Read by QxMD icon Read


Jelena Krstic, Markus Galhuber, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp, Andreas Prokesch
Lifestyle-related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, have become a primary risk factor for the development of liver pathologies that can progress from hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, to the most severe condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While the prevalence of liver pathologies is steadily increasing in modern societies, there are currently no approved drugs other than chemotherapeutic intervention in late stage HCC. Hence, there is a pressing need to identify and investigate causative molecular pathways that can yield new therapeutic avenues...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Heather Armstrong, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Stephanie Dijk, Eytan Wine
Cancer is a multifaceted condition, in which a senescent cell begins dividing in an irregular manner due to various factors such as DNA damage, growth factors and inflammation. Inflammation is not typically discussed as carcinogenic; however, a significant percentage of cancers arise from chronic microbial infections and damage brought on by chronic inflammation. A hallmark cancer-inducing microbe is Helicobacter pylori and its causation of peptic ulcers and potentially gastric cancer. This review discusses the recent developments in understanding microbes in health and disease and their potential role in the progression of cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Dorota Suszek, Maria Majdan
Cryoglobulinemia is defined as the presence of cryoglobulins in the blood. Cryoglobulinemia is often observed in the course of many diseases (infection, hematological disorders, autoimmune disorders) or has an idiopathic character. The classification of cryoglobulinemia is based on the immunological analysis of cryoglobulins and the activity of the rheumatoid factor (RF). The presence of cryoglobulins may induce cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) which manifests with skin changes, arthritis and the dysfunction of internal organs...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Akira Murakami, Ayami Shibahashi, Ryota Iwasaki, Mifumi Kawabe, Mami Murakami, Hiroki Sakai, Takashi Mori
Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRP), which are more commonly recognized in miniature dachshunds, are thought to represent an immune-mediated disease. This retrospective case series describes six miniature dachshunds with refractory ICRP, who were treated with chlorambucil (CLB) combined with firocoxib or prednisolone. Improvement in clinical manifestations was seen in five of the six dogs by the end of the study period; four were treated with CLB/firocoxib and one with CLB/prednisolone. One dog had nonregenerative anemia after 23 mo of treatment with CLB, but whether there was a causative relationship was unclear...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Costantino Errani, Shinji Tsukamoto, Giulio Leone, Alberto Righi, Manabu Akahane, Yasuhito Tanaka, Davide Maria Donati
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have suggested that denosumab is associated with tumor response and reduced surgical morbidity in patients with giant-cell tumor of bone (GCTB). We therefore evaluated the recurrence-free survival rate of patients who had GCTB in an extremity and were treated with surgery and denosumab, to determine the influence of denosumab and clinical factors on the risk of local recurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 408 patients treated for GCTB in an extremity in a single institution from 1990 through 2013...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Jeffrey M Ryckman, Chi Lin, Charles B Simone, Vivek Verma
OBJECTIVE: The standard of care for clinical IA cervical cancer is surgery, but nonoperative cases may receive definitive radiation therapy (RT). Herein, we investigated national practice patterns associated with the administration of definitive RT as compared with hysterectomy-based surgery (HYS) as well as delivery of adjuvant RT after HYS. METHODS/MATERIALS: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was queried for clinical IA primary cervical cancer cases (2004-2013) receiving definitive RT or HYS with or without adjuvant RT...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Kerri M Malone, Kévin Rue-Albrecht, David A Magee, Kevin Conlon, Olga T Schubert, Nicolas C Nalpas, John A Browne, Alicia Smyth, Eamonn Gormley, Ruedi Aebersold, David E MacHugh, Stephen V Gordon
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are the causative agents of tuberculosis in a range of mammals, including humans. A key feature of MTBC pathogens is their high degree of genetic identity yet distinct host tropism. Notably, while Mycobacterium bovis is highly virulent and pathogenic for cattle, the human pathogen M. tuberculosis is attenuated in cattle. Previous research also suggests that host preference amongst MTBC members has a basis in host innate immune responses. To explore MTBC host tropism, we present in-depth profiling of the MTBC reference strains M...
March 20, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Lidia García-Agudo, Jorge J Espinosa-Ruiz
Tinea capitis is considered the most frequent dermatophyte infection in children. The etiological agents vary from time to time and by geographical area, although they normally are zoophilic dermatophytes and in the last years also anthropophilic species. We report a clinical case of inflammatory tinea capitis in a 6-year-old child caused by Microsporum gypseum, a geophilic fungus pathogenic to humans and animals. The sources of human infection are soil, cats, dogs and small mammals. This species is less frequent as a cause of dermatophytosis in humans, described mainly in tinea corporis and rarely in tinea capitis...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
A J Mercer
The main feature of the epidemiological transition is a shift in the recorded causes of death from infectious diseases to other morbid conditions. This paper outlines modifications made to Omran's original model and stages of transition, and suggests that without a focus on aetiology and morbidity, these have been basically descriptive rather than explanatory, and potentially misleading because infections have been confirmed as causes of various chronic diseases. Common infections and related immune responses or inflammatory processes contribute to the multifactorial aetiology of morbid conditions that together make a substantial contribution to overall mortality, and infectious causation is suspected for many others because of strong evidence of association...
