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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341897/toxicity-and-toxicokinetics-of-amanita-exitialis-in-beagle-dogs
#1
Jian Sun, Yu-Min Niu, Yu-Tao Zhang, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Lie Huang, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun
In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological changes. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay the peptide toxins. The total peptide toxins in A. exitialis was 3482.6 ± 124...
January 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340635/nutrient-digestibility-response-to-sugarcane-bagasse-addition-and-corn-particle-size-in-normal-and-high-na-diets-for-broilers
#2
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, S-B Wu
Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0...
January 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340436/dietary-pectin-and-mango-pulp-effects-on-small-intestinal-enzyme-activity-levels-and-macronutrient-digestion-in-grower-pigs
#3
Anton M Pluschke, Barbara A Williams, Dagong Zhang, Michael J Gidley
The effects of refined pectin and mango pulp on macronutrient digestion and small intestinal enzyme activity were studied in grower pigs. Diets based on wheat starch with and without apple pectin or dried mango fruit pulp were fed to 30 grower pigs for 21 days. Pigs were euthanized two hours postprandially, and their gastrointestinal contents recovered. Starch and protein digestion as well as α-amylase activity were all increased in pigs fed pectin. In contrast, fat digestion, lipase and protease (trypsin) activities were all significantly reduced in these pigs...
January 17, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340134/does-mycorrhizal-status-alter-herbivore-induced-changes-in-whole-plant-resource-partitioning
#4
Colin M Orians, Sara Gomez, Timothy Korpita
Both mycorrhizae and herbivore damage cause rapid changes in source-sink dynamics within a plant. Mycorrhizae create long-term sinks for carbon within the roots while damage by leaf-chewing herbivores causes temporary whole-plant shifts in carbon and nitrogen allocation. Thus, induced responses to herbivory might depend on the presence or absence of mycorrhizae. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal presence on induced resource partitioning in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in response to cues from a specialist herbivore Manduca sexta...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339599/full-scale-performance-of-selected-starch-based-biodegradable-polymers-in-sludge-dewatering-and-recommendation-for-applications
#5
Kuangxin Zhou, Johan Stüber, Rabea-Luisa Schubert, Christian Kabbe, Matthias Barjenbruch
Agricultural reuse of dewatered sludge is a valid route for sludge valorization for small and mid-size wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the direct utilization of nutrients. A more stringent of German fertilizer ordinance requires the degradation of 20% of the synthetic additives like polymeric substance within two years, which came into force on 1 January 2017. This study assessed the use of starch-based polymers for full-scale dewatering of municipal sewage sludge. The laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials paved the way for full-scale trials at three WWTPs in Germany...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339531/ema-calls-for-hydroxyethyl-starch-solutions-to-be-taken-off-market
#6
Deborah Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338841/the-starch-utilization-system-assembles-around-stationary-starch-binding-proteins
#7
Hannah H Tuson, Matthew H Foley, Nicole M Koropatkin, Julie S Biteen
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) is a prominent member of the human gut microbiota with an extensive capacity for glycan harvest. This bacterium expresses a five-protein complex in the outer membrane, called the starch utilization system (Sus), which binds, degrades, and imports starch into the cell. Sus is a model system for the many glycan-targeting polysaccharide utilization loci found in Bt and other members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Our previous work has shown that SusG, a lipidated amylase in the outer membrane, explores the entire cell surface but diffuses more slowly as it interacts with starch...
January 12, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338814/the-use-of-visual-examination-for-determining-the-presence-of-gluten-containing-grains-in-gluten-free-oats-and-other-grains-seeds-beans-pulses-and-legumes
#8
Laura K Allred, Cynthia Kupper, Channon Quinn
Obtaining representative test samples for antibody-based testing is challenging when analyzing whole grains for gluten. When whole grains are ground into flour for testing, confocal microscopy studies have shown that gluten tends to exist as aggregates within the starch background, making single-sample testing inaccurate and complicating the ability to arrive at an accurate average from multiple samples. In addition, whole-grain products present a unique risk to gluten free consumers, in that any contamination is localized to specific servings rather than being distributed across the product lot...
