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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324793/bureaucratization-and-medical-professionals-values-a-cross-national-analysis
#1
Girts Racko
Understanding the impact of the bureaucratization of governance systems on the occupational values of medical professionals is a fundamental concern of the sociological research of healthcare professions. While previous studies have examined the impact of bureaucratized management, organizations, and healthcare fields on medical professionals' values, there is a lack of cross-national research on the normative impact of the bureaucratized systems of national governance. Using the European Social Survey data for 29 countries, this study examines the impact of the bureaucratization of national governance systems on the occupational values of medical professionals...
March 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291105/escalation-of-commitment-in-the-surgical-icu
#2
Carla C Braxton, Celia N Robinson, Samir S Awad
OBJECTIVES: Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285554/an-overview-of-adjuvants-utilized-in-prophylactic-vaccine-formulation-as-immunomodulators
#3
Nidhi Chauhan, Sukirti Tiwari, Tessy Iype, Utkarsh Jain
Development of efficient and cost effective vaccines have been recognized as the primary concern to improve the overall healthcare in a country. In order to achieve this goal, more improved and powerful adjuvants need to be developed. Lacking in the self-adjuvanting immuno-modulatory constituents, vaccines exhibit lower immunogenicity. Combining potent adjuvants with vaccines is the most appropriate method to enhance the efficacy of the vaccines. Hence, this review is focussed on the most potent adjuvants for the formulation of vaccines...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277866/treatment-for-chronic-low-back-pain-the-focus-should-change-to-multimodal-management-that-reflects-the-underlying-pain-mechanisms
#4
Gerhard Müller-Schwefe, Bart Morlion, Karsten Ahlbeck, Eli Alon, Stefano Coaccioli, Flaminia Coluzzi, Frank Huygen, Wolfgang Jaksch, Eija Kalso, Magdalena Kocot-Kępska, Hans-Georg Kress, Ana Cristina Mangas, Cesar Margarit Ferri, Philippe Mavrocordatos, Andrew Nicolaou, Concepción Pérez Hernández, Joseph Pergolizzi, Michael Schaefer, Patrick Sichère
Chronic pain is the most common cause for people to utilize healthcare resources and has a considerable impact upon patients' lives. The most prevalent chronic pain condition is chronic low back pain (CLBP). CLBP may be nociceptive or neuropathic, or may incorporate both components. The presence of a neuropathic component is associated with more intense pain of longer duration, and a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. However, many physicians' knowledge of chronic pain mechanisms is currently limited and there are no universally accepted treatment guidelines, so the condition is not particularly well managed...
February 22, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274386/willingness-to-pay-for-other-individuals-healthcare-expenditures
#5
A P Borges, A Reis, J Anjos
OBJECTIVES: The need to improve the sustainability of public health expenditure, in a climate of growing pressure on national budgets, inevitably leads to a discussion about resource rationing, and the extent of society's responsibility for those expenditures. To contribute to this discussion empirically, this study evaluated the willingness of Portuguese respondents to pay for other individuals' healthcare expenditures through out-of-pocket payments. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire addressed to the general public was developed, with 296 respondents...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273884/2d-qsar-and-3d-qsar-comsia-studies-on-a-series-of-r-2-2-1h-indol-2-yl-ethyl-amino-1-phenylethan-1-ol-with-human-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-adrenergic-activity
#6
Gastón Apablaza, Luisa Montoya, Cesar Morales-Verdejo, Marco Mellado, Mauricio Cuellar, Carlos F Lagos, Jorge Soto-Delgado, Hery Chung, Carlos David Pessoa-Mahana, Jaime Mella
The β₃ adrenergic receptor is raising as an important drug target for the treatment of pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, depression, and cardiac diseases among others. Several attempts to obtain selective and high affinity ligands have been made. Currently, Mirabegron is the only available drug on the market that targets this receptor approved for the treatment of overactive bladder. However, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in USA and the MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency) in UK have made reports of potentially life-threatening side effects associated with the administration of Mirabegron, casting doubts on the continuity of this compound...
