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Dasarathi Das, Prakasini Satapathy, Biswanath Murmu
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance is a major cause for increasing the global burden of Tuberculosis (TB). However in countries with larger geographical areas and different climatic conditions like India the prevalence of drug resistance varies from place to place. Information on anti-TB drug resistance patterns particularly among newly diagnosed cases is crucial for planning an effective TB control program. AIM: To determine the prevalence of resistance against first line anti-TB drugs and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Arun Kumar Yadav, Ashok Kumar Mehrotra, S P Agnihotri, Shivani Swami
BACKGROUND: CAT IV regimen or the standardized drug regimen (SDR) under the Revised National Control Program (RNTCP) uses six second-line anti-tubercular drugs in the initial intensive phase (IP). These drugs have many side effects and toxicity; they are less efficacious and have poor acceptability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of Cat-IV regimen and the factors which influence the treatment outcome in MDR TB patients. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study, which was done in the CAT II treatment failure, LPA proven MDR TB patients, above the age of 18 years, who were referred to DOTS Plus center for treatment...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Janmejaya Samal
INTRODUCTION: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme's (RNTCP) passive case finding approach strongly influence the health seeking behaviour of patients and the timing of health seeking as well. AIM: A systematic review was carried out to understand the health seeking behaviour, related delays and the knowledge and attitude regarding Tuberculosis (TB) and the health services linked with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A manual search strategy was adopted using PUBMED and Google Scholar search engines to obtain research papers in the said subject...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Debdoot Sheet
How would you provide effective and affordable health care in a country of more than 1.25 billion where there are only 0.7 physicians for every 1,000 people [1]? The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) and the Karnataka Internet-Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP) service are two notable efforts designed to deliver care across India, in both urban and rural areas and from the country?s flat plains to its rugged mountainous and desert regions.
November 2016: IEEE Pulse
Veerakumar Arumugam Mariappan, Swaroop Kumar Sahu, Sonali Sarkar, Shivanand Kattimani, Govindarajan Soundappan
BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes like failures and defaults among the TB patients. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among the pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in urban Pondicherry and study the association of various socio-demographic variables with current smoked and smokeless tobacco users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 235 PTB patients from 6 randomly selected urban PHCs of Pondicherry from Jan 2013 to March 2014...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Srinath Satyanarayana, Madhukar Pai, Beena E Thomas, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Soumya Swaminathan, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: India has 23% of the global burden of active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 27% of the world's "missing" patients, which includes those who may not have received effective TB care and could potentially spread TB to others. The "cascade of care" is a useful model for visualizing deficiencies in case detection and retention in care, in order to prioritize interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The care cascade constructed in this paper focuses on the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which treats about half of India's TB patients...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Padmavali Palange, Rahul Narang, Venkataramana Kandi
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium...
August 30, 2016: Curēus
A K Hemanth Kumar, T Kannan, V Chandrasekaran, V Sudha, A Vijayakumar, K Ramesh, J Lavanya, S Swaminathan, G Ramachandran
OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacokinetics of rifampicin (RMP), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) in adult tuberculosis (TB) patients and examine factors that influence drug pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Adult TB patients (n = 101) receiving thrice-weekly anti-tuberculosis treatment in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) were studied. The study was conducted at steady state after directly observed drug administration. RMP, INH and PZA concentrations were estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography and NAT2 genotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
S K Verma, Karthik Nagaraju, Surya Kant, R A S Kushwaha, S Kumar, R Garg
INTRODUCTION: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) was launched by the Government of India in 1993. The present study has attempted to analyze the perceptions of patients regarding the implementation of RNTCP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was done in a teaching hospital in North India. All patients attending the hospital between March 2014 and July 2014 were included. The study design was cross-sectional using a pre-designed and tested questionnaire...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Vijayashree Yellappa, Pierre Lefèvre, Tullia Battaglioli, Devadasan Narayanan, Patrick Van der Stuyft
BACKGROUND: In India, the Revised National TB control programme (RNTCP) offers free diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis (TB), based on the Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) strategy. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the experience and consequences of having TB on patients enrolled in DOTS and their caretakers in Tumkur district, located in a southern state of India, Karnataka. METHODS: We conducted 33 in-depth interviews on a purposive sample of TB patients from three groups: (1) patients who reached RNTCP directly on their own and took DOTS at RNTCP; (2) patients who were referred by private practitioners (PPs) to RNTCP and took DOTS at RNTCP; and (3) patients diagnosed by RNTCP and took DOTS from PPs...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Amey P Patankar
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis of spine is still a very common condition in India. Here, the results of 30 cases of tuberculosis of spine treated in SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, in the last two years, are reviewed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients with tuberculosis of spine were treated in SSG Hospital in the last two years. They were classified into three groups, based on the GATA, GATA = Gulhane Askeri Tip Akademisi (Gulhane Military Medical Academy) classification for spinal tuberculosis, with few modifications...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Meera Dhuria, Nandini Sharma, K K Chopra, Shivani Chandra
BACKGROUND: Universal access implies that all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the community should have access to early, good quality diagnosis and treatment services that are affordable and convenient to the patient in time, place, and person. To achieve universal access, all affected vulnerable and marginalized population like prison inmates should have access to TB diagnostic and treatment services. OBJECTIVES: To assess the TB control activities in prisons of Delhi, the capital of India, and to suggest interventions for strengthening the program based on the observations...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
M Singh, G R Sethi, M Mantan, A Khanna, M Hanif
SETTING: A tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay in paediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using MGIT™ culture as gold standard. METHODS: After ethical approval had been obtained, 50 patients aged 0-14 years with suspected PTB were enrolled. Sputum/induced sputum and gastric lavage from the participants were sent for direct smear, MGIT culture and Xpert testing...
