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Xavier Mayali, Peter K Weber
To quantitatively link microbial identity with biogeochemical function, we carried out 14 simultaneous stable isotope probing experiments with organic and inorganic C and N substrates to measure the isotope incorporation by over one hundred co-occurring eukaryotic and prokaryotic populations in a coastal community. We found that nitrate was the most commonly incorporated substrate, and that light-driven carbon fixation was carried out by some bacterial taxa from the Flavobacteriales and OM60 (NOR5) clade, in addition to photoautotrophic phytoplankton...
March 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Isabela Moda, Hilton Marcos Alves Ricz, Lilian Neto Aguiar-Ricz, Roberto Oliveira Dantas
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. METHODS: Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Xiao Qi Ye, Jin Liu Meng, Bo Zeng, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) imposes a new water fluctuation regime, including a prolonged winter submergence in contrast to the natural short summer flooding of the rivers. The contrasting water temperature regimes may remarkably affect the survival of submerged plants in the TGR. Plant survival in such prolonged flooding might depend on the carbohydrate status of the plants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water temperature on survival and carbohydrate status in a flood-tolerant plant species and predicted that both survival and carbohydrate status would be improved by lower water temperatures...
2018: PloS One
S Prakash, K Rajeswari, P Divya, M Ferlin, C T Rajeshwari, B Vanavil
Curdlan gum is a neutral water-insoluble bacterial exopolysaccharide composed primarily of linear β-(1,3) glycosidic linkages. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the applications of curdlan and its derivatives. Curdlan is found to inhibit tumors and its sulfated derivative possess anti- HIV activity. Curdlan is biodegradable, non-toxic towards human, environment and edible which makes it suitable as drug-delivery vehicles for sustained drug release. The increasing demand for the growing applications of curdlan requires an efficient high yield fermentation production process so as to satisfy the industrial needs...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Nihan Arabacı, Burhan Arıkan
A cold-active alkaline amylase producer Bacillus subtilis N8 was isolated from soil samples. Amylase synthesis optimally occurred at 15°C and pH 10.0 on agar plates containing starch. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 205 kDa by performing SDS-PAGE. While the enzyme exhibited the highest activity at 25°C and pH 8.0, it was highly stable in alkaline media (pH 8.0-12.0) and retained 96% of its original activity at low temperatures (10-40°C) for 24 h. While the amylase activity increased in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol (103%); Ba2+ , Ca2+ , Na+ , Zn2+ , Mn2+ , H2 O2 and TritonX-100 slightly inhibited the activity...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Chu K Yao, Asaf Rotbart, Jian Z Ou, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production from gut microbial metabolism may have clinically important relevance in the pathogenesis of gut disorders, including ulcerative colitis. However, little is known regarding factors that alter its production. Using a newly-designed in vitro gas-profiling technology, the study aimed to verify real-time H2 S measurement reproducibility and thereafter, assess its production following exposure to dietary factors and 5-aminosalicylate acid (5-ASA). Measurements of H2 S, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane measurements were compared between gas-profiling systems...
March 21, 2018: Gut Microbes
Wolfgang Siegert, Christian Ganzer, Holger Kluth, Markus Rodehutscord
A regression approach was applied to determine the influence of feed provisioning prior to digesta sampling on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility in broiler chickens. Soybean meal was used as an example test ingredient. Five feed-provisioning protocols were investigated, four with restricted provision and one with ad libitum provision. When provision was restricted, feed was provided for 30 min after a withdrawal period of 12 h. Digesta were sampled 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after feeding commenced. A diet containing 300 g maize starch/kg was prepared...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Hualiang Liang, Ahmed Mokrani, Hopeson Chisomo-Kasiya, Ogwok-Manas Wilson-Arop, Haifeng Mi, Ke Ji, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren
Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) are transmembrane transporters involved in glucose transport across the plasma membrane. In this study, blunt snout bream GLUT2 gene was cloned, and its expression in various tissues and in liver in response to diets with different carbohydrate levels (17.1; 21.8; 26.4; 32.0; 36.3; and 41.9% of dry matter). Blunt snout bream GLUT2 was also characterized. A full-length cDNA fragment of 2577 bp was cloned, which contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 73 bp, a 3'-UTR of 992 bp, and an open reading frame of 1512 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 503 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 55...
March 20, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Peter Doshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Hira Arshad, Tahira Mohsin Ali, Abid Hasnain
The effect of the partial or total substitution of gum arabic (GA) with native (NA), octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and succinylated (SUC) sorghum starches on microencapsulation of nutmeg oleoresin was studied using spray drying technique. The oleoresin with 10% load is emulsified by using three different combinations of GA along with native and modified sorghum starches. The proportion of GA and sorghum starch was fixed at 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75. Most of the feed emulsions were having good emulsion stability and lower emulsion viscosity...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shabir Ahmad Lone
Artificial insemination (AI) with cryopreserved semen has a pivotal role in wider dissemination of germplasm of elite livestock and also for conservation of various endangered species. Cryopreservation allows storage of semen for a prolonged period of time and facilitates greater exchange of genetic material among distant populations. Cryopreservation, however, leads to certain deleterious effects on sperm including premature induction of the acrosome reaction, reduced sperm motility and viability, and impaired sperm DNA integrity and fertility...
