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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936433/carbon-starvation-induces-lipid-degradation-via-autophagy-in-the-model-alga-micrasterias
#1
Viola Schwarz, Ancuela Andosch, Anja Geretschläger, Matthias Affenzeller, Ursula Lütz-Meindl
Autophagy is regarded as crucial intracellular process in plant development but also in intracellular stress response. It is known to be controlled by the energy level of the cell and consequently can be triggered by energy deprivation. In this study carbon starvation evoked in different ways was investigated in the freshwater algae model system Micrasterias denticulata (Streptophyta) which is closely related to higher plants. Cells exposed to the photosynthesis inhibiting herbicide DCMU, to the glycolysis inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose and to complete darkness over up to 9 weeks for preventing metabolism downstream of glucose supply, were investigated by means of Nile red staining and analyses in CLSM, and TEM after cryo-preparation...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936165/enzymatically-modified-starch-favorably-modulated-intestinal-transit-time-and-hindgut-fermentation-in-growing-pigs
#2
M A Newman, Q Zebeli, K Velde, D Grüll, T Molnar, W Kandler, B U Metzler-Zebeli
Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933453/engineering-of-escherichia-coli-to-facilitate-efficient-utilization-of-isomaltose-and-panose-in-industrial-glucose-feedstock
#3
Kenji Abe, Akio Kuroda, Ryo Takeshita
Industrial glucose feedstock prepared by enzymatic digestion of starch typically contains significant amounts of disaccharides such as maltose and isomaltose and trisaccharides such as maltotriose and panose. Maltose and maltosaccharides can be utilized in Escherichia coli fermentation using industrial glucose feedstock because there is an intrinsic assimilation pathway for these sugars. However, saccharides that contain α-1,6 bonds, such as isomaltose and panose, are still present after fermentation because there is no metabolic pathway for these sugars...
December 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933041/production-characterization-and-application-of-bacillus-licheniformis-w16-biosurfactant-in-enhancing-oil-recovery
#4
Sanket J Joshi, Yahya M Al-Wahaibi, Saif N Al-Bahry, Abdulkadir E Elshafie, Ali S Al-Bemani, Asma Al-Bahri, Musallam S Al-Mandhari
The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933039/the-contribution-of-mathematical-modeling-to-understanding-dynamic-aspects-of-rumen-metabolism
#5
André Bannink, Henk J van Lingen, Jennifer L Ellis, James France, Jan Dijkstra
All mechanistic rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interactions between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932260/equilibrium-adsorption-of-caffeic-chlorogenic-and-rosmarinic-acids-on-cationic-cross-linked-starch-with-quaternary-ammonium-groups
#6
Deimante Simanaviciute, Rima Klimaviciute, Ramune Rutkaite
In the present study, the equilibrium adsorption of caffeic acid (CA) and its derivatives, namely, chlorogenic (CGA) and rosmarinic (RA) acids on cationic cross-linked starch (CCS) with degree of substitution of quaternary ammonium groups of 0.42 have been investigated in relation to the structure and acidity of phenolic acids. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models have been used to describe the equilibrium adsorption of CA, CGA and RA from their initial solutions and solutions having the equimolar amount of NaOH at different temperatures...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929184/a-comparison-of-rs4-type-resistant-starch-to-rs2-type-resistant-starch-in-suppressing-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#7
Xu Si, Zhongkai Zhou, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard
The anti-obesity effects of two types of resistant starch (RS) in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats were investigated. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly reduced, and the total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase levels and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased by RS2 and RS4 consumption compared to the obesity group. A significant reduction in the serum glucose level and elevations in hepatic lipid metabolic enzyme activities were observed only for RS4 administration...
