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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944538/mumads1-and-maofp1-regulate-fruit-quality-in-a-tomato-ovate-mutant
#1
Juhua Liu, Jing Zhang, Jingyi Wang, Jianbin Zhang, Hongxia Miao, Caihong Jia, Zhuo Wang, Biyu Xu, Zhiqiang Jin
Fruit ripening and quality are common botanical phenomena that are closely linked and strictly regulated by transcription factors. It was previously discovered that a banana MADS-box protein named MuMADS1 interacted with an ovate family protein named MaOFP1 to regulate banana fruit ripening. In order to further investigate the role of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in the regulation of fruit quality, a combination of genetic transformation and transcriptional characterization was used. The results indicated that the co-expression of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in the ovate mutant could compensate for fruit shape and inferior qualities relating to fruit firmness, soluble solids and sugar content...
September 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944065/exogenous-cytokinin-application-to-actinidia-chinensis-var-deliciosa-hayward-fruit-promotes-fruit-expansion-through-water-uptake
#2
Simona Nardozza, Helen L Boldingh, Mark W Wohlers, Andrew P Gleave, Zhiwei Luo, Guglielmo Costa, Elspeth A MacRae, Michael J Clearwater, Annette C Richardson
Exogenous application of a cytokinin-like compound forchlorfenuron (CPPU) can promote fruit growth, although often at the expense of dry matter (DM), an important indicator of fruit quality. Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa 'Hayward' fruit are very responsive to CPPU treatments, but the mechanism underlying the significant fruit weight increase and associated decrease in DM is unclear. In this study, we hypothesised that CPPU-enhanced growth increases fruit carbohydrate demand, but limited carbohydrate supply resulted in decreased fruit DM...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942491/modulation-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Jarno Honkanen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942462/fluidised-bed-spray-drying-formulations-of-candida-sake-cpa-1-by-adding-biodegradable-coatings-to-enhance-their-survival-under-stress-conditions
#4
Anna Carbó, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Cristina Solsona, Neus Teixidó
The biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 has demonstrated to be effective against several diseases on fruit. However, for application of CPA-1 under field conditions, it was necessary to mix it with a food coating to improve survival under stress conditions, as well as adherence and distribution on fruit surfaces. The objective of this study was to obtain a more competitive formulation under field conditions to be applied independently of any product. To achieve this purpose, the drying process of CPA-1 by a fluidised-bed spray-drying system together with biodegradable coatings was optimised...
September 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941702/young-bamboo-culm-potential-food-as-source-of-fiber-and-starch
#5
Mária Herminia Ferrari Felisberto, Patricia Satie Endo Miyake, Antonio Ludovico Beraldo, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici
With the objective of widening the use of bamboo in the food industry, the present work aimed to produce and characterize the young bamboo culm flours from varieties Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa tuldoides and Bambusa vulgaris as potential sources of fiber and starch. The young culms were collected, cut in three sections (bottom, middle, top), processed into flour, and they were physically, chemically and technologically analyzed. The data were obtained in triplicate and evaluated by means of average differences, using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scott-Knott test (p<0...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940549/the-effect-of-18-o-labelled-water-vapour-on-the-oxygen-isotope-ratio-of-water-and-assimilates-in-plants-at-high-humidity
#6
Marco M Lehmann, Gregory R Goldsmith, Lola Schmid, Arthur Gessler, Matthias Saurer, Rolf T W Siegwolf
Our understanding of how temporal variations of atmospheric water vapour and its isotopic composition (δ(18) OV ) influence water and assimilates in plants remains limited, restricting our ability to use δ(18) O as a tracer of ecophysiological processes. We exposed oak (Quercus robur) saplings under wet and dry soil moisture conditions to (18) O-depleted water vapour (c. - 200‰) at high relative humidity (c. 93%) for 5 h, simulating a fog event. We then traced the step change in δ(18) OV into water and assimilates (e...