March 13, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Baixue Yang, Chen Wei, Yang Yang, Qifang Wang, Sanming Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate parameters about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients in forms of powders or dosage through various methods systematically and explore its correlation with tablet disintegration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water penetration and swelling of powders with different proportions of excipients including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), mannitol, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospolyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP), carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), croscarmellose sodium (CCMC-Na) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) were determined by Washburn capillary rise...
March 20, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Bassem Khemakhem, Slim Smaoui, Hanen El Abed, Imen Fendri, Hajer Hammami, Mohamed Ali Ayadi
Three different concentrations of a purified maltogenic amylase (FSA) from fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum ) seeds were incorporated into the cake formulation. The addition of FSA at 0.003, 0.005 and 0.01 U/g of cake increased the loaf volume, the number of holes (gas cells), and water absorption. Textural study revealed an improvement of the cake quality, resulting in the decrease of hardness and the increase of cohesion. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was performed on different cakes to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Amjad M Husaini, Kyoko Morimoto, Balakumaran Chandrasekar, Steven Kelly, Farnusch Kaschani, Daniel Palmero, Jianbing Jiang, Markus Kaiser, Oussama Ahrazem, Hermen S Overkleeft, Renier A L van der Hoorn
With nearly 140 α-glycosidases in 14 different families, plants are well equipped with enzymes that can break the α-glucosidic bonds in a large diversity of molecules. Here, we introduce activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of α-glycosidases in plants using α-configured cyclophellitol aziridine probes carrying various fluorophores or biotin. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these probes label members of the GH31 family of Glycosyl Hydrolases, including ER-resident α-glucosidase-II RSW3/PSL5 (Radial Swelling-3/Priority for Sweet Life-5) and Golgi-resident α-mannosidase-II HGL1, both of which trim N-glycans on glycoproteins...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
Shaohu Ouyang, Xiangang Hu, Qixing Zhou, Xiaokang Li, Xinyu Miao, Ruiren Zhou
Nanocolloids are widespread in natural water systems, but their characterization and ecological risks are largely unknown. Herein, tangential flow ultrafiltration (TFU) was used to separate and concentrate nanocolloids from surface waters. Unexpectedly, nanocolloids were present in high concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 7.2 mg/L in the surface waters of the Harihe River in Tianjin City, China. Most of the nanocolloids were 10-40 nm in size, contained various trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and exhibited fluorescence properties...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Guantian Li, Fan Zhu
Quinoa starch granules are small (~0.5 to 3 μm) with potential for some food and other applications. To better exploit it as a new starch resource, this study reports the steady shear and dynamic oscillatory properties of 9 quinoa starches varying in composition and structure. Steady shear analysis shows that the flow curves could be well described by 4 selected mathematic models. Temperature sweep analysis reveals that the quinoa starch encounters a 4-stage process including 2 phase transitions. Structure-function relationship analysis showed that composition, and unit and internal chain length distribution of amylopectin have significant impact on the rheological properties (e...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xiaolei Li, Jiahui Zhao, Jingchao Fu, Yutian Pan, Dan Li
The acidophilic and thermophilic pullulanases have many potential applications in the processes of starch liquefaction and saccharification. In this study, a gene encoding an amylopullulanase from Thermofilum pendens (TPApu) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Although TPApu possessed the same continuous GH57N_Apu domain and the succeeding α-helical region as other two amylopullulanases from Staphylothermus marinus (SMApu) and Caldivirga maquilingensis (CMApu), it only showed maximal amino acid identities of 25...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ye Htut Linn, K Khine Thu, Nang Hla Hla Win
Radiotherapy is the mainstay treatment of cervical cancer and the most common acute side effect is radiation-induced diarrhoea (RID), which can affect up to 80% of the patients. The most frequently used probiotics for the RID in previous studies with somewhat positive results are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a probiotic containing live Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for the prevention of acute (RID) among cervical cancer patients...
March 17, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Xiying Wu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Jun He
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effects of different fiber fractions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal development in a porcine model. METHODS: Blood and tissue samples were collected from thirty-two weaned pigs fed with control diet (CON) or diet containing 5 % cellulose (CEL), xylan (XYL) or β-glucan (GLU). RESULTS: This reserch showed that GLU supplementation decreased the growth performance of pigs (P <0...
February 6, 2018: Nutrition
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