June 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
V Yellappa, T Battaglioli, S K Gurum, D Narayanan, P Van der Stuyft
SETTING: Tumkur District, South India. OBJECTIVE: To assess the participation of for-profit, formal private practitioners (PPs) under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme's (RNTCP's) public-private mix (PPM) schemes and document their contribution to RNTCP pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) case finding. DESIGN: RNTCP reports at district TB centre were reviewed. PPs were mapped and their referrals of presumptive TB cases to the RNTCP during 2011 were assessed using laboratory registers at designated microscopy centres (DMCs)...
May 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Rajeev R Pathak, Bal Krishna Mishra, Patrick K Moonan, Sreenivas A Nair, Ajay M V Kumar, Mohit P Gandhi, Shamim Mannan, Smita Ghosh
INTRODUCTION: Seven district-level Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs) in Bihar, India provide clinical and nutritional care for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). AIM: To assess whether intensified case finding (ICF) strategies at NRCs can lead to pediatric case detection among SAM children and link them to TB treatment under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted that included medical record reviews of SAM children registered for TB screening and RNTCP care during July-December 2012...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Tuberculosis Research
Siva Balaji Reddy Satti, Nagaraj Kondagunta
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic regimens as recommended by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis, but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to assess the influence of patient related factors for DOTS Treatment Default among HIV-TB Co-infected cases. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a case control study conducted in Nalgond, Telangana...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Akash Ranjan Singh, Abhijit Pakhare, Ashish Chauhan, Abhishek Singh
Despite many serious efforts, tuberculosis (TB) is still a recognized public health problem. The Government of India has adopted the Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course (DOTS) strategy for the entire country through the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) for the treatment of TB. In this report, we have presented the trajectories for care seeking of two TB cases who suffered from either "patient level delays" or "health system-related delays" in seeking DOTS for the treatment of TB...
October 2015: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Neeraj Kulshrestha, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, K Rade, A Moitra, P Diwan, S D Khaparde
To achieve "Universal access to TB care and treatment for all", Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has taken steps to reach the unreached by synergizing the efforts of all partners and stakeholders. RNTCP is engaging with private sector partners in major cities of India with primary focus on notification through innovative partnership mechanisms. The manuscript details the concept behind the public-private mix for TB Care in RNTCP, its evolution and progress over the decades in India.
October 2015: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Radha Munje, Rajesh Deshmukh, Kondeshwar Tumane
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a major public health concern and threat for tuberculosis control efforts worldwide. Globally, 3.6% of new TB cases and 20.2% of previously treated cases, are estimated to have MDR-TB. The prevalence of MDR-TB in India has been estimated to be 1-3% in new TB cases and around 12-14% in previously treated TB cases. There is limited information of the trends of MDRTB among various types of previously treated cases, i.e. relapse, treatment after failure, treatment after default and other cases...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Esther M Verhaag, Manon Buist-Homan, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Han Moshage, Klaas Nico Faber
INTRODUCTION: Cholestasis is characterized by accumulation of bile acids and inflammation, causing hepatocellular damage. Still, liver damage markers are highest in acute cholestasis and drop when this condition becomes chronic, indicating that hepatocytes adapt towards the hostile environment. This may be explained by a hormetic response in hepatocytes that limits cell death during cholestasis. AIM: To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the hormetic response that protect hepatocytes against experimental cholestatic conditions...
2016: PloS One
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