March 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260280/teaching-rational-prescribing-to-general-practice-registrars-a-guide-for-supervisors
#7
Simon Morgan
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals play an important role in modern day healthcare, and prescribing is a very common activity in Australian general practice. However, there are significant harms associated with medicine use. Vocational training is a critical period in the development of clinical practice patterns for the future general practitioner (GP), including prescribing behaviour. The general practice supervisor, therefore, has a key role to play in educating registrars about rational prescribing...
March 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224422/satisfaction-of-village-doctors-with-the-township-and-village-health-services-integration-policy-in-the-western-minority-inhabited-areas-of-china
#8
Da Feng, Liang Zhang, Yuan-Xi Xiang, Dong-Lan Zhang, Ruo-Xi Wang, Shang-Feng Tang, Hang Fu, Bo-Yang Li
Township and Village Health Services Integration Management (TVHSIM) is an essential form of China's two-tiered health service integration plan at the township and village level. Its main purpose, also one of the target goals in China's new healthcare reform, is to gradually integrate rural health services and appropriately allocate rural health resources. This study aims to assess the village doctors' satisfaction with the TVHSIM and provide scientific base to further improve TVHSIM. A cross-sectional study was carried out in which 162 village doctors from Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang in western China were interviewed...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212153/new-therapies-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-exacerbations-of-bronchiectasis
#9
Hani Abo-Leyah, James D Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exacerbations of bronchiectasis have a major impact on quality of life, healthcare costs, and long-term risk of complications. Preventing exacerbations is one of the major goals of treatment. Bronchiectasis is increasingly recognized and the impact of bronchiectasis exacerbations on daily clinical practice is also increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing bronchiectasis exacerbations are dependent on appropriate risk assessment, identifying the patients at highest risk to rationally target preventive therapies...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210864/pharmacy-benefit-management-companies-do-they-create-value-in-the-us-healthcare-system
#10
Alan Lyles
Pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) perform functions in the US market-based healthcare system that may be performed by public agencies or quasi-public institutions in other nations. By aggregating lives covered under their many individual contracts with payers, PBMs have formidable negotiating power. They influence pharmaceutical insurance coverage, design the terms of coverage in a plan's drug benefit, and create competition among providers for inclusion in a plan's network. PBMs have, through intermediation, the potential to secure lower drug prices and to improve rational prescribing...
February 16, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192746/changing-the-navigator-s-course-how-the-increasing-rationalization-of-healthcare-influences-access-for-undocumented-immigrants-under-the-affordable-care-act
#11
Laura López-Sanders
A number of researchers have shown that brokers (e.g., navigators and street-level bureaucrats) bridge access to healthcare services and information for immigrant patients through rich personal relationships and a mission of ethical care. An open question remains concerning how the increasing rationalization of healthcare over the past few decades influences brokerage for undocumented immigrant patients. Drawing from fieldwork and interviews conducted in California, as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was implemented, I develop the concept of the "double-embedded-liaison...
February 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191922/synergistic-integration-of-experimental-and-simulation-approaches-for-the-de-novo-design-of-silk-based-materials
#12
Wenwen Huang, Davoud Ebrahimi, Nina Dinjaski, Anna Tarakanova, Markus J Buehler, Joyce Y Wong, David L Kaplan
Tailored biomaterials with tunable functional properties are crucial for a variety of task-specific applications ranging from healthcare to sustainable, novel bio-nanodevices. To generate polymeric materials with predictive functional outcomes, exploiting designs from nature while morphing them toward non-natural systems offers an important strategy. Silks are Nature's building blocks and are produced by arthropods for a variety of uses that are essential for their survival. Due to the genetic control of encoded protein sequence, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, silk proteins have been selected as prototype models to emulate for the tunable designs of biomaterial systems...
February 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187802/critical-care-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
D K Menon, A Ercole
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing global problem, which is responsible for a substantial burden of disability and death, and which generates substantial healthcare costs. High-quality intensive care can save lives and improve the quality of outcome. TBI is extremely heterogeneous in terms of clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and outcome. Current approaches to the critical care management of TBI are not underpinned by high-quality evidence, and many of the current therapies in use have not shown benefit in randomized control trials...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173764/-medically-unexplained-symptoms-and-symptom-disorders-in-primary-care-prognosis-based-recognition-and-classification
#14
EDITORIAL
Marianne Rosendal, Tim C Olde Hartman, Aase Aamland, Henriette van der Horst, Peter Lucassen, Anna Budtz-Lilly, Christopher Burton
BACKGROUND: Many patients consult their GP because they experience bodily symptoms. In a substantial proportion of cases, the clinical picture does not meet the existing diagnostic criteria for diseases or disorders. This may be because symptoms are recent and evolving or because symptoms are persistent but, either by their character or the negative results of clinical investigation cannot be attributed to disease: so-called "medically unexplained symptoms" (MUS). MUS are inconsistently recognised, diagnosed and managed in primary care...
