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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241374/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
C V Rizos, T D Filippatos, M S Elisaf
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a growing epidemic and therefore efficient treatment strategies that target its management are needed. The treatment of diabetic patients often requires the combination of antidiabetic drug classes. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) block glucose reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) improve glucose metabolism by blocking the enzyme that degrades incretins leading to increased insulin secretion. Areas covered: The aim of the review is to present the available data on pharmacokinetic properties/pharmacodynamics, metabolic and cardiovascular effects...
December 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239764/treatment-choices-for-the-glycaemic-management-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-analysis-of-the-sail-patient-linked-dataset
#2
Thinzar Min, Gareth I Davies, Sam Rice, James Chess, Jeffrey W Stephens
AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in type 2 diabetes and limits the treatment choices for glycaemic control. Our aim was to examine real-world prescribing for managing hyperglycaemia in the presence of CKD. METHODS: The SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) databank was used to examine prescribing during the period from the 1st of January to 30th December 2014. CKD was defined as:- none or mild CKD, eGFR ≥60mL/min/1.73m2; moderate CKD eGFR <60mL/min/1...
November 23, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239667/the-prevalence-of-radiological-glenohumeral-osteoarthritis-in-long-term-type-1-diabetes-the-dialong-shoulder-study
#3
N G Juel, J I Brox, J C Hellund, K B Holte, T J Berg
OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of radiological osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) for > 45 years and controls, and explores the association with shoulder pain and glycaemic burden in patients with DM1. METHOD: The Dialong study is a cross-sectional, observational study with 30 years of historical data on long-term glycaemic control. We included 102 patients with DM1 and 73 diabetes-free controls. Demographic data, worst shoulder pain last week [numeric rating scale (NRS) 0-10], pain on abduction at examination (NRS 0-10), and current and historical glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were collected...
December 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239129/association-of-prenatal-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-with-offspring-body-composition-and-regional-body-fat-distribution
#4
M Kearney, J Perron, I Marc, S J Weisnagel, A Tchernof, J Robitaille
The aim of this cohort study was to compare body composition and regional body fat distribution between children exposed (GDM+) or unexposed (GDM-) in utero to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to investigate the association with the glycaemic and the insulin profile. Data from 56 GDM+ and 30 GDM- were analysed. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Total and regional body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin, glucose and HbA1c were obtained from a fasting plasma sample, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236983/cardioprotective-anti-hyperglycaemic-medications-a-review-of-clinical-trials
#5
Haitham M Ahmed, Haitham Khraishah, Leslie Cho
Despite extensive clinical efforts to achieve stricter glycaemic control over the past few decades, cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of death among diabetic patients. Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1-R) agonists have gained attention due to their apparent effects in reducing CV mortality. Four CV randomized controlled trials: EMPA-REG, CANVAS, LEADER, and SUSTAIN-6, found a decrease in CV events among patients with type 2 diabetes on empagliflozin, canagliflozin, liraglutide, and semaglutide, respectively...
December 9, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233143/relative-hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-complications-following-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-hi-5-data
#6
Tien F Lee, Morton G Burt, Leonie K Heilbronn, Arduino A Mangoni, Vincent W Wong, Mark McLean, N Wah Cheung
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated whether complications after AMI are associated with absolute or relative glycemia. METHODS: A total of 192 patients with AMI were randomized to intensive or conventional insulin therapy. Absolute glycemia was defined as mean blood glucose level (BGL) during the first 24 h following randomization. Relative glycemia was defined by the stress hyperglycaemia ratio (SHR), calculated as mean BGL divided by average glucose concentration over the prior 3 months estimated from glycosylated haemoglobin...
December 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230931/temporal-changes-in-glycaemic-thresholds-for-treatment-intensification-in-type-2-diabetes-in-an-urban-australian-setting-the-fremantle-diabetes-study
#7
Timothy M E Davis, Stephen A P Chubb, Bradley H Curtis, Helen Barraclough, Wendy A Davis
BACKGROUND: Pharmacotherapy and supportive care for diabetes in Australia are improving, with potential beneficial effects on therapeutic procrastination. AIMS: To determine whether glycaemic thresholds for therapeutic intensification in type 2 diabetes changed over the 15 years between Phases of the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study (FDS). METHODS: We studied 531 Phase 1 participants (mean age 62.4 years, 54.2% males, median diabetes duration 3...
