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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819992/insulin-delivery-and-nocturnal-glucose-control-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#1
Martin Tauschmann, Roman Hovorka
Nocturnal glucose control remains challenging in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes due to highly variable overnight insulin requirements. The issue may be addressed by glucose responsive insulin delivery based on real-time continuous glucose measurements. Areas covered: This review outlines recent developments of glucose responsive insulin delivery systems from a paediatric perspective. We cover threshold-based suspend application, predictive low glucose suspend, and more advanced single hormone and dual-hormone closed-loop systems...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818596/cardiometabolic-phenotypes-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-two-cohorts-of-uk-women
#2
Anna L Guyatt, Kimberley Burrows, Philip A I Guthrie, Sue Ring, Wendy McArdle, Ian N M Day, Raimondo Ascione, Debbie A Lawlor, Tom R Gaunt, Santiago Rodriguez
The mitochondrial genome is present at variable copy number between individuals. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress, and their dysfunction may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, glycaemic traits, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and blood pressure) was assessed in two independent cohorts of European origin women, one in whom outcomes were measured at mean (SD) age 30 (4.3) years (N=2278) and the second at 69...
August 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817231/effect-of-once-weekly-dulaglutide-on-hba1c-and-fasting-blood-glucose-in-patient-subpopulations-by-gender-duration-of-diabetes-and-baseline-hba1c
#3
Baptist Gallwitz, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Vivian Thieu, Luis-Emilio Garcia-Perez, Imre Pavo, Maria Yu, Kenneth E Robertson, Nan Zhang, Francesco Giorgino
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg in type 2 diabetes patients by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes, and baseline HbA1c in the dulaglutide clinical development program (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Change in HbA1c was analysed by gender, duration of diabetes (<5 years, ≥5 years and <10 years, ≥10 years), and baseline HbA1c (<8.5%, ≥8.5%) in pooled and individual studies. Changes from baseline in weight, hypoglycaemia, and gastrointestinal adverse events were evaluated for individual trials...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817227/patterns-of-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-initiating-second-line-therapy-after-metformin-monotherapy-retrospective-data-for-10-256-individuals-from-the-united-kingdom-and-germany
#4
Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas R Godec, Jesús Medina, Laura Garcia-Alvarez, Josh Hiller, Marilia B Gomes, Javier Cid-Ruzafa, Bernard Charbonnel, Peter Fenici, Niklas Hammar, Kiyoshi Hashigami, Mikhail Kosiborod, Antonio Nicolucci, Marina V Shestakova, Linong Ji, Stuart Pocock
AIM: To investigate determinants of change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at 6 months after initiating uninterrupted second-line glucose-lowering therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study utilized retrospective data from 10 256 patients with T2DM who initiated second-line glucose-lowering therapy (switch from or add-on to metformin) between 2011 and 2014 in Germany and the UK. Effects of pre-specified patient characteristics on 6-month HbA1c changes were assessed using analysis of covariance...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816922/nil-whey-protein-effect-on-glycaemic-control-after-intense-mixed-mode-training-in-t2d
#5
Kim A Gaffney, Adam Lucero, Lee Stoner, James Faulkner, Patricia Whitfield, Jeremy Krebs, David S Rowlands
While intense endurance and resistance exercise training and whey protein supplementation have both been shown to independently improve glycaemic control, no known studies have examined the effect of high-intensity mixed-mode interval training (MMIT) and whey supplementation in adults with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). PURPOSE: To determine if peri-training whey protein supplementation combined with MMIT can improve glycaemic control. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial, 24 men (55...
