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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782981/cationic-starch-safe-and-economic-harvesting-flocculant-for-microalgal-biomass-and-inhibiting-e-coli-growth
#1
Mehrez E E El-Naggar, Farag A Samhan, Abeer A A Salama, Rehab M Hamdy, Gamila H Ali
Cationized starch-based flocculation processes are the subject of increasing attention because of their non-toxicity, biodegradability and relatively low price synthesized. The study aimed to evaluate the flocculability of different cationic starches using different concentrations of glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTAC) with different degree of substitution (DS) ranged from 0.13 to 0.57. Cationized starch were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and toxicity checked using experimental animal procedure...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780400/led-lighting-modification-of-growth-metabolism-yield-and-flour-composition-in-wheat-by-spectral-quality-and-intensity
#2
István Monostori, Márk Heilmann, Gábor Kocsy, Marianna Rakszegi, Mohamed Ahres, Susan B Altenbach, Gabriella Szalai, Magda Pál, Dávid Toldi, Livia Simon-Sarkadi, Noémi Harnos, Gábor Galiba, Éva Darko
The use of light-emitting diode (LED) technology for plant cultivation under controlled environmental conditions can result in significant reductions in energy consumption. However, there is still a lack of detailed information on the lighting conditions required for optimal growth of different plant species and the effects of light intensity and spectral composition on plant metabolism and nutritional quality. In the present study, wheat plants were grown under six regimens designed to compare the effects of LED and conventional fluorescent lights on growth and development, leaf photosynthesis, thiol and amino acid metabolism as well as grain yield and flour quality of wheat...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780258/influence-of-different-ex-vivo-cell-culture-methods-on-the-proliferation-and-anti-tumor-activity-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-from-gastric-cancer-patients
#3
Bin Shi, Aixia Sun, Xiaorui Zhang
Purpose: In cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell therapy, the phenotypes and the numbers of CIK cells have a great influence on the therapeutic effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different ex vivo cell culture methods on the proliferation and cytotoxicity of CIK cells that were obtained from gastric cancer patients. Patients and methods: CIK precursor (Pre-CIK) cells were collected by either hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation (HES method, unpurified group) or Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation (Ficoll method, purified group)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780215/expression-of-a-rice-soluble-starch-synthase-gene-in-transgenic-wheat-improves-the-grain-yield-under-heat-stress-conditions
#4
Bin Tian, Shyamal K Talukder, Jianming Fu, Allan K Fritz, Harold N Trick
Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a temperate cereal with an optimum temperature range of 15-22°C during the grain filling stage. Heat stress is one of the major environmental constraints for wheat production worldwide. Temperatures above 25°C during the grain filling stage significantly reduced wheat yield and quality. This reduction was reported due to the inactivation of the soluble starch synthase, a key heat-labile enzyme in starch transformation of wheat endosperm. To improve wheat productivity under heat stress, the rice soluble starch synthase I, under the control of either a constitutive promoter or an endosperm-specific promoter, was expressed in wheat and the transgenic lines were monitored for expression and the effects on yield-related traits...
2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779192/impact-of-weak-water-deficit-on-growth-photosynthetic-primary-processes-and-storage-processes-in-pine-and-spruce-seedlings
#5
Ilya E Zlobin, Yury V Ivanov, Alexander V Kartashov, Boris A Sarvin, Andrey N Stavrianidi, Vladimir D Kreslavski, Vladimir V Kuznetsov
We investigated the influence of 40 days of drought on growth, storage processes and primary photosynthetic processes in 3-month-old Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings growing in perlite culture. Water stress significantly affected seedling water status, whereas absolute dry biomass growth was not substantially influenced. Water stress induced an increase in non-structural carbohydrate content (sugars, sugar alcohols, starch) in the aboveground part of pine seedlings in contrast to spruce seedlings. Due to the relatively low content of sugars and sugar alcohols in seedling organs, their expected contribution to osmotic potential changes was quite low...