September 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939522/spectroscopic-calorimetric-and-structural-analyses-of-the-effects-of-hydrothermal-treatment-of-rice-beans-and-the-extraction-solvent-on-starch-characteristics
#7
Leopoldo González-Cruz, José Luis Montañez-Soto, Eloy Conde-Barajas, María de la Luz Xochilt Negrete-Rodríguez, Areli Flores-Morales, Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor
The modification of the starches extracted from rice beans both with and without hydrothermal treatment was evaluated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. SEM indicated that the starch granules of rice beans exhibit wide variation in granule shape, showing the greatest size and modification of the surface when extracted with ethanol. It was found that the extraction solvent had no significant effect on the onset (To) and peak (Tp) temperatures of the starch, whereas hydrothermal treatment of rice beans decreased the To, Tp and ΔH of the starch...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938819/a-general-method-for-the-derivation-of-the-functional-forms-of-the-effective-energy-terms-in-coarse-grained-energy-functions-of-polymers-ii-backbone-local-potentials-of-coarse-grained-o1%C3%A2-4-bonded-polyglucose-chains
#8
Emilia A Lubecka, Adam Liwo
Based on the theory of the construction of coarse-grained force fields for polymer chains described in our recent work [A. K. Sieradzan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 146, 124106 (2017)], in this work effective coarse-grained potentials, to be used in the SUGRES-1P model of polysaccharides that is being developed in our laboratory, have been determined for the O⋯O⋯O virtual-bond angles (θ) and for the dihedral angles for rotation about the O⋯O virtual bonds (γ) of 1 → 4-linked glucosyl polysaccharides, for all possible combinations of [α,β]-[d,l]-glucose...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938211/current-surface-ozone-concentrations-significantly-decrease-wheat-growth-yield-and-quality
#9
Håkan Pleijel, Malin C Broberg, Johan Uddling, Gina Mills
Tropospheric ozone is known to adversely affect crops and other vegetation. Most studies have focussed on the effects of elevated ozone levels vs. present ambient. We investigated the effect of present ambient surface ozone (O3) concentrations vs. preindustrial on a range of agronomically important response variables in field-grown wheat, using results from 33 experiments (representing 9 countries, 3 continents, 17 cultivars plus one set of 4 cultivars) having both charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) air treatments...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938057/outbreak-of-drepanopeziza-fungus-in-aspen-forests-and-variation-in-stand-susceptibility-leaf-functional-traits-compensatory-growth-and-phenology
#10
Anson C Call, Samuel B St Clair
In the spring of 2015, a severe outbreak of the necrotrophic pathogen Drepanopeziza (also known as Marssonina) spread across large portions of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests in the western United States. Among adjacent stands, some were diseased and others were not. Drepanopeziza infection in diseased aspen stands stimulated compensatory growth of second-flush leaves at the top of the canopy. These patterns of infection provided an opportunity to characterize associations of pathogen infection and leaf functional traits...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936647/3d-imaging-of-whole-mount-ovules-at-cellular-resolution-to-study-female-germline-development-in-rice
#11
Ethel Mendocilla-Sato, Wenjing She, Célia Baroux
Recent advances in fluorescence-based staining of cellular compartments coupled with confocal microscopy imaging have allowed the visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures with cellular resolution in various intact plant tissues and species. Such approaches are of particular interest for the analysis of the reproductive lineage in plants including the meiotic precursor cells deeply embedded within the ovary of the gynoecium enclosed in the flower. Yet, their relative inaccessibility and the lack of optical clarity of plant tissues prevent robust staining and imaging across several cell layers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935539/molecular-structure-of-cyclomaltodextrinase-derived-from-amylolytic-lactic-acid-bacterium-enterococcus-faecium-k-1-and-properties-of-recombinant-enzymes-expressed-in-escherichia-coli-and-lactobacillus-plantarum
#12
Kridsada Unban, Apinun Kanpiengjai, Saisamorn Lumyong, Thu-Ha Nguyen, Dietmar Haltrich, Chartchai Khanongnuch
Gene encoding cyclomaltodextrinase (Cdx) from amylolytic lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecium K-1 was cloned and nucleotide sequence was analyzed. The open-reading frame consisted of 1767bp encoding 588 deduced amino acids. Consequently, four typically conserved regions of the glycoside hydrolase family 13 were revealed; however, nine exceeding amino acids (DSYQMTDVP) were found at the 282-290 position in comparison to previously reported cyclomaltodextrinases. This difference is believed to have an influence on the substrate specificity of this enzyme...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935147/effect-of-resistant-wheat-starch-on-subjective-appetite-and-food-intake-in-healthy-adults
#13
Christine H Emilien, Walter H Hsu, James H Hollis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. METHODS: A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m(2)). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933273/microsponge-embedded-tablet-for-sustained-delivery-of-nifedipine
#14
Indu Pal Kaur, Rakesh Tekade
BACKGROUND: Nifedipine is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiovascular disturbances, although it suffers from short half-life (t1/2, 2 hr). OBJECTIVE: To address the problem, we first prepared nifedipine loaded sustained releases microsponges and then formulated tablets for effective clinical application and patient compliance. METHOD: Preparations of microsponges were carried out using different composition of nifedipine and polymer (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 % molar ratio) using emulsion solvent diffusion technique...