August 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814128/effects-of-telemonitoring-on-glycaemic-control-and-healthcare-costs-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Robin Warren, Karen Carlisle, Gabor Mihala, Paul A Scuffham
Introduction This study examined the effect of a telehealth intervention on the control of type 2 diabetes and subsequent potential cost-savings to the health system. Methods This prospective randomised controlled trial randomised adults with type 2 diabetes to the intervention (diabetes program) or control (usual care) arm. Key eligibility criteria included an HbA1c level of at least 58 mmol/mol (7.5%) without severe or unstable comorbidities. All participants continued their usual healthcare, but participants in the intervention arm received additional diabetes care from a diabetes care coordinator via a home monitor that captured clinical measures...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814103/annals-express-associations-between-glycaemic-control-and-activation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-hypertension
#7
Tomas Patrick Griffin, Deirdre Wall, Gerard A Browne, Michael C Dennedy, Paula O'Shea
INTRODUCTION: Hyperglycaemia increases succinate levels and succinate receptor (GPR91) activation in the kidney resulting in renin release. The aim of our study was to determine if there is an association between glycaemic control as evidenced by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Galway University Hospitals between December 2014 and March 2015...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812216/an-overview-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-glycation-of-albumin-a-potential-disease-marker-in-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Km Neelofar, Jamal Ahmad
Non-enzymatic glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation is increased in diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycaemia and play an important role in associated complications of the disease. Protein glycation mostly occurs in intra chain lysine residues resulting in the formation of early stage Amadori products which are finally converted to advance glycation end products (AGEs). This review deals with the structural studies of in vitro and in vivo glycated human serum albumin (HSA)...
August 15, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#9
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810481/the-effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-depressed-patients-with-diabetes-a-systematic-review
#10
Jananezwary Kanapathy, Vanessa Bogle
Depression is common among patients with diabetes, who have a higher risk of diabetes-related complications such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and macrovascular complications. The aim of the systematic review is to determine whether cognitive behavioural therapy is effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving glycaemic control among depressed diabetic patients. The results reveal diversified application of cognitive behavioural therapy. All studies reported that cognitive behavioural therapy had a positive impact on depressive symptoms; three found an improvement in glycated haemoglobin, and one demonstrated improved self-efficacy and self-concept related to successful diabetes management...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807059/lower-education-predicts-poor-response-to-dietary-intervention-in-pregnancy-regardless-of-neighbourhood-affluence-secondary-analysis-from-the-rolo-randomised-control-trial
#11
Eileen C O'Brien, Goiuri Alberdi, Aisling A Geraghty, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
OBJECTIVE: To determine if response to a low glycaemic index (GI) dietary intervention, measured by changes in dietary intake and gestational weight gain, differed across women of varying socio-economic status (SES). DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of the ROLO randomised control trial. The intervention consisted of a two-hour low-GI dietary education session in early pregnancy. Change in GI was measured using 3 d food diaries pre- and post-intervention. Gestational weight gain was categorised as per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines...
August 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803366/does-hypoglycaemia-affect-the-improvement-in-qol-after-the-transition-to-insulin-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
T H Wieringa, M de Wit, J W R Twisk, F J Snoek
PURPOSE: Quality of Life (QoL) of insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) improves after transition to insulin. Little is known about the role of hypoglycaemia in this context. Secondary analyses of the Study of the Psychological Impact in Real care of Initiating insulin glargine Treatment (SPIRIT) aimed to investigate the relationship between hypoglycaemia and QoL when transitioning to insulin. METHODS: Insulin-naïve Dutch people with T2DM in suboptimal glycaemic control (HbA1c >53 mmol/mol; 7...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802292/even-minimal-polishing-of-an-indian-parboiled-brown-rice-variety-leads-to-increased-glycemic-responses
#13
Shanmugam Shobana, Nagarajan Lakshmipriya, Mookambika Ramya Bai, Rajagopal Gayathri, Vaidya Ruchi, Vasudevan Sudha, Nagappa G Malleshi, Kamala Krishnaswamy, C-J K Henry, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Viswanathan Mohan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of polishing on the glycemic properties of Indian parboiled brown rice. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the effect of different degrees of polishing on the glycemic and insulinemic responses of Bapatla (BPT-5204), Indian parboiled Indica rice variety. Brown rice (BR), under milled rice (UMR) and white rice (WR) with 2.3% and 9.7% degree of polishing (DOP), respectively, were prepared and evaluated for the glycemic properties...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802226/taraxerol-a-pentacyclic-triterpenoid-from-abroma-augusta-leaf-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#14
Ritu Khanra, Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycaemia coupled with inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of taraxerol isolated from the methanol extract of Abroma augusta leaf against DN using rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was experimentally induced by high fat diet and a single low-single dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg, i.p.). Accumulation of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid, activation of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinin kinase, and release of urinary albumin represented the glomerular damage and the progression of nephropathy in T2D rats...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801192/evaluating-findrisc-as-a-screening-tool-for-type-2-diabetes-among-overweight-adults-in-the-preview-nz-cohort
#15
Marta Paulino Silvestre, Yannan Jiang, Katya Volkova, Hannah Chisholm, Wonjoo Lee, Sally Diana Poppitt
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a high (≥12) Finnish diabetes risk (FINDRISC) score in identifying undiagnosed prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an New Zealand population of overweight and obese individuals, across a variety of ethnic groups. METHODS: We estimated the efficacy of elevated FINDRISC scores in predicting prediabetes and T2D in 424 overweight adults with no prior diagnosis recruited for the PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Interventions in Europe and Worldwide (PREVIEW) study...