May 19, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779107/stabilization-of-butyrylcholinesterase-by-the-entrapment-into-the-natural-polymer-based-gels
#6
V I Lonshakova-Mukina, E N Esimbekova, V A Kratasyuk
A new method for obtaining stable butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) samples based on the enzyme immobilization in starch and gelatin gels followed by drying is proposed. Coimmobilization of BuChE with the thiol group indicator 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic) acid did not reduce the activity of BuChE, which allowed us to simplify the procedure and reduce the time of analysis of organophosphorus pesticides. The resulting immobilized samples retained activity for at least 300 days. BuChE samples based on the starch gel showed a greater sensitivity in the determination of pesticides as compared to the samples based on the gelatin gel...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778877/an-insight-into-the-multi-scale-structures-and-pasting-behaviors-of-starch-following-citric-acid-treatment
#7
Yinqiang Huo, Binjia Zhang, Meng Niu, Caihua Jia, Siming Zhao, Qilin Huang, Hongying Du
Using combined analytical techniques, this work discloses how citric acid (CA) treatment affects the pasting features of starch from a view of multi-scale structural evolutions. The treatment induced disruption events in starch multi-level structures and thus modulated the pasting behaviors. A structure-property relationship was proposed to rationalize CA effects on starch pasting properties. Specifically, CA disrupted starch structures from molecular scale to micron scale, eventually reducing pasting temperature and paste viscosities...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778475/performance-nutritional-behavior-and-metabolic-responses-of-calves-supplemented-with-forage-depend-on-starch-fermentability
#8
S Mojahedi, M Khorvash, G R Ghorbani, E Ghasemi, M Mirzaei, F Hashemzadeh-Cigari
This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778068/evaluation-of-the-structural-morphology-of-starch-graft-poly-acrylic-acid-on-its-scale-inhibition-efficiency
#9
Wei Yu, Yawen Wang, Aimin Li, Hu Yang
The development of phosphorus-free and biodegradable scale inhibitors has been paid considerable attention. Two series of starch-graft-poly(acrylic acid) (St-g-PAA) samples with different grafting ratios and grafted-chain distributions, that is, the number and length of grafted PAA chains on the starch backbone, were designed and prepared in this study. Fourier transform infrared and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were used to further characterize the molecular structures of the St-g-PAAs. In addition to dose, the effects of the structural morphologies of St-g-PAA, namely, grafting ratio and grafted-chain distribution, on the scale-inhibition performance against calcium carbonate were investigated systematically...
April 9, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777400/ontogeny-of-anastomosed-laticifers-in-the-stem-apex-of-hancornia-speciosa-apocynaceae-a-topographic-approach
#10
Mayara Pereira Gonçalves, Maria Olívia Mercadante-Simões, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro
Latex is a complex plant secretion with both ecological and economic importance. There is little information currently available on the cytological aspects of the ontogenesis of anastomosed laticifers, the ducts originating through the lysis of adjacent cell walls. Hancornia speciosa is a tree typical of the Cerrado (neotropical savanna) biome. Its latex has medicinal value and is also used to produce rubber. The ontogenesis of its laticifers and the process of latex synthesis are described here. Structural, cytochemical, and ultrastructural analyses of the stem apex and phytochemical analyses of the latex were performed...
May 18, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777204/critical-role-of-climate-change-in-plant-selection-and-millet-domestication-in-north-china
#11
Xiaoyan Yang, Wenxiang Wu, Linda Perry, Zhikun Ma, Ofer Bar-Yosef, David J Cohen, Hongbo Zheng, Quansheng Ge
While North China is one of the earliest independent centers for cereal domestication in the world, the earliest stages of the long process of agricultural origins remain unclear. While only millets were eventually domesticated in early sedentary societies there, recent archaeobotanical evidence reported here indicates that grasses from the Paniceae (including millets) and Triticeae tribes were exploited together by foraging groups from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene. Here we explore how and why millets were selected for domestication while Triticeae were abandoned...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777170/systematic-biology-analysis-on-photosynthetic-carbon-metabolism-of-maize-leaf-following-sudden-heat-shock-under-elevated-co-2
#12
Mingnan Qu, Genyun Chen, James A Bunce, Xiaocen Zhu, Richard C Sicher
Plants would experience more complex environments, such as sudden heat shock (SHS) stress combined with elevated CO2 in the future, and might adapt to this stressful condition by optimizing photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM). It is interesting to understand whether this acclimation process would be altered in different genotypes of maize under elevated CO2 , and which metabolites represent key indicators reflecting the photosynthetic rates (PN ) following SHS. Although B76 had greater reduction in PN during SHS treatment, our results indicated that PN in genotype B76, displayed faster recovery after SHS treatment under elevated CO2 than in genotype B106...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775922/acid-phosphatase-test-on-phadebas-%C3%A2-sheets-an-optimized-method-for-presumptive-saliva-and-semen-detection
#13
Yael Herman, Ilan Feine, Ron Gafny
The precise and efficient detection of semen and saliva in sexual assault case-work items is a critical step in the forensic pipeline. The outcome of this stage may have a profound impact on identifying perpetrators as well as on the investigation process and the final outcome in court. Semen detection is usually based on the activity of acid phosphatase (AP), an enzyme found in high concentration in the seminal plasma. Amylase, an enzyme catalyzing starch hydrolysis is found in high concentrations in saliva and therefore is a useful target for its detection...