September 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932741/efficacies-of-various-anaerobic-starter-seeds-for-biogas-production-from-different-types-of-wastewater
#15
Pawinee Chaiprasert, Nasrul Hudayah, Chompoonut Auphimai
Various anaerobic starter seeds from different sources were investigated for their efficacies in treatment of different types of wastewater. Six combinations of starter seeds and wastewaters were selected out of 25 combination batch experiments and operated in semicontinuous reactors. It was noticed that the efficacies of various anaerobic starter seeds for biogas production from different types of wastewater in terms of reactor performance and stability were depended on wastewater characteristics and F/M ratio affecting microbial community and their microbial activities...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932262/atcesa8-driven-ossus3-expression-leads-to-largely-enhanced-biomass-saccharification-and-lodging-resistance-by-distinctively-altering-lignocellulose-features-in-rice
#16
Chunfen Fan, Shengqiu Feng, Jiangfeng Huang, Yanting Wang, Leiming Wu, Xukai Li, Lingqiang Wang, Yuanyuan Tu, Tao Xia, Jingyang Li, Xiwen Cai, Liangcai Peng
BACKGROUND: Biomass recalcitrance and plant lodging are two complex traits that tightly associate with plant cell wall structure and features. Although genetic modification of plant cell walls can potentially reduce recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification, it remains a challenge to maintain a normal growth with enhanced biomass yield and lodging resistance in transgenic plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme to regulate carbon partitioning by providing UDP-glucose as substrate for cellulose and other polysaccharide biosynthesis...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929574/metabolite-and-transcript-markers-for-the-prediction-of-potato-drought-tolerance
#17
Heike Sprenger, Alexander Erban, Sylvia Seddig, Katharina Rudack, Anja Thalhammer, Mai Q Le, Dirk Walther, Ellen Zuther, Karin I Köhl, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Current potato varieties are highly susceptible to drought stress. In view of global climate change, selection of cultivars with improved drought tolerance and high yield potential is of paramount importance. Drought tolerance breeding of potato is currently based on direct selection according to yield and phenotypic traits and requires multiple trials under drought conditions. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is cheaper, faster and reduces classification errors caused by non-controlled environmental effects...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929101/current-trends-in-volume-replacement-therapy-and-the-use-of-synthetic-colloids-in-small-animals-an-internet-based-survey-2016
#18
Ivayla D Yozova, Judith Howard, Nadja E Sigrist, Katja-Nicole Adamik
The use of synthetic colloids (SCs), particularly hydroxyethyl starch (HES), in people has changed in recent years following new evidence raising concerns about their efficacy and safety. Although fluid therapy guidelines for small animals are often extrapolated from human medicine, little information exists on current practice in veterinary medicine. The objective of the present study was to investigate current fluid selection, use of plasma volume expanders including SCs, and recent changes in their use in small animal practice...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928509/osmotic-dehydration-effects-on-major-and-minor-components-of-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-slices
#19
Teresa Delgado, José Alberto Pereira, Elsa Ramalhosa, Susana Casal
The effect of osmotic dehydration (OD) conditions (temperature, time and sucrose concentration) on some nutritional parameters, soluble sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and vitamin E composition of chestnut slices was studied. Temperature at 60 °C and contact time of 7.5 h decreased significantly both protein (in 20 and 15%) and fat (in 25 and 20%) contents when compared to 30 °C and contact time of 2.5 h, simultaneously with the incorporation of sugars from the osmotic medium. An increase in temperature from 30 to 60 °C and contact time from 2...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928507/characteristics-of-xanthosoma-sagittifolium-roots-during-cooking-using-physicochemical-analysis-uniaxial-compression-multispectral-imaging-and-low-field-nmr-spectroscopy
#20
Abena Achiaa Boakye, María Gudjónsdóttir, Jacob Lercke Skytte, Ioannis S Chronakis, Faustina Dufie Wireko-Manu, Ibok Oduro
To effectively promote the industrial utilization of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) roots for enhanced food sustainability and security, there is a need to study their molecular, mechanical and physicochemical properties in detail. The physicochemical and textural characteristics of the red and white varieties of cocoyam roots were thus analysed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, multispectral imaging, uniaxial compression testing, and relevant physicochemical analysis in the current study...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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