January 1, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337346/effective-role-of-medium-supplementation-in-microalgal-lipid-accumulation
#9
Azadeh Fazeli Danesh, Peter Mooij, Sirous Ebrahimi, Robbert Kleerebezem, Mark van Loosdrecht
The present study investigated the interaction between starch and lipid accumulation was in a green microalgae enrichment culture. The objective was to optimize the lipid content by manipulation of the medium in regular batch culture. Two medium designs were evaluated: first a high ortho-P concentration with vitamin supplement (Pi-vitamins supplemented medium), second normal growth medium (control). Both media contained a low amount of nitrogen which was consumed during batch growth in three days. The batch experiments were prolonged continued for another four days with the absence of soluble nitrogen in the medium...
January 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337097/physical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-starch-carboxy-methyl-cellulose-film-containing-rosemary-essential-oils-encapsulated-in-chitosan-nanogel
#10
Nafiseh Mohsenabadi, Ahmad Rajaei, Meisam Tabatabaei, Afshin Mohsenifar
This study was set to prepare a new active film by using a biodegradable bio-based source, i.e., corn starch. To achieve that, benzoic acid (BA) and chitosan (CS) were covalently bound and CS-BA nanogel was then obtained using self-assembly method. Subsequently, rosemary essential oil (REO) was encapsulated in CS-BA nanogel. Finally, REO in both free and encapsulated forms were incorporated in starch-carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) films and their physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties were studied...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337095/development-of-native-and-modified-banana-starch-nanoparticles-as-vehicles-for-curcumin
#11
Leonardo Acevedo-Guevara, Leonardo Nieto-Suaza, Leidy T Sanchez, Magda I Pinzon, Cristian C Villa
In recent years, starch nanoparticles have been of great interest for drug delivery due to their relatively easy synthesis, biocompatibility, and vast amount of botanical sources. Native and acetylated starch obtained from green bananas were used for synthesis of curcumin-loaded starch nanoparticles. Mean particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and curcumin release in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were studied. Both nanosystems showed sizes lower than 250 nm and encapsulation efficiency above 80%, with acetylated banana starch nanoparticles having the capacity to encapsulate more curcumin molecules...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331861/synthesis-of-colloidal-silver-nanoparticle-clusters-and-their-application-in-ascorbic-acid-detection-by-sers
#12
Jorge L Cholula-Díaz, Diana Lomelí-Marroquín, Bidhan Pramanick, Alfonso Nieto-Argüello, Luis A Cantú-Castillo, Hyundoo Hwang
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has an essential role in the human body mainly due to its antioxidant function. In this work, metallic silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids were used in SERS experiments to detect ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. The AgNPs were synthesized by a green method using potato starch as reducing and stabilizing agent, and water as the solvent. The optical properties of the yellowish as-synthesized silver colloids were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, in which besides a typical band at 410 nm related to the localized surface plasmon resonance of the silver nanoparticles, a shoulder band around 500 nm, due to silver nanoparticle cluster formation, is presented when relatively higher concentrations of starch are used in the synthesis...
December 29, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331537/preparation-of-acetylated-nanofibrillated-cellulose-from-corn-stalk-microcrystalline-cellulose-and-its-reinforcing-effect-on-starch-films
#13
Li Cheng, Dongli Zhang, Zhengbiao Gu, Zhaofeng Li, Yan Hong, Caiming Li
Acetylated nanofibrillated cellulose (ANFC) with different degrees of substitution (DS) was prepared from corn-stalk microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using chemical-mechanical combined processes. The physicochemical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and ANFC were investigated together with the influence of added nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of starch films. The acetylation reaction was monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and titration. Particle size and morphological of NFC and ANFC were studied by atomic force microscope (AFM)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331516/simultaneous-saccharification-and-aerobic-fermentation-of-high-titer-cellulosic-citric-acid-by-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-niger
#14
Weiliang Hou, Jie Bao
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most efficient operation in biorefining conversion, but aerobic SSF under high solids loading significantly faces the serious oxygen transfer limitation. This study took the first insight into an aerobic SSF by high oxygen demanding filamentous fungi in highly viscous lignocellulose hydrolysate. The results show that oxygen requirement in the aerobic SSF by Aspergillus niger was well satisfied for production of cellulosic citric acid. The record high citric acid titer of 136...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331466/high-grain-diets-supplemented-with-phytogenic-compounds-or-autolyzed-yeast-modulate-ruminal-bacterial-community-and-fermentation-in-dry-cows