March 20, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Beata Peplonska, Mariusz Berdynski, Monika Mandecka, Anna Barczak, Magdalena Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Maria Barcikowska, Cezary Zekanowski
Activation of the TREM2 receptor on microglia stimulates phagocytosis and decreases the microglial proinflammatory response. Mutations in exon 2 of the TREM2 gene have been reported to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases characterized by chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to evaluate exon 2 of TREM2 gene variants as a putative genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the Polish population. The results were interpreted using previously published data, especially highlighting differences in the prevalence of the variants among Caucasian subpopulations across different geographic regions...
March 20, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Tejas K Patel, Parvati B Patel
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mortality among patients due to adverse drug reactions that lead to hospitalisation (fatal ADRAd ), to explore the heterogeneity in its estimation through subgroup analysis of study characteristics, and to identify system-organ classes involved and causative drugs for fatal ADRAd . METHODS: We identified prospective ADRAd -related studies via screening of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases with appropriate key terms...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Casey M Theriot
Over the past 10 years, microbiome research has focused on defining the structures associated with different disease states in multiple systems, but has fallen short on showing causation. Prior omic studies have generated many new hypotheses, but moving forward we need to start dissecting the function of each bacterium alone and in concert with complex bacterial communities in well-characterized systems. Over the next 5 years, we need a merging of new omic technologies for exploratory studies with classical bacterial genetics, bacterial physiology, protein engineering, and biochemistry to further define the biochemical mechanisms of the gut microbiota...
March 2018: MSystems
Georgios D Kitsios
Severe bacterial pneumonia is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality, yet current diagnostic approaches rely on identification of causative pathogens by cultures, which require extended incubation periods and often fail to detect relevant pathogens. Consequently, patients are prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics in a "one-size-fits-all" manner, which may be inappropriate for their individual needs and promote antibiotic resistance. My research focuses on leveraging next-generation sequencing of microbial DNA directly from patient samples for the development of new, culture-independent definitions of pneumonia...
March 2018: MSystems
Goro Katsuumi, Ippei Shimizu, Yohko Yoshida, Tohru Minamino
In mammals, aging is associated with accumulation of senescent cells. Stresses such as telomere shortening and reactive oxygen species induce "cellular senescence", which is characterized by growth arrest and alteration of the gene expression profile. Chronological aging is associated with development of age-related diseases, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic disease, and studies have shown that accumulation of senescent cells has a causative role in the pathology of these age-related disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Shelly Arora, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra, Christopher Squier
Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, knowledge regarding HPV-OSCC link among oral health professionals (OHP) has been insufficient. So, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge about HPV associated OSCC among OHP working in dental faculties in Malaysia. Methodology: Ethical committee of the University approved this study. A validated, pre-tested questionnaire was sent electronically to 224 OHP...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Nikos Ulrich, Petra Gastmeier, Ralf-Peter Vonberg
Background: Identifying the source of an outbreak is the most crucial aspect of any outbreak investigation. In this review, we address the frequently discussed question of whether (rectal) screening of health care workers (HCWs) should be carried out when dealing with outbreaks caused by gram negative bacteria (GNB).A systematic search of the medical literature was performed, including the Worldwide Outbreak Database and PubMed. Outbreaks got included if a HCW was the source of the outbreak and the causative pathogen was an Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp ...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Gabrielle Bradshaw, Robbie R Lualhati, Cassie L Albury, Neven Maksemous, Deidre Roos-Araujo, Robert A Smith, Miles C Benton, David A Eccles, Rod A Lea, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
Background: We investigated the molecular etiology of a young male proband with confirmed immunodeficiency of unknown cause, presenting with recurrent bacterial and Varicella zoster viral infections in childhood and persistent lymphopenia into early adulthood. Aim: To identify causative functional genetic variants related to an undiagnosed primary immunodeficiency. Method: Whole genome microarray copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed on the proband followed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and trio analysis of the proband and family members...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
J Montag, B Petersen, A K Flögel, E Becker, A Lucas-Hahn, G J Cost, C Mühlfeld, T Kraft, H Niemann, B Brenner
Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. About 30% of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding the ß-myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Hallmarks of HCM are cardiomyocyte disarray and hypertrophy of the left ventricle, the symptoms range from slight arrhythmias to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of the diseases' etiology we aimed to generate genome edited pigs with an HCM-mutation. We used TALEN-mediated genome editing and successfully introduced the HCM-point mutation R723G into the MYH7 gene of porcine fibroblasts and subsequently cloned pigs that were heterozygous for the HCM-mutation R723G...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Oliver Sheehan, Joseph Watts, Russell D Gray, Quentin D Atkinson
One of the defining trends of the Holocene has been the emergence of complex societies. Two essential features of complex societies are intensive resource use and sociopolitical hierarchy. Although it is widely agreed that these two phenomena are associated cross-culturally and have both contributed to the rise of complex societies, the causality underlying their relationship has been the subject of longstanding debate. Materialist theories of cultural evolution tend to view resource intensification as driving the development of hierarchy, but the reverse order of causation has also been advocated, along with a range of intermediate views...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bente Børud, Guro K Bårnes, Ola Brønstad Brynildsrud, Elisabeth Fritzsønn, Dominique A Caugant
Species within the genus Neisseria display significant glycan diversity associated with the O -linked protein glycosylation ( pgl ) systems due to phase variation, polymorphic genes and gene content. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the pgl genotype and glycosylation phenotype in meningococcal isolates and the changes occurring during short-term asymptomatic carriage. Paired meningococcal isolates derived from 50 asymptomatic meningococcal carriers, taken about two months apart, were analyzed with whole genome sequencing...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"