), a novel target identified in tumour-initiating cells and expressed in more than 80% of patients with small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients who progressed after one or more previous regimen. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 open-label study at ten cancer centres in the USA...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932067/nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab-as-first-line-treatment-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-checkmate-012-results-of-an-open-label-phase-1-multicohort-study
#20
Matthew D Hellmann, Naiyer A Rizvi, Jonathan W Goldman, Scott N Gettinger, Hossein Borghaei, Julie R Brahmer, Neal E Ready, David E Gerber, Laura Q Chow, Rosalyn A Juergens, Frances A Shepherd, Scott A Laurie, William J Geese, Shruti Agrawal, Tina C Young, Xuemei Li, Scott J Antonia
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab has shown improved survival in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and activity of combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line therapy for NSCLC. METHODS: The open-label, phase 1, multicohort study (CheckMate 012) cohorts reported here were enrolled at eight US academic centres. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed recurrent stage IIIb or stage IV, chemotherapy-naive NSCLC...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
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