December 8, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927993/suppression-of-extracellular-invertase-inhibitor-gene-expression-improves-seed-weight-in-soybean-glycine-max
#8
Xiaofei Tang, Tao Su, Mei Han, Lai Wei, Weiwei Wang, Zhiyuan Yu, Yongguo Xue, Hongbin Wei, Yejie Du, Steffen Greiner, Thomas Rausch, Lijun Liu
Cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) play multiple functions in plant growth. As well as depending on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, there is growing evidence that CWI and VI are also subject to post-translational control by small inhibitory proteins. Despite the significance of this, genes encoding inhibitors, their molecular and biochemical properties, and their potential roles in regulating seed production have not been well documented in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, two invertase inhibitor isoforms, GmCIF1 and GmC/VIF2, were characterized to possess inhibitory activities in vitro via heterologous expression...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927266/enzymatically-modified-starch-up-regulates-expression-of-incretins-and-sodium-coupled-monocarboxylate-transporter-in-jejunum-of-growing-pigs
#9
B U Metzler-Zebeli, R Ertl, D Grüll, T Molnar, Q Zebeli
Dietary effects on the host are mediated via modulation of the intestinal mucosal responses. The present study investigated the effect of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) product on the mucosal expression of genes related to starch digestion, sugar and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and incretins in the jejunum and cecum in growing pigs. Moreover, the impact of the EMS on hepatic expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and postprandial serum metabolites were assessed. Barrows (n=12/diet; initial BW 29 kg) were individually fed three times daily with free access to a diet containing either EMS or waxy corn starch as control (CON) for 10 days...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927052/microencapsulation-of-white-champaca-michelia-alba-d-c-extract-using-octenyl-succinic-anhydride-osa-starch-for-controlled-release-aroma
#10
Rajnibhas Samakradhamrongthai, Prodpran Thakeow, Phikunthong Kopermsub, Niramon Utama-Ang
The objective of the study was to optimise the encapsulation of Michelia alba D.C. (MAD) extract using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch. The MAD extract (5-10 g/100 g of dry starch) and the OSA starch (25-100 g/100 ml of water) was used in microcapsule preparation and analysed for the physicochemical and encapsulation properties. The optimised formula using the MAD extract and the OSA starch were 15.00 g/100 g of dry starch and 96.32 g/100 g water, which provided the highest in yield recovery (40...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926787/comparison-of-the-effects-of-a-balanced-crystalloid-based-and-a-saline-based-tetrastarch-solution-on-canine-whole-blood-coagulation-and-platelet-function
#11
Annina Reuteler, Shannon Axiak-Flammer, Judith Howard, Katja-Nicole Adamik
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) solution in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL), or a saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on canine platelet function and whole blood coagulation. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Thirty-seven client-owned dogs undergoing general anesthesia for arthroscopy or imaging studies. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs received a 15 mL/kg intravenous bolus of HES-SAL (n = 13), HES-BAL (n = 14), or a modified Ringer's solution (n = 10) over 30-40 minutes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924363/characteristics-and-applications-of-recombinant-thermostable-amylopullulanase-of-geobacillus-thermoleovorans-secreted-by-pichia-pastoris
#12
M Nisha, T Satyanarayana
The 3'-deleted amylopullulanase gene from the extreme thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Gt-apuΔC) was expressed extracellularly in Pichia pastoris under both methanol-inducible AOX1 and constitutive GAP promoters. The expression of the gene (Gt-apuΔC) was higher under GAP promoter (36.2 U ml(-1), α-amylase; 33.5 U ml(-1), pullulanase) than that under AOX1 promoter (32.5 and 28.6 U ml(-1)). The heavily glycosylated Gt-apuΔC from the recombinant P. pastoris displays higher substrate specificity, thermal stability and starch saccharification efficiency than that expressed in Escherichia coli...