April 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775864/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-inhibits-primary-root-gravitropism-by-regulating-auxin-distribution-during-arabidopsis-seed-germination
#14
Lina Zhou, Hongzhou Hou, Tao Yang, Yuke Lian, Yan Sun, Zhiyuan Bian, Chongying Wang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the key factor in many physiological and metabolic processes in plants. During seed germination, exogenous H2 O2 application influences gravitropism and induces curvature of the primary root in grass pea and pea seedlings. However, it remains unclear whether and how this happens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, the effect of exogenous H2 O2 on the gravitropic response of primary roots during Arabidopsis seed germination was studied using histology and molecular biology approaches...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775707/in-vitro-digestibility-of-normal-and-waxy-corn-starch-is-modified-by-the-addition-of-tween-80
#15
E J Vernon-Carter, J Alvarez-Ramirez, L A Bello-Perez, A Garcia-Hernandez, C Roldan-Cruz, S Garcia-Diaz
Aqueous dispersions of normal and waxy corn starch (3% w/w) were mixed with Tween 80 (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 g/100 g of starch), and gelatinized (90 °C, 20 min). Optical microscopy of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSDx ; x = Tween 80 concentration) revealed that the microstructure was characterized by a continuous phase of leached amylose and amylopectin entangled chains, and a dispersed phase of insoluble remnants, called ghosts, on whose surface small granules were observed, imputed to Tween 80...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775544/recovery-of-glucose-from-dried-distiller-s-grain-with-solubles-using-combinations-of-solid-state-fermentation-and-insect-culture
#16
Timothy Howdeshell, Takuji Tanaka
A bioethanol byproduct (dried distiller's grains with solubles; DDGS) contains a high cellulose and starch. We hypothesized combinations of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and digestion by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) could increase the recovery of glucose from this byproduct through concentrating and loosening cellulose matrix by their activities. DDGS was individually fermented with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma koningii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, or Lactobacillus plantarum...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775500/endosperm-sugar-accumulation-caused-by-mutation-of-phs8-isa1-leads-to-pre-harvest-sprouting-in-rice
#17
Lin Du, Fan Xu, Jun Fang, Shaopei Gao, Jiuyou Tang, Shuang Fang, Hongru Wang, Hongning Tong, Fengxia Zhang, Jinfang Chu, Guodong Wang, Chengcai Chu
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an unfavorable trait in cereal crops which could seriously decrease grain yield and quality. Although some PHS-associated quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes in cereals have been reported, the molecular mechanism underlying PHS remains largely elusive. Here, we characterized a rice mutant, phs8, which exhibits PHS phenotype accompanied by sugary endosperm. Map-based cloning revealed that PHS8 encodes a starch debranching enzyme named isoamylase1. Mutation in PHS8 resulted in the phytoglycogen breakdown and sugar accumulation in the endosperm...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774508/the-bacterial-and-archaeal-community-structures-and-methanogenic-potential-of-the-cecal-microbiota-of-goats-fed-with-hay-and-high-grain-diets
#18
Wei Jin, Yin Li, Yanfen Cheng, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu
The cecum plays an important role in the feed fermentation of ruminants. However, information is very limited regarding the cecal microbiota and their methane production. In the present study, the cecal content from twelve local Chinese goats, fed with either a hay diet (0% grain) or a high-grain diet (71.5% grain), were used to investigate the bacterial and archaeal community and their methanogenic potential. Microbial community analysis was determined using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR, and the methanogenesis potential was assessed by in vitro fermentation with ground corn or hay as substrates...
May 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774409/starch-formation-inside-plastids-of-higher-plants
#19
REVIEW
Asena Goren, Daniel Ashlock, Ian J Tetlow
Starch is a water-insoluble polyglucan synthesized inside the plastid stroma within plant cells, serving a crucial role in the carbon budget of the whole plant by acting as a short-term and long-term store of energy. The highly complex, hierarchical structure of the starch granule arises from the actions of a large suite of enzyme activities, in addition to physicochemical self-assembly mechanisms. This review outlines current knowledge of the starch biosynthetic pathway operating in plant cells in relation to the micro- and macro-structures of the starch granule...
May 17, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774036/the-pattern-and-distribution-of-induced-mutations-in-j-curcas-using-reduced-representation-sequencing
#20
Fatemeh Maghuly, Stephan Pabinger, Julie Krainer, Margit Laimer
Mutagenesis in combination with Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) is a powerful tool for introducing variation, studying gene function and identifying causal mutations underlying phenotypes of interest in crop plant genomes. About 400 million paired-end reads were obtained from 82 ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) induced mutants and 14 wild-type accessions of Jatropha curcas for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Insertion/Deletions (InDels) by two different approaches (nGBS and ddGBS) on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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