December 12, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230420/glycaemic-control-after-metformin-discontinuation-in-diabetic-patients-with-a-declining-renal-function
#8
Theresa Leyco, Davin Ryanputra, Ray Peh, Alexphil Ponce, Chin Meng Khoo
Metformin is contraindicated in diabetic patients with declining renal function. This study examined the glycaemic control in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease when metformin was discontinued. This was a retrospective study. We screened 2032 diabetic patients who attended the Diabetes Clinic at a tertiary hospital between 1 September 2014 and 30 September 2015. We analyzed the data on 69 patients whom metformin was discontinued due to declining renal function and had a complete 6-month follow-up...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228855/effects-of-telephone-call-intervention-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis
#9
Junping Wei, Huijuan Zheng, Liansheng Wang, Qiuhong Wang, Fan Wei, Litao Bai
Background Mobile health interventions utilising telephone calls are promising tools for diabetes management. However, there is still a lack of convincing evidence demonstrating their beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was to assess the effect of telephone calls on glycaemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Two independent reviewers searched three online databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE) to identify relevant English-language randomised controlled trials up to September 2017...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226155/views-and-experiences-of-new-zealand-women-with-gestational-diabetes-in-achieving-glycaemic-control-targets-the-views-study
#10
Ruth Martis, Julie Brown, Caroline A Crowther
Introduction: Optimal glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reduces maternal and infant morbidity. Method: A survey was administered to women diagnosed with GDM to explore their views and experiences in achieving optimal glycaemic control. Results: Sixty women participated. Enablers included being taught to test capillary blood glucose in group settings where the health professional demonstrated this on themselves first (60, 100%); health professionals listening (41, 68%); being reminded to perform blood glucose testing (33, 55%); and being provided healthy meals by friends and family (28, 47%)...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225514/elevation-of-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-a-possible-antecedent-of-atherogenic-lipoprotein-phenotype-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-jos-north-central-nigeria
#11
Kenneth O Inaku, Obasola O Ogunkeye, Fayeofori M Abbiyesuku, Evelyn K Chuhwak, Christian O Isichei, Lucius C Imoh, Noel O Amadu, Alexander O Abu
Background: The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing. Dyslipidaemia is a known complication of diabetes mellitus manifesting frequently as cardiovascular diseases and stoke. Elevation of small, dense low density lipoprotein has been recognised as a component of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype associated with cardiovascular complications. We speculate that the elevation of this lipoprotein particle may be the antecedent of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. This study therefore aims to determine the pattern of dyslipidaemia among diabetes mellitus patients in Jos, North-Central Nigeria...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224190/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#12
REVIEW
David E Cummings, Francesco Rubino
Several bariatric operations originally designed to promote weight loss have been found to powerfully treat type 2 diabetes, causing remission in most cases, through diverse mechanisms additional to the secondary consequences of weight loss. These observations have prompted consideration of such operations as 'metabolic surgery', used expressly to treat diabetes, including among patients who are only mildly obese or merely overweight. Large, long-term observational studies consistently demonstrate that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reductions in all cardiovascular risk factors, actual cardiovascular events, microvascular diabetes complications, cancer and death...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223408/clinical-outcomes-to-exercise-training-in-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
D Jewiss, C Ostman, N King, N A Smart
AIMS: To establish the relationship between exercise training and clinical outcomes in people with type I diabetes. METHODS: Studies were identified through a MEDLINE search strategy, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Science Citation Index. The search strategy included a mix of key concepts related to exercise training; type 1 diabetes; glycaemic control for trials of exercise training in people with type 1 diabetes. Searches were limited to prospective randomized or controlled trials of exercise training in humans with type 1 diabetes lasting 12 weeks or more...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218344/generation-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-during-the-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-tropical-banded-cricket-gryllodes-sigillatus-proteins
#14
Alice B Nongonierma, Candice Lamoureux, Richard J FitzGerald
Tropical banded crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were studied for their ability to yield hydrolysates with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties. A cricket protein isolate (CPI) was prepared following extraction of the water soluble proteins from G. sigillatus powder (CP). The extraction yield and purity were 20.90 ± 0.35% and 57.0 ± 2.23%, respectively. Endogenous proteinase activities were detected in the CP, which were linked to the significant protein breakdown seen in this sample. Fifteen CPI hydrolysates (H1-H15) were generated with Protamex™ using a design of experiments (DOE) approach combining three parameters, temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C), enzyme to substrate ratio (E : S, 0...