August 8, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799894/meal-specific-food-patterns-and-the-incidence-of-hyperglycemia-in-a-chinese-adult-population
#16
Zumin Shi, Malcolm Riley, Anne Taylor, Manny Noakes
This study aimed to examine the association between meal-specific food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20 years and older (n 1056) were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected using a 3-d food record and meal-specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis based on the consumption of thirty-five food groups at each eating occasion. Each food pattern score was recoded as quartiles. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l at baseline and follow-up...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799221/repose-repositioning-insulin-pump-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#17
N S Oliver
In 2008, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) technology appraisal of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII, insulin pump therapy) for people with Type 1 diabetes was published [1]. Implementation of this enables children under the age of 12 years to access CSII, and consideration of CSII for adults and children over 12 years with challenging hypo- or hyperglycaemia. In Scotland, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidance for management of diabetes states that CSII therapy should be considered for people unable to achieve their glycaemic targets, for those who experience recurring episodes of severe hypoglycaemia, and in infants and very young children with very low basal insulin requirements, for whom even small doses of basal insulin analogue may result in hypoglycaemia [2]...
August 11, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799164/preconception-care-for-diabetic-women-for-improving-maternal-and-infant-health
#18
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: Infants born to mothers with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of congenital anomalies, perinatal mortality and significant morbidity in the short and long term. Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are at greater risk of perinatal morbidity and diabetic complications. The relationship between glycaemic control and health outcomes for both mothers and infants indicates the potential for preconception care for these women to be of benefit...
August 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799036/uncontrolled-diabetes-and-health-care-utilisation-panel-data-evidence-from-spain
#19
Joan Gil, Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Eugenio Zucchelli
Despite size and relevance of uncontrolled diabetes, robust evidence on its effects on health care utilisation is very limited, especially among European countries. We employed longitudinal administrative data from Spain (2004-2010) to explore the relationship between uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and health care utilisation. We used a biomarker (glycated haemoglobin, HbA1c) to detect the presence of uncontrolled diabetes and explore its effects on both primary and secondary health care. We estimated a range of panel count data models, including negative binomials with random effects, dynamic and hurdle specifications to account for unobserved heterogeneity, previous utilisation and selection...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794498/analysis-of-inflammatory-cytokine-and-tlr-expression-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-with-complications
#20
Saket Gupta, Ashwini Maratha, Jakub Siednienko, Anandan Natarajan, Thusitha Gajanayake, Shu Hoashi, Sinéad Miggin
The pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are closely linked with defective glucose metabolism, obesity, cardiovascular disease and an inability to mount an effective immune response to certain pathogenic organisms. Perturbations in key innate immune receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNFα and IL-1β have been linked with T2DM. Herein, we sought to establish whether patients with T2DM and underlying complications exhibit perturbations in cytokine and TLR expression...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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