December 6, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924122/a-tomato-plastidic-atp-adp-transporter-gene-slaatp-increases-starch-content-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#13
Feibing Wang, Yuxiu Ye, Yuan Niu, Faxiang Wan, Bo Qi, Xinhong Chen, Qing Zhou, Boqing Chen
A plastidic ATP/ADP transporter (AATP) is responsible for importing ATP from the cytosol into plastids. Increasing the ATP supply is a potential way to facilitate anabolic synthesis in heterotrophic plastids of plants. In this work, a gene encoding the AATP protein, named SlAATP, was successfully isolated from tomato. Expression of SlAATP was induced by exogenous sucrose treatment in tomato. The coding region of SlAATP was cloned into a binary vector under the control of 35S promoter and then transformed into Arabidopsis to obtain transgenic plants...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923783/advice-on-sugar-and-starch-is-urged-in-type-2-diabetes-counselling
#14
Jane Feinmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923548/efficient-production-of-pullulan-by-aureobasidium-pullulans-grown-on-mixtures-of-potato-starch-hydrolysate-and-sucrose
#15
Chao An, Sai-Jian Ma, Fan Chang, Wen-Jiao Xue
Pullulan is a natural exopolysaccharide with many useful characteristics. However, pullulan is more costly than other exopolysaccharides, which limits its effective application. The purpose of this study was to adopt a novel mixed-sugar strategy for maximizing pullulan production, mainly using potato starch hydrolysate as a low-cost substrate for liquid-state fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans. Based on fermentation kinetics evaluation of pullulan production by A. pullulans 201253, the pullulan production rate of A...
November 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923491/experimental-design-for-determination-of-effects-of-superdisintegrant-combinations-on-liquisolid-system-properties
#16
Barbora Vraníková, Sylvie Pavloková, Jan Gajdziok
The preparation of liquisolid systems presents a promising and innovative possibility for enhancing dissolution profiles and improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. This study aims to evaluate the differences in the properties of liquisolid systems containing combinations of 3 commercially used superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone, and croscarmellose sodium). Multiple regression models and contour plots were used to study how the amount and the type of superdisintegrant used affected the quality parameters of liquisolid tablets...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919542/total-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-healthy-children-associations-with-adiposity-and-dietary-intakes-of-mother-and-child
#17
H Khalil, C Murrin, M O'Reilly, K Viljoen, R Segurado, J O'Brien, R Somerville, F McGillicuddy, C C Kelleher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity in adults may be a measure of the atheroprotective property of HDL. Little however, is known about HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in childhood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and childhood anthropometrics in a longitudinal study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five children (mean age = 9.4 ± 0.4 years) were followed from birth until the age of 9 years...
October 12, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914756/the-colloid-controversy-are-colloids-bad-and-what-are-the-options
#18
REVIEW
Christine Wong, Amie Koenig
Biologic and synthetic colloid solutions are frequently used to increase oncotic pressure and to treat shock. Research has shown that each product has both risks and benefits. Hydroxyethyl starches have gained a reputation for increasing risk of death, acute kidney injury, and coagulation abnormalities in people, but additional studies are needed to see whether these concerns hold true in veterinary patients. This article reviews the risks and benefits of currently available products.
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914269/targeted-hydroxyethyl-starch-prodrug-for-inhibiting-the-growth-and-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer
#19
Kaidong Zhao, Di Li, Weiguo Xu, Jianxun Ding, Weiqian Jiang, Mingqiang Li, Chunxi Wang, Xuesi Chen
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies among men. Although chemotherapy has been an effective therapeutic approach for treating metastatic prostate cancer, serious undesired side effects have hampered its wide application clinically. In this work, a pH-responsive LHRH-conjugated hydroxyethyl starch-doxorubicin (HES-DOX/LHRH) prodrug was facilely synthesized by conjugating oxidized HES (HES-CHO) with DOX and LHRH through an acid-sensitive Schiff base bond. The resulting prodrug spontaneously self-assembled into nanoscopic micelle with a radius of about 55 nm in an aqueous environment...
November 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913887/transcriptomics-analysis-of-hulless-barley-during-grain-development-with-a-focus-on-starch-biosynthesis
#20
Yawei Tang, Xingquan Zeng, Yulin Wang, Lijun Bai, Qijun Xu, Zexiu Wei, Hongjun Yuan, Tashi Nyima
Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed...
December 2, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
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