February 7, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148332/what-s-new-in-graduate-medical-education
#15
Raquel G Hernandez
The development of new graduate medical education programmes provides both opportunities and challenges. Efforts to address physician workforce shortages as well as a realisation that curricula need to be updated to adjust to our rapidly changing healthcare environment have resulted in more educators considering the "how to" and "what's new" of programme development. Understanding the Next Accreditation System, an accreditation system introduced by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education in 2012, is critical to the success of new as well as existing residency and fellowship programmes...
December 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139971/evaluation-of-drug-prescribing-patterns-based-on-the-who-prescribing-indicators-at-outpatient-clinics-of-five-hospitals-in-jordan-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-study%C3%A2
#16
Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Mohammad Shawaqfeh, Majed M Masadeh
BACKGROUND: Irrational drug prescribing is considered one of the major challenges for the healthcare sectors worldwide, leading to negative outcomes in patients including various drug-related problems, such as polypharmacy, adverse drug events, more demands on drug monitoring, and unwanted increase in treatment cost. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the trends and issues related to prescription at outpatient hospital pharmacies in Jordan and to contrast that to the WHO rational medication list and WHO drug use indicators...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134678/what-is-new-in-the-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-2016
#17
Garyphallia Poulakou, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Sotirios Tsiodras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the most frequent infectious cause of referrals to emergency departments and hospital admissions in developed world, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare expenditures. We sought to review recent literature covering epidemiology and management of SSTIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence trends of SSTIs were increasing worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci predominating and methicillin-resistant S...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127654/-postoperative-wound-infections-diagnosis-classification-and-treatment
#18
D Seidel, J Bunse
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections are a frequent complication of surgery and a severe burden for the patient as well as for the healthcare system. Sound knowledge of the disease pattern is an essential prerequisite for effective therapy. OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of the diagnosis, classification and treatment options for surgical site infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on the existing experience, the currently available evidence and pathophysiological considerations, an overview of the diagnostic possibilities, the existing classification systems and the treatment options is presented...
January 26, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094587/applying-theories-to-better-understand-socio-political-challenges-in-implementing-evidence-based-work-disability-prevention-strategies
#19
Christian Ståhl, Katia Costa-Black, Patrick Loisel
PURPOSE: This article explores and applies theories for analyzing socio-political aspects of implementation of work disability prevention (WDP) strategies. METHOD: For the analysis, theories from political science are explained and discussed in relation to case examples from three jurisdictions (Sweden, Brazil and Québec). RESULTS: Implementation of WDP strategies may be studied through a conceptual framework that targets: (1) the institutional system in which policy-makers and other stakeholders reside; (2) the ambiguity and conflicts regarding what to do and how to do it; (3) the bounded rationality, path dependency and social systems of different stakeholders; and (4) coalitions formed by different stakeholders and power relations between them...
January 17, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089281/features-of-public-healthcare-services-provided-to-migrant-patients-in-the-eastern-macedonia-and-thrace-region-greece
#20
Christos A Tsitsakis, Anastasios Karasavvoglou, Efstathios Tsaridis, Georgia Ramantani, Giannoula Florou, Persefoni Polychronidou, Stamatios Stamatakis
BACKGROUND: The influx of migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers into European Union (EU) countries, especially into Greece, in the last 20 years is an issue of growing concern and requires a rational approach. The aim of this study is to chart the use of public health services by the migrants of the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Region, which forms the northeastern border of Greece. METHODS: We collected data from five of the six public hospitals in the specified region, and we carried out a per clinic cross tabulation analysis of admission diagnosis and citizenship variables in order to establish the frequency at which the various diagnoses emerge per distinct group of migrant and non-migrant patients in each clinic...
December 27, 2016: Health Policy
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