December 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216336/managing-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
Sagen Zac-Varghese, Peter Winocour
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Sources of data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
December 5, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215656/-control-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-type-2-diabetes-in-a-specialized-diabetic-clinic
#16
B Pérez-Pevida, N Varela, S Pérez Rodríguez, E Martínez Segura, J Salvador, J Escalada
BACKGROUND: Achieving an adequate control of glycaemic and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, several studies have shown that the percentage of patients achieving these goals is scarce. We evaluated the degree of control of CVRFs target goals in T2DM patients who regularly attend a specialized diabetic clinic. METHODS: We studied T2DM patients who attended the specialized Diabetic Unit at the Department of Endocrinology of Clínica Universitaria de Navarra with a minimum follow-up of one year...
December 7, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215576/fasting-plasma-glucose-self-appraised-diet-quality-and-depressive-symptoms-a-us-representative-cross-sectional-study
#17
Erin Hoare, Sarah R Dash, Pia Varsamis, Garry L Jennings, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This research aimed to examine the relationships between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms in a large, population representative sample of US adults, controlling for other demographic and lifestyle behavioural risk factors...
December 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214182/thyroid-dysfunction-among-greek-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-as-a-disregarded-comorbidity
#18
Maria E Barmpari, Maria Kokkorou, Anastasia Micheli, Irene Alexiou, Elefteria Spanou, Marina Noutsou, Anastasia Thanopoulou
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Greek patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus as well as its possible relations to glycaemic control and to diabetic complications. Methods: A total of 1015 patients, consecutively followed in the Outpatient Diabetes Center, were studied. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements, occurrence of diabetes complications, and classical comorbidities were assessed...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212592/-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-endocrinological-side-effects
#19
Line Bisgaard Jørgensen, Lars Bastholt, Knud Yderstræde
Immune checkpoint inhibitors including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and anti-programmed cell death-1 have revolutionized cancer therapy but have also induced serious immune-related adverse events including hormonal dysfunction. The objective of this review is to characterize the incidence, clinical presentation, management and prognosis of the endocrine-related adverse events including hypophysitis, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. Combination therapy is associated with an increased risk of adverse events...
December 4, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212153/age-related-modulation-of-plasmatic-beta-galactosidase-activity-in-healthy-subjects-and-in-patients-affected-by-t2dm
#20
Liana Spazzafumo, Emanuela Mensà, Giulia Matacchione, Tiziana Galeazzi, Lucia Zampini, Rina Recchioni, Fiorella Marcheselli, Francesco Prattichizzo, Roberto Testa, Roberto Antonicelli, Paolo Garagnani, Massimo Boemi, Massimiliano Bonafè, Anna Rita Bonfigli, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Fabiola Olivieri
β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) activity has been the most extensively utilized biomarker for the detection of cellular senescence. It can be measured also in plasma, and few recent evidence showed an altered plasmatic β-Gal activity in patients affected by some age-related diseases (ARDs). Since T2DM is one of the most common ARDs, we aimed to investigate if plasmatic β-Gal activity is modulated in T2DM patients and if "age" could affect such modulation. To gain mechanistic insights we paralleled this investigation with the evaluation of β-Gal activity in young and senescent endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in normo- and hyper-glycaemic environment...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
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