#15
V Neubauer, R Petri, E Humer, I Kröger, E Mann, N Reisinger, M Wagner, Q Zebeli
The feeding of concentrate-rich diets may lead to microbial imbalances and dysfermentation in the rumen. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing phytogenic compounds (PHY) or autolyzed yeast (AY) on rumen fermentation and microbial abundance in cows intermittently fed concentrate-rich diets. The experiment was carried out as an incomplete 3 × 4 Latin square design, with 8 nonlactating rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows. The cows were randomly assigned to a concentrate diet that was either not supplemented (CON), or supplemented with PHY or AY...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331459/garlic-allium-sativum-l-fed-to-dairy-cows-does-not-modify-the-cheese-making-properties-of-milk-but-affects-the-color-texture-and-flavor-of-ripened-cheese
#16
Giulia Rossi, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanna Lomolino, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alberto Simonetto, Giovanni Bittante, Franco Tagliapietra
Garlic and garlic components have recently been proposed as ruminal activity modulators to reduce the enteric methane emissions of ruminants, but little is known of their influence on milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, cheese yield, and sensorial and rheological characteristics of milk and cheese. The present study assessed the effects of garlic and diallyl sulfide supplements on dry matter intake (DMI), productive performance, milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, milk and cheese sensory profiles, and rheological characteristics...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330509/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-carbohydrate-mediated-liver-immune-responses-in-epinephelus-akaara
#17
Yunxia Yang, Tao Han, Jia Xiao, Xinyu Li, Jiteng Wang
As the cheapest energy source, carbohydrates are used in fish feeds to improve physical quality and reduce catabolism of proteins and lipids. The liver is the primary organ for metabolism and is also an important site of immune regulation. Here, we investigated the effect of different dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and health by evaluating the liver transcriptome of Epinephelus akaara. In this study, E. akaara juveniles were fed diets containing few (0% corn starch), moderate (18% corn starch), and high (30% corn starch) levels of dietary carbohydrate...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329858/mechanical-wheat-flour-modification-and-its-effect-on-protein-network-structure-and-dough-rheology
#18
Stefanie Hackenberg, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker
Mechanical flour modification is frequently associated with a reduced bread volume due to changed structural and functional properties of protein and starch. To clarify the effect of mechanical flour treatment on the protein network formation at the optimum kneading time (Peaktime), dough was produced with various mechanical starch modification (MSM) levels and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope before being characterized by protein network analysis (PNA). Dough produced with high MSM showed a reduced branching rate (-14%), a high end-point rate (+25%) and an increased lacunarity (+139%), indicating a poor network connectivity with network interruptions...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329845/viscoelastic-behaviour-of-masa-from-corn-flours-obtained-by-nixtamalization-with-different-calcium-sources
#19
David Santiago-Ramos, Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, José Juan Véles-Medina
The viscoelastic characteristics of nixtamalized corn masa were assessed by the dynamic oscillatory test. Masa samples were prepared with flours obtained by nixtamalization with different calcium sources: Ca(OH)2 (traditional), wood ashes (classic), CaCO3 (ecological), CaSO4 (ecological), CaCl2 (ecological), and Ca(C2H5COO)2 (ecological). A sample cooking without calcium source was used as control. Storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli were higher in masa from traditional and classic processes indicating a more elastic and viscous masa...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329841/effects-of-radio-frequency-assisted-blanching-on-polyphenol-oxidase-weight-loss-texture-color-and-microstructure-of-potato
#20
Zhenna Zhang, Juan Wang, Xueying Zhang, Qingli Shi, Le Xin, Hongfei Fu, Yunyang Wang
This paper is focused on the effects of radio frequency (RF) heating on the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), weight loss, texture, color, and microstructure of potatoes. The results showed that pure mushroom PPO was almost completely inactivated at 80 °C by RF heating. The relative activity of potato PPO reduced to less than 10% with increasing temperature (25-85 °C). Enzyme extract showed the lowest PPO relative activity at 85 °C after RF treatment, followed by the potato cuboids and mashed